BACKGROUND- RISE OF NATIONALISM During the French Revolution , the people in France expressed a great deal of pride in their nation. This pride has been called NATIONALISM. Nationalism will spread throughout the world and cause manyrevolutions. Some of these revolutions will unite people and create nations. Others, while still acting to unite people, will ultimately lead to the end of some of histories great empires.
BIG IDEAS- KEY THEMES & CONCEPTSAt the end of this PowerPoint you should be able to:1. Describe specific ways in which nationalism caused revolutions.2. Described how nationalism led to the unification of both Italy and Germany.3. Explain how nationalism impacted specific ethnic groups- Indians, Turks, and Jews.4. Explain how nationalism will lead to the end of the Ottoman Empire.
IN THE BEGINNING… FRENCH REVOLUTION• Member of the 3rd estate felt as if they were being unfairly treated by upper classes and the king.• Inspired by the Enlightenment thinkers and the American Revolution, members of the 3rd estate demand changes that will bring about the French Revolution.• 3rd estate was approximately 97% of the French population. Every member of the 3rd estate faced the same unequal treatment (shared experience) and this help to forge a sense of unity among them.• This unity grew into a national sense of pride among those members of the 3rd estate.
IN THE BEGINNING… NAPOLEON• Even Napoleon helped the nationalist movement to grow. • There was a great rise in nationalism in the countries and regions of Europe that he was able to take over. • This nationalism will lead many people in these nations to rise up against Napoleon and the French armies he controls. Map of Napoleon’s Empire at its height.
NATIONALISM LEADS TO UNIFICATION German Italy y
UNIFICATION OF ITALY• Since the fall of the Roman Empire, Italy has never truly been a unified country.• Instead, much like the United States of America, it was made up of many states. Each state had its own government and culture.• After the fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, some of the Italian lands were put under the control of the Austrian Empire. • Being under the rule of foreigners leads many Italians to develop a sense of nationalism.
LEADERS OF THE ITALIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENT There was a growing desire among the people of Italy to bring unification to its people. This movement was led by 4 key individuals:Giuseppe Mazzini Count Camillo Giuseppe Garibaldi King Victor Cavour Emmanuel
LEADERS OF THE ITALIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENT Known as the Spirit of the Italian Nationalist Movement * Led the Risorgimento: “resurgence” or “revival” -- Goal was to bring prestige back to Italy -- Reassert the power of Roman Empire * Nationalistic leader of a secret society called “Young Italy.” * Mazzini wanted to transform Italy into a unified nation. * Will be exiled to London for his views.Giuseppe Mazzini Known as the BRAIN of the Italian Nationalist Movement * Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia (Italian state). * Formed alliances with France and Prussia. * Used diplomacy and war to drive the Austrians from power in northern Italy.Count CamilloCavour
LEADERS OF THE ITALIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENT Known as the Sword of the Italian Nationalist Movement * Recruits an army of 1,000 volunteer soldiers… they become known as the Red Shirts because of their uniforms. * They invaded the island of Sicily & marched northward toward Rome. * Garabaldi’s army agreed to unite the southern areas with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in northern Italy.Giuseppe Garibaldi * Was the king of Piedmont & Sardinia in northern Italy. * Fought wars against the Papal States and was excommunicated as a result. * Becomes the first King of unified Italy.King VictorEmmanuel
UNIFICATION OF ITALY “Right Leg in the Boot at Last”Nationalism helped tounite the variousgroups of people inItaly in the 1800’s.They shared commoncultural customs andtraditions, and it wasthese things thathelped to unite themas one strong nation.Questions to help determine what is This cartoon shows Garibaldi helping happening in the cartoon: King Emmanual get the boot on his right1. Who are the two men in the leg. picture?2. What is their relationship during and after the unification of Italy?3. Try to explain the title of the
UNIFICATION OF GERMANYAnother unification movementtook place in Germany during the1800’s. Just like Italy, Germanywas made up of independentstates.People who lived in the Germanicstates spoke similar languages,and shared similar customs.They also saw an increase innationalist enthusiasm as a resultof Napoleon’s conquest of theregion. Just like in Italy, they didnot like being ruled by foreignpowers.
GERMAN UNIFICATION One of the most powerful German states was Prussia. The Prussian leadership took the lead in helping to unify the independent German states. In the 1830’s they established an institution called Zollverein. This allowed trading between the states to be easier and cheaper. This was a major step in the unification process as each state’s economy became more dependent on the others. - Each state wants the others to develop a strong economy because it helps the others.
GERMAN UNIFICATION - LEADERSHIPThere is one man that is given themost credit in the unification ofGermany. He is the leader of thePrussian state, Otto von Bismarck.Bismarck used a political policyknown as REALPOLITIK. This policyfocused on doing what is needed ornecessary to promote and advancenational interest.In other words, Bismarck would dowhat ever is needed to improveGermany. He cared little how it mighteffect other nations.
