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AP German & Italian Unification

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AP German & Italian Unification

  1. 1. The Crimean War 1853-1856
  2. 2. Russia Vs. Ottoman Empire• Why?  Religious Issues  OE gave France/RC control of some Christian sites in Holy Land  Rus. occupied OE provinces of Moldavia & Walachia in order to “protect” Orthodox Christians  Russia  Warm Water Port
  3. 3. Russia Vs. France & Great Brita• Sided w/ OE 28 March 1854 – Declared war on Rus.• Why? Naval &commercial interests in Med. Napoleon III – help raise popularity @ home• Austria & Prussia = neutral
  4. 4. Outcomes• Both sides = poorly equipped and commanded• Sept. 1855 Rus. fortress (Sevastopol) fell to Fr. & GB
  5. 5. A War of Firsts• Medical Treatment – High death rate (1 in 6) due to unsanitary conditions • Cholera • Typhus • Dysentery – Florence Nightingale + 38 nurses volunteered – Fought deplorable hospital conditions – Result: better sanitation & fewer Florence Nightingale, British Heroine deaths
  6. 6. Nightingale Nurses of Crimean War
  7. 7. A war of Firsts• Journalism• Photo-journalism – First war photos ever Roger Fenton (GB) – First War Photographer
  8. 8. Allied Camp at Sevastopol
  9. 9. The tombs of the generals on CathcartsHill
  10. 10. CossackBay,Balaklava.
  11. 11. A BritishOfficer
  12. 12. British Hussar(Calvary)
  13. 13. British Officers
  14. 14. FrenchSoldiers
  15. 15. FrenchGeneralBosquetGiving Orders
  16. 16. OttomanSoldiers
  17. 17. Treaty of Paris - 1856• Ended Crimean War• Required Russia to: Surrender territory Recognize neutrality of Black Sea Renounce claims of protection over Christians in OE• Shattered Russia’s mighty image
  18. 18. Outcomes Post-Treaty• Concert of Europe shattered Nations more willing to fight to overthrow existing orders than to fight to defend them• Austriaasserted more influence w/in the Germ. Federation• Prussiaunhappy with a secondary role (behind Austria) in Germ.
  19. 19. Consequences• Europe = unstableapx. 25 years• Without the Concert, each nation thought it was only restrained by limits of its  military power  diplomatic influence
  20. 20. Italian unification 1858-1870
  21. 21. Beginnings of Nationalism• Napoleon – united many states under 1 gov’t• COV – Split Italian states w/ no regard for national groups – Placedunder control of large empires: • Austria • France
  22. 22. Secret SocietiesItalian artists, writers, thinkers became interested in celebrating Italy’s cultural traditionsOthers formed secret societies to work for political change Some even plotted to overthrow the Austrian government in Italy
  23. 23. Mazzini & Young Italy1831: Giuseppe Mazzini, launched anationalist group called Young Italy tofight for unification of the Italian statesMazzini had been exiled but smuggledpatriotic pamphlets into ItalyYoung Italy attracted tens of thousandsof Italians to the cause of unification
  24. 24. Secret Societies• Carbonari – Secret society inspired by Fr Rev – Members: mid-class, intellectuals – Anti-RC Church • Pope excommunicated them – Pro-Unification
  25. 25. The Path Toward Unity• As nationalism grew, some Italians led unsuccessful rebellions• Then, two men rose to lead a successful movement to unify Italy…
  26. 26. Count Cavour• Camiliodi Cavour• Sardinia• Founded the nationalist newspaper, Il Risorgimento - or “resurgence”
  27. 27. Kingdom of Sardinia• 1852: Cavour = Prime Minister• Rebuilt economyw/ goal of unification (monarchy)• Strategic alliance w/ France – Sardinia supported France in war with Russia & gave them the provinces of Savoy & Nice – In turn, France supported Sardinia in its war against Austria - (successful liberation)
  28. 28. Garibaldi & the Red Shirts• Mazzini = “heart”• Cavour = “brain”• Garibaldi = “sword”
  29. 29. Garibaldi• Young Italy member (1833)• At Cavour’s request, fought against Austria (1854)• Result: Gained Lombardy from Austria
  30. 30. The Red Shirts• Red Shirts = Garibaldi’s followers• By July 1860 - gained control of Sicily• By September - conquered Naples• Garibaldi wanted a republic, but …• Kingdom of Two SiciliesSardinian king Victor Emmanuel II
  31. 31. Unification• 1861: territories held elections, all agreed to unification• Holdouts were Venetia, still belonging to Austria; Papal States, under French troops supporting pope• 1866: Prussia defeated Austria, gave Venetia to Italy• 1870: Prussia forced French to w/dfrom Rome• 1870: completed unification under King Victor Emmanuel II
  32. 32. Garibaldi Victor Emmanuel IICavour
  33. 33. German Unification 1871
  34. 34. Zollverein• Von Metternich – Opposed united Germany• Prussia leader• Zollverein: economic union – Eliminated tariffs among German states• Politically fragmented
  35. 35. Otto von Bismarck• Prussian Junker• 1862 – chancellor to Kaiser* Wilhelm I*Kaiser = king
  36. 36. Bismarck’s loyalty• Not a German nationalist• Loyal to the Hohenzollerns – the Prussian royal family
