PROF S C DAS
•A Group can be defined as a collection of individuals
working in face-to-face relationships to share
information and resources for a task to be achieved.
•The main function of a group is to exchange task-
related information and discuss task related issues.
Stages of Group Development
Forming- In the forming stage a lot of uncertainty
persists about the group’s purpose, structure and
leadership. They like to keep things simple and avoid
Storming- The storming stage is characterized by the
domination of few members, as a result of which
some members remain completely passive.
Norming- In the norming stage, group members
begin to resolve differences and clarify the purpose of
the group and roles of the group members.
Performing- The performing stage is marked by
interdependence in personal relations and problem
Adjourning- Adjourning involves the termination of
task behaviors and disengagement from relationships.
What is group cohesiveness?
Group cohesiveness is the ability to think and act 'as one' if
the group is physically together or not.
A group is said to be in a state of cohesion when its members possess
bonds linking them to one another and to the group as a whole.
According to Stephen P Robbins, “Group cohesiveness is
the degree to which members are attracted to each other
and are motivated to stay in the group.”
inclusion for all
Dimensions of group cohesiveness
Many theorists believe that group cohesion
results from a deep sense of “we-ness” or
belonging to a group as a whole.
By becoming enthusiastically involved in the
efforts of their group and by recognizing the
similarities that exist among group members,
individuals tend to develop a close connection
with their group and its members.
According to Hogg (1992), group cohesiveness
typically develops from a depersonalized
attraction to group members based on their status
as group members, rather than a personal
attraction based on specific relationships.
Some theorists stress that cohesion comes from
group members’ commitment to work together to
complete their shared tasks and accomplish their
Members of task-oriented groups typically exhibit
great interdependence and often possess
feelings of responsibility for the group’s
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO GROUP COHESIVENESS
1. Threat & Competition
Whenever the common group goal is threatened,
Also, such cohesiveness increases the
importance of the goals.
When we fight for a goal, the goal gets the
Thus the threatening party will have less chance
of success when faced with a unified force.
2. Difficulty in Entry
Some groups are not easy to join. The members
are very carefully selected and the selected
members feels a sense of pride and
The more difficult it is to get into a group, the
more cohesive that group becomes.
The reason being that in exclusive and elite
groups the members are selected on the basis of
certain characteristics and these characteristics
being common to all add to the degree of liking
3. Time Together
It is quite natural that the more time people
spend together, the more they will get to
know each other and more tendency there
will be to get closer to each other, thus
strengthening the degree of cohesiveness.
In an organizational setting, people who
work near each other are more likely to
spend more time together.
4. Group Size
Since continuous and close interaction among
members is a fundamental necessity for
cohesiveness, it would be natural to assume that
large groups restrict the extent of communication
and interaction with each other, thus resulting in
reduction of degree of cohesiveness.
5. Previous Success
When a group achieves a meaningful goal,
the cohesiveness of the group increases
because the success is shared by all the
members and each one feels responsible for
For example, when a sports team wins an
important game, every one in the team
congratulates every other member of the
6. Similarity of Attitudes & Values
One of the strongest source of group
cohesiveness is the similarity in values, morals,
beliefs and code of conduct.
We enjoy the company of others who hold similar
opinions and characteristics as ourselves.
Conformity and influences
Clash of personalities
Conflict of task
Breakdown in communication
Struggling for power
Frequent turnover of members
HOW TO INCREASE COHESION?
Make the group smaller.
Encourage agreement with group goals.
Increase time members spend together.
Increase group status and admission
Stimulate competition with other groups.
Give rewards to the group, not individuals.
Physically isolate the group.
HOW TO DECREASE COHESION?
Induce disagreement in group goals.
Increase membership heterogeneity.
Restrict interaction among members.
Increase group size.
Allocate reward to individuals rather than to a
group as a whole.
Remove physical isolation.
Introduce a dominating member
Group cohesion has been linked to a range of
positive and negative consequences.
People in cohesive groups are confronted with
powerful pressures to confirm to the group’s
goals, norms, and decisions.
Cohesiveness leads to the improvement in
productivity and efficiency of individuals as well
“Talent win games, but teamwork and intelligence
wins championships” - Michael Jordon
If you want to go Fast, go alone. If you want to go
Far, go together.
Individually we are one drop but together, we are
- Ryunosuke Satoro