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Human behavior in Organization

Human Behavoir in Organization.
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Human behavior in Organization

  1. 1. Group and Inter-group Dynamics Presented by: JESSICA P. GUTIERREZ EDM 504 Human Behavior in Organization Dr. DANILO K. VILLENA
  2. 2. Group Structure and Composition Group Structure is the internal framework that defines members' relations to one another over time. It include roles, norms, values, communication patterns, and status differentials. It is the underlying pattern of roles, norms, and networks of relations among members that define and organize the group . Team composition refers to the overall mix of characteristics among people in a team, which is a unit of two or more individuals who interact interdependently to achieve a common objective .It is based on the attributes among individuals that comprise the team, in addition to their main objective.
  3. 3. Roles
  4. 4. Norms
  5. 5. Intermember Relations Examining the intermember relations of a group can highlight a group's density (how many members are linked to one another), or the degree centrality of members (number of ties between members) Analyzing the intermember relations aspect of a group can highlight the degree centrality of each member in the group, which can lead to a better understanding of the roles of certain group (e.g. an individual who is a 'go-between' in a group will have closer ties to numerous group members which can aid in communication, etc) The connections among the members of a group, or the social network within a group. Group members are linked to one another at varying levels.
  6. 6. Values Values are goals or ideas that serve as guiding principles for the group. Like norms, values may be communicated either explicitly or on an ad hoc basis. Values can serve as a rallying point for the team. However, some values (such as conformity) can also be dysfunction and lead to poor decisions by the team.
  7. 7. Communication Patterns Describe the flow of information within the group and they are typically described as either centralized or decentralized. communications tend to flow from one source to all group members;allow consistent, standardization information but they may restrict the free flow of information. Centralized make it easy to share information directly between group members;communications tend to flow more freely, but the delivery of information may not be as fast or accurate as with centralized communications Decentralized Communication Patterns
  8. 8. Status differentials Status Differentials are the relative differences in status among group members. When a group is first formed the members may all be on an equal level, but over time certain members may acquire status and authority within the group; this can create what is known as a pecking order within a group. Status can be determined by a variety of factors and characteristics, including specific status characteristics (e.g. task-specific behavioural and personal characteristics, such as experience) or diffuse status characteristics (e.g. age, race, ethnicity).
  9. 9. Functional Roles of Group Members 1. Initiator/Contributor- Contributes ideas and suggestions; proposes solutions and decisions; proposes new ideas or states old ideas in a novel fashion. 2. Information Seeker- Asks for clarification of comments in terms of their factual adequacy; asks for information or facts relevant to the problem; suggests information is needed before making decisions. 3. Information Giver- Offers facts or generalizations that may relate to the group’s task. 4. Opinion Seeker -Asks for clarification of opinions made by other members of the group and asks how people in the group feel. 5. Opinion Giver- States beliefs or opinions having to do with suggestions made; indicates what the group’s attitude should be. 6. Elaborator/Clarifier - Elaborates ideas and other contributions; offers rationales for suggestions; tries to deduce how an idea or suggestion would work if adopted by the group. 7. Coordinator -Clarifies the relationships among information, opinions, and ideas or suggests an integration of the information, opinions, and ideas of subgroups. 8. Diagnostician- Indicates what the problems are 9. Orienter/Summarizer - Summarizes what has taken place; points out departures from agreed-on goals; tries to bring the group back to the central issues; raises questions about the direction in which the group is heading. 10. Energizer -Prods the group to action. 11. Procedure Developer - Handles routine tasks such as seating arrangements, obtaining equipment, and handing out pertinent papers. 12. Secretary- Keeps notes on the group’s progress. 13. Evaluator/Critic- Constructively analyzes the group’s accomplishments according to some set of standards; checks to see that consensus has been reached.
  10. 10. Functional Roles of Group Members 1. Supporter/Encourager Praises, agrees with, and accepts the contributions of others; offers warmth, solidarity, and recognition 5. Gatekeeper Keeps communication channels open; encourages and facilitates interaction from those members who are usually silent. 2. Harmonizer Reconciles disagreements; mediates differences; reduces tensions by giving group members a chance to explore their differences. 6. Feeling Expresser Makes explicit the feelings, moods, and relationships in the group; shares own feelings with others. 4. Conciliator Offers new options when his or her own ideas are involved in a conflict; disciplines to admit errors so as to maintain group cohesion. 7. Follower Goes along with the movement of the group passively, accepting the ideas of others sometimes serving as an audience. 3. Tension Reliever Jokes or in some other way reduces the formality of the situation; relaxes the group members.
  11. 11. Technology-Structure Fit •Scott and Davis (2007) define technology as the work an organization performs, which can include the hardware, and employee abilities used to accomplish the work. •Technology is a primary factor that determines organizational structure (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2007). •Technology determines organizational structure (Woodward, 1965) •Organizations with medium complexity tend to be more effective if they have a mechanistic structure (Fry, 1982) -In other words, an organizational will be more effective if its structure matches its technology.
  12. 12. Group Size Size (the number of people involved) is an important characteristic of the groups,organizations, and communities in which social behavior occurs.
  13. 13. Group Size 1. Dyads-are important as building blocks of larger groupings. Pair relations can be trivial and fleeting (like that of a clerk and customer at a checkout stand) or multi-purpose and enduring (like a lifelong marriage ).A dyad exists only as long as both member participate. 2. Triads-Groups with three members (triads, trios, troikas, etc.) are hard to maintain. After all, it is easier to deal with one other person than with two. Besides, two of the people in a triad are apt to find it easier to relate to each other than to the other partner. That can motivate the neglected party to drop out of the group. 3. Tetrads-groups of four tend not to last very long. Two persons in the group are apt to find it more satisfying to relate to each other than to either of the others. If the other two feel left out, they have at least that in common. They may feel a need to counteract the advantage a pair has when acting together over an individual operating alone. The relationship becomes one of two pairs rather than an effective group of four members. 4.Crowds and Large Groups-This large group may share some traits ,but likely vary in many other traits. Large groups introduce diversity of attitudes and behaviors. the individual becomes separated and grows more alone, isolated and segmented. On one hand, he believed that the bigger the group the better for the individual. In a larger group it would be harder to exert control on an individual, but there is a possibility of the individual becoming distant and impersonal.