  37. 37. Old Blood and Iron• Strong military = important• Wanted more $ military• Parliament - “no”• Famous “Blood and Iron” speech
  38. 38. Bismarck (cont.)“Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power…The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions – that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849 – but by blood and iron!”
  39. 39. Realpolitik• Strong will• Powerful manipulator• Master of “Realpolitik” – politics of reality – based on practical matters, not theory or ethics• Often resulted in ruthless decisions
  40. 40. Bismarck’s wars
  41. 41. 1864: Schleswig & Holstein• Allied w/ Austria• Seized from Denmark• Split: – Austria  Holstein – PrussiaSchleswig
  42. 42. 1866: Austro-Prussian War• Prussia + Italy attacked Austria• “Seven Weeks War” – Prussia won• Peace of Prague of 1866 – annexed Holstein + other German states – Banned A from Germ affairs – P did NOT seek any A territory (Realpolitik – why?)
  43. 43. 1870: Franco-Prussian War• Growing rivalry between: – France (Napoleon III) – Prussia (Wilhelm I & Bismarck)• Relative of Wilhelm offered Spanish throne• France protested• Bismarck rallied Germans (all Germans)
  44. 44. Ems Dispatch• Bismarck released altered telegram• Wilhelm “insulted” French ambassador• Napoleon III (France) declared war on Prussia
  45. 45. “On to Berlin!”• France attacked Prussia• Prussia – military superiority - won• Napoleon III surrendered (POW)
  46. 46. Germany Unifies• January 18,1871• German Confederation made official• Bismarck + 600 German princes, nobles, and generalsgathered atVersailles• Wilhelm I of Prussia = Kaiser of the Second
  47. 47. Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871• Peace treaty - May 1871• France – Paid huge indemnities (occupied by Prussia until paid) – Gave up Alsace & Lorraine• All that was left were bitter feelings and the desire for revenge…
  48. 48. Bismarck’s Kulturkampf: Anti-Catholic Program• Take education&marriage out ofclergy;s hands civil marriages only recognized• The Jesuits are expelled from Germany.• The education of Catholic priests = under supervision of German gov’t
  49. 49. Bismarck & Pope Leo XIII
  50. 50. Kaiser Wilhelm II r. 1888-1918
  51. 51. “Dropping the Pilot”• 1890• Wilhelm II dismisses Bismarck• Wilhelm I – puppet gov’t (Bismarck in control)• Wilhelm II – wanted to rule on his own
  52. 52. Eastern Europe Late 19th Century
  53. 53. Austria
  54. 54. Austria• Tensions btwn Austria & Hungary = great (Hungarian War of Independence of 1848)• 1866: Austria – lost A-P War – excluded from Germany – very vulnerable/weak• Magyars posed a serious threat
  55. 55. Nationalities of the Austrian Empire
  56. 56. The Compromise of 1867• The Dual Monarchy• Austria + Hungary = Austro-Hungarian Empire
  57. 57. How It worked• Austrian empire divided in half• Hungary gained autonomy but joined w/ Austria by – One king (Franz Josef I) – Finance Ministry – Defense Min – Foreign affairs Min
  58. 58. Emperor Franz Josef I r. 1848-1916
  59. 59. Troubles• Austria – Poles – Czechs – Slavs• Hungary – Croatians – Romanians• Mixed ethnicities  nationalism  divisive & slowly weakened A-H Empire
  60. 60. 19th C. Russia
  61. 61. Nicholas I r. 1825 - 1855• Autocracy• Orthodoxy• Nationalism
  62. 62. Alexander II r. 1855-1881• Attempted to liberalize & modernize Russia• Emancipation Manifesto(1861) – abolished serfdom – Nobility opposed – "It is better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait for the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below.”
  63. 63. Other Reforms• Created Zemstvos– local elected counsels that provided: – Roads – Schools – Medical service• Elections = wealthy
  64. 64. Other Reforms (cont.)• Improved municipal government• Universal military training (1874)• Encouraged expansion – Industry – Railway network• Still, some were unhappy…
  65. 65. Haters• Liberals/Radicals wanted: – Parliamentary democracy – Freedom of expression• Peasants – Disappointed w/ Ag. reforms – Paid more for land than worth – Not taken care of
  66. 66. Secret Societies• Illegal to criticize Tsar• Land & Liberty – reform group – Demanded land be given to peasants – Some members wanted to use violence • Assassination attempt
  67. 67. Narodnayavolya• People’s Will• Faction of Land & Liberty• Wanted constitution• Favored violence/terrorism• Many unsuccessful attempts on Tsar’s life
  68. 68. Okhrana• Result: development of a special section of the Russian police force to deal w/ internal security• Under cover agents• Often joined rev. groups to spy on them
  69. 69. Assassination of Alexander II• 1 March 1881• St. Petersburg• 2 explosions• People’s Will
  70. 70. The Deceased Alexander II
  71. 71. The People’s Will• Plotters arrested, tried &executed• (actual assassin had died in explosion)
  72. 72. Alexander III• Inherited throne from father• More later…

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