BISMARCK- “BLOOD & IRON”As part of the realpolitik philosophy, Bismarckdid not believe in making speeches or waitingfor a representative government to bringunification to the German States.Bismarck believed that the only way to unifyGermany is through a policy he called “Bloodand Iron.” Bismarck believed that the only wayto unify Germany was through war.As a result, Bismarck led the state of Prussiainto three major wars that help to unify theGerman states, and set Prussia up to leadthose states.1. Danish War – Teamed up with Austria to seize land from Denmark2. Austro- Prussian War- Turned on Austria and took some of their land.3. Franco- Prussian War – Bismarck used nationalism and the bitter memories of Napoleon to gain support for a war against France.**All Victories for Germany**
UNIFICATION OF GERMANYIN 1871, the German states unified under thePrussian king, William I ( Also known asWilhelm).King Wilhelm began to call himself KAISER. Thistitle was taken from the name Caesar and meantemperor.
POSITIVE & NEGATIVES OF NATIONALISM ON PEOPLE OF THE JEWISH FAITH Anti-Semitism: Discrimination against Jews, simply because they are Jewish. NegativesAs nationalism grew in nations andregions throughout Europe, theintensification of anti-Semitism alsogrew.As citizens grew more patriotic andproud of their own nations, theyoften grew less tolerant of those theyviewed as outsiders, including Jews.Jews were targeted by POGROMS orviolent mobs who destroyed theirproperty, beat them up, and at timeseven killed Jews with littlepunishment.
POSITIVE & NEGATIVES OF NATIONALISM ON PEOPLE OF THE JEWISH FAITH Positives A Jewish man named Theodor Herzl became alarmed at the ongoing attacks. He worked for a newspaper and published many stories encouraging Jews to establish their own nation. Herzl’s writings began a nationalist movement among Jews worldwide based on their common religious beliefs and discrimination. As a result of the continued attacks, and Herzl’s writing, Jews from across the world began to move to Palestine, considered to be the ancient homeland of the Jews. The Jewish nationalist movement became known as the Zionist movement, and is directly responsible for the creation of the state of Israel.
NATIONALISM IN INDIA India’s nationalism movement is going to grow out of the distrust of foreigners in their land. Just like many of the European nations you have already learned about, the people were unhappy when they were being controlled by outsiders. Since the 1700’s the British were in control of India. Ironically, one of the key reforms made by the British dealt with education. Young students were exposed to ideas such as democracy and the writing of Enlightenment thinkers such as Locke and Rousseau. It is these students who will grow up and demand what they called SELF-RULE.
DIVISIONS AMONG INDIAN NATIONALISTSIndian National Congress• Made up of mainly Hindu professionals and business men.• Demanded more say in Indian Muslim League political affairs that were • Indian Muslims began to grow dominated by the British. distrustful of the Indian National Congress leadership because it was• Ultimately, they wanted to primarily Hindu. put an end to the Imperialist • Muslims in India worried that they rule of Britain in India were not being equally represented. • They were also concerned about the growth of Hindu nationalism. • In response they formed the Muslim League . • One of their goals was to establish an independent Muslim state.
INDIAN NATIONALISMThe nationalism movement in India is going to besuccessful. In the early 1900’s, though the work andleadership of a man named Mohandas Gandhi, Indiawill free itself from British rule.Within the larger nationalist push to gain independencefrom Britain, there are two internal nationalistmovements occurring. Each of the two major religionsis having its own nationalist movement, with eachseeking to gain more political control in India topreserve their own interests.The Hindu nationalist movement and the Muslimnationalist movement will ultimately lead to thecreation of a separate state (Pakistan) for the Muslimminority in India.So in this unique case, nationalism help to rid a nationof a foreign ruler, but also led to the division of thenation and creation of a new country.
DIVISION OF AN EMPIRE- OTTOMAN EMPIREAt its height in the 16th & 17th centuries,the Ottoman Empire (modern-dayTurkey) was the world’s onlysuperpower. By the 1900s the OttomanEmpire was commonly called the “sickman of Europe.”The Turks (Turks is what you calledpeople living in the Ottoman Empire)were not united by loyalty to a place,ethnicity, or language. The only thingthat most of them had in common isthat they were ruled by the samegovernment.
DOWNFALL OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIREThe downfall of the Ottoman Empire isextremely complex. Some of the majorreasons for its demise are the following:1. Ottoman military technology &organization had not kept up withEuropean techniques.2. Since the end of the 18th century, theOttomans had been vulnerable to anydetermined attack by its neighbors,especially Russia, with which it shared along boundary.3. However, the most predominant reasonfor the downfall of the Ottoman Empirewas a result of nationalism through thevarious ethnic groups (Turks, Greeks,Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, & Armenians)that were included in the empire. Each group began to want independence from an empirethat did not truly represent them asan ethnic group. Over time thesegroups eventually gain freedom and the Ottoman Empire will collapse.
BIG IDEAS- KEY THEMES & CONCEPTSNow, answer the following questions on the sheet provided.1. Describe specific ways in which nationalism caused revolutions.2. Described how nationalism led to the unification of both Italy and Germany.3. Explain how nationalism impacted specific ethnic groups- Indians, Turks, and Jews.4. Explain how nationalism will lead to the end of the Ottoman Empire.