  14. 14. Group Composition
  15. 15. Aspects of Group Members Skills: These represent a certain expertise in an area. This expertise can be tangible (someone who can fix a computer or repair plumbing) or intangible (someone who is highly skilled in communication or leadership). Knowledge: This can be defined as the accumulated information and skills a person develops through their expertise and education. It can be real-world experience (what we learn from living our lives) to book or educational experience (what we are taught formally in a classroom setting). Abilities: These are a person's capacity to do something and the degree of excellence with which it's done. Just because a person can do a lot of work does not mean they can do it well.
  16. 16. Some of the functional aspects that can be associated with knowledge, skills and abilities Good communicator • The ability to convey your thoughts and ideas to the team in a concise and easily understood manner Mechanical aptitude • The ability to assemble or repair items might be included in the group's desired results Technical knowledge • It is a quality required for any technical task that might be faced by a group. Bandwidth • Sometimes there simply is too much work to do and not enough group members; individuals will be asked to cover more ground and increase their abilities.
  17. 17. Threats to Group Effectiveness Asch Effect Groupthink Social Loafing
  18. 18. Asch Effect : The distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition. The degree to which an individual's own opinions are influenced by those of a majority group. Standard Line Card Comparison Lines Card ? 1 2 3
  19. 19. Asch Effect
  20. 20. Overview:The Asch Conformity Experiments During the 1950s, Solomon Asch conducted and published a series of laboratory experiment Asch Effects that demonstrated the degree to which an individual’s own opinions are influenced by those of a majority group. Together, these experiments are recognized as the Asch conformity experiments or the Asch Paradigm. The methodology developed by Asch has been utilised by many researchers and the paradigm is in use in present day social psychology. The paradigm has been used to investigate the relationship between conformity and task importance, age, gender, and culture. (Source: Wiki) Asch (1951) set up a situation in which usually about seven people all sat looking at a display. They were given the task of saying out loud which one of three lines (A, B, or C) was the same length as a given stimulus line, with the experimenter working his way around the group members in turn. All but one of the participants were confederates of the experimenter, and had been told to give the same wrong answer on some of the trials. The one genuine participant was the last (or the last but one) to offer his/her opinion on each trial. The performance of participants exposed to such group pressure was compared to performance in a control condition with no confederates.
  21. 21. Groupthink Groupthink: When you feel a high pressure to conform and agree and are unwilling to realistically view alternatives. It is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision- making outcome. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints, by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences
  22. 22. Symptoms of Groupthink Groupthink 1.Invulnerability- creating excessive optimism and encouraging risk taking 2.Illusion of unanimity- among group members, silence is viewed as agreement. 3.Inherent morality - causing members to ignore the consequences of their actions. 4.Peer pressure- to conform placed on any member who questions the group, couched in terms of "disloyalty" 5.Self-censorship of ideas that deviate from the apparent group consensus 6.Stereotyped views of opposition- those who are opposed to the group as weak, evil, biased, spiteful, impotent, or stupid. 7.Mindguards- self- appointed members who shield the group from dissenting information. 8.Rationalization- warnings that might challenge the group's assumptions.
  23. 23. Ways of Preventing Groupthink 1.Leaders should assign each member the role of "critical evaluator". This allows each member to freely air objections and doubts 2.Leaders should not express an opinion when assigning a task to a group. 6.All effective alternatives should be examined. 4.Leaders should not express an opinion when assigning a task to a group. 7.Leaders should absent themselves from many of the group meetings to avoid excessively influencing the outcome. 8.Leaders should assign each member the role of "critical evaluator". This allows each member to freely air objections and doubts 9.The organization should set up several independent groups, working on the same problem 5.The group should invite outside experts into meetings. Group members should be allowed to discuss with and question the outside experts. 3.At least one group member should be assigned the role of Devil's advocate. This should be a different person for each meeting.
  24. 24. Social Loafing Social Loafing: decrease in individual effort as group size increases. It is the phenomenon of people exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone. This is seen as one of the main reasons groups are sometimes less productive than the combined performance of their members working as individuals, but should be distinguished from the accidental coordination problems that groups sometimes experience.
  25. 25. Reducing Social Loafing According to Dan J. Rothwell, it takes "the three Cs of motivation“ to get a group moving: collaboration, content, and choice. 1.Collaboration is a way to get everyone involved in the group by assigning each member special, meaningful tasks. It is a way for the group members to share the knowledge and the tasks to be fulfilled unfailingly. 2.Content identifies the importance of the individual's specific tasks within the group. If group members see their role as that involved in completing a worthy task, then they are more likely to fulfill it. 3.Choice gives the group members the opportunity to choose the task they want to fulfill. Assigning roles in a group causes complaints and frustration. Allowing group members the freedom to choose their role makes social loafing less significant, and encourages the members to work together as a team.
  26. 26. References Asch, S. E. (1952). Group forces in the modification and distortion of judgments. Asch, S. E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgment. In H. Guetzkow (ed.) Groups, leadership and men. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Press. McLeod, S. A. (2008). Asch Experiment. Retrieved from H. A. Thelen, "Group Dynamics in Instruction: The Principle of Least Group Size," School Review (March, 1949), p. 142.
  27. 27. Thank You!!! -The End-