German & Italian Unification


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German & Italian Unification

  1. 1. German nationalism<br />Otto von Bismarck & <br />German Unification<br />
  2. 2. Bell Ringer<br />What is nationalism?<br />Discuss with Partner<br />1 minute<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Zollverein<br />Von Metternich - Opposed a united Germany<br />Prussia stepped forward<br />Zollverein: economic union<br />Eliminated tariff barriers among German states<br />Still politically fragmented<br />
  5. 5. Otto von Bismarck<br />Prussian Junker<br />Junker = conservative noble class<br />1862 – became chancellor under King Wilhelm I<br />In just under 10 years, Bismarck would unify Germany under Prussian rule<br />
  6. 6. Prussian Power<br />Recognized importance of strong military<br />Wanted more money spent on military<br />Parliament said “no”<br />Famous “Blood and Iron” speech<br />
  7. 7. Bismarck (cont.)<br />“Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power…The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions – that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849 – but by blood and iron!”<br />
  8. 8. Blood and Iron<br /> Discuss with your partner what you think Bismarck meant by Germany’s power will be determined by “blood and iron.” <br />2 Minutes<br />
  9. 9. Realpolitik <br />Strong will<br />Powerful manipulator<br />Master of “Realpolitik” – politics of reality<br />Politics based on practical matters rather than theory or ethics<br />Often resulted in ruthless decisions<br />
  10. 10. Bismarck’s loyalty<br />Not a German nationalist<br />Loyal to the Hohenzollerns – the German royal family<br />
  11. 11. REAlpolitik at work<br />Had wars with Austria & other territories - Prussia easily won<br />No harsh terms of peace<br />Allowed Austria & some other German states to remain independent<br />Why would he do this?? Discuss with partner 1 minute<br />
  12. 12. Practical Motives<br />“We had to avoid leaving behind any desire for revenge.” <br />Otto von Bismarck<br />
  13. 13. 1870: Franco-Prussian War<br />Growing rivalry between:<br />France (Napoleon III)<br />Prussia (Wilhelm I & Bismarck)<br />Relative of Wilhelm offered Spanish throne<br />France protested<br />Bismarck rallies Germans (all Germans)<br />
  14. 14. Ems Dispatch<br />Bismarck rewrote & released in the press a telegram<br />Wilhelm “insulted” French ambassador<br />Napoleon III (France) declared war on Prussia<br />
  15. 15. “On to Berlin!”<br />France attacked Prussia<br />Prussia – military superiority<br />Spanked France <br />Napoleon III surrendered (taken captive)<br />
  16. 16. Germany Unifies<br />January 18,1871<br />German Confederation made official <br />Bismarck + 600 German princes, nobles, and generals gathered at Versailles<br />Wilhelm I of Prussia proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. France Pays the Cost of Peace<br />Peace treaty signed May 1871<br />France paid $1 billion and had to give up the provinces of Alsace & Lorraine<br />All that was left were bitter feelings and the desire for revenge…<br />
  19. 19. Italian unification<br />
  20. 20. Beginnings of Italian Nationalism <br />Italian Peninsula - not unified since fall of Roman Empire<br />Despite common language, most of peninsula divided into competing states with own government<br />
  21. 21. Beginnings (cont.)<br />Napoleon invaded Italy<br />United many states under one gov’t<br />Congress of Vienna - split Italian states<br />Spirit of nationalism began to rise <br />
  22. 22. National Groups Ignored<br />COV had ignored national groups<br />Placed them under control of large empires (sometimes w/ mixed ethnicities)<br />Some states were under Austrian control, while others were under French control<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Mazzini & Young Italy<br />
  25. 25. The Path Toward Unity<br />As nationalism grew, some Italians led unsuccessful rebellions <br />Then, two men rose to lead a successful movement to unify Italy…<br />
  26. 26. Count Cavour<br />Camilio di Cavour<br />Fought for Sardinia’s independence<br />One of the most important leaders of Italian unification<br />Founded the nationalist newspaper, Il Risorgimento - or “resurgence”<br />
  27. 27. Kingdom of Sardinia<br />1852, Cavour became Prime Minister<br />Worked toward rebuilding a thriving economy so that Italy could unify (as a monarchy)<br />Cavour aligned Sardinia with France<br />Sardinia supported France in war with Russia & gave them the provinces of Savoy & Nice<br />In turn, France supported Sardinia in its war against Austria - (successful liberation)<br />
  28. 28. Check for Understanding<br />How did Cavour help Sardinia break free from the Austrian Empire?<br />Talk with Partner<br />30 seconds<br />
  29. 29. Garibaldi & the Red Shirts<br />Many Italians consider Cavour “brain” of Italian unification, Mazzini “heart”<br />Giuseppe Garibaldi has been called “sword” of Italy<br />Garibaldi joined Young Italy movement, 1833<br />Nationalist activities forced Garibaldi to flee Italy twice<br />Learned techniques of guerilla warfare while living in South America<br />Returned to Italy often to continue fight to free Italy from Austrian domination<br />
  30. 30. Garibaldi’s Return<br />1854, Garibaldi returned for good<br />Cavour asked to lead part of Sardinian army in war against Austria<br />After bitter fighting, Austrians agreed to give up Lombardy, retaining Venetia<br />
  31. 31. The Red Shirts<br /><ul><li>Followers known as Red Shirts because of colorful uniforms
  32. 32. By July 1860, using guerilla warfare, Garibaldi, Red Shirts gained control of island of Sicily
  33. 33. September, Garibaldi, Sardinian troops conquered Naples
  34. 34. Red Shirts now controlled southern part Italian peninsula
  35. 35. Garibaldi wanted a republic, but ultimately offered the Kingdom of Two Sicilies to Sardinian king Victor Emmanuel</li></li></ul><li>Check for Understanding<br />What actions led Garibaldi to be called the “sword” of Italian unification?<br />Talk with Partner<br />30 seconds<br />
  36. 36. Unification<br /><ul><li>1861, territories held elections, all agreed to unification
  37. 37. Holdouts were Venetia, still belonging to Austria; Papal States, under French troops supporting pope
  38. 38. 1866, Prussia defeated Austria, gave Venetia to Italy
  39. 39. 1870, Prussia forced French to withdraw from Rome
  40. 40. Italian troops entered Rome, completed unification under King Victor Emmanuel</li></li></ul><li>
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Bismarck’s wars<br />Schleswig & Holstein<br />Austro-Prussian War<br />Franco-Prussian War<br />
  43. 43. 1864: Schleswig & Holstein<br />Allied w/ Austria<br />Seized Schleswig & Holstein from Denmark<br />Split:<br />Austria – controlled Holstein<br />Prussia – controlled Schleswig<br />
  44. 44. 1866: Austro-Prussian War<br />Bismarck invented excuse to attack Austria<br />Lasted 7 weeks <br />Major victory for Prussia<br />Prussia <br />annexed Holstein and several other German states<br />Dissolved Austrian gov’t & replaced with dominant Prussian one<br />