France• Franco-‐Prussian War (1870-‐71) – France “goaded” into declaring war by Bismarck – France loses – Napoleon III is captured • 1871 – German uniﬁcaGon – Emphasizes the weakness of France
Third French Republic Declared!• September, 1870 • Napoleon III abdicated • New government headed by Adolphe Thiers • conGnued the ﬁght against the Germans • France surrendered in February, 1871 aQer 40,000 Parisians died
The Third French Republic• Thiers’ government was seen as: – Too conservaGve – Too royalist – Too ready to accept a humiliaGng peace with Prussia • French gov’t est. at Versailles, NOT Paris – Parisians angry – Opposed policies of new gov’t – AXempted to restore order in Paris
Paris in Revolt…Again!• The Paris Commune [Communards] was elected on March 28 and established itself at the Hôtel de Ville
Attempted Communard Reforms* Allowed trade unions & workers cooperaGves to take over factories not in use and start them up again * Set up unemployment exchanges in town halls * Provide basic elementary educaGon for all they were strongly against church-‐controlled schools * AXempted to set up girls schools * Daycare near factories for working mothers
Civil War! The Commune was Troops from Versailles Communards suppressed by government troops led by Marshal Patrice MacMahon during the last week of May, 1871 Known as the “Bloody Week”
Mur des FédérésOn 28 May 1871, 147 communards were brought to this wall at Père Lachaise Cemetery and shot, then thrown in an open trench at the end of the wall. The wall remains a symbol to the French leQ of the struggles of the people.
Significance of Paris Commune• First example of working people taking power (Proletariat RevoluGon!) • Source of inspiraGon for future Communists & Socialists (i.e. Lenin, Trotsky, Mao Zedong)
Third French Republic• PoliGcally very unstable • Rivalry between monarchists and republicans • A number of scandals including The Dreyfus Aﬀair [L’Aﬀaire] • Because there were so many facGons all gov’ts = coaliGons • SGll, it survived longer than any other regime since 1789!
The Dreyfus Affair* 1894: a bordereau (list of French military documents) was found in the trash of the German Embassy in Paris * French counter-‐intelligence suspected Captain Alfred Dreyfus, from a wealthy AlsaGan Jewish family one of the few Jews on the General Staﬀ
The Dreyfus Affair* Dreyfus was tried, convicted of treason, and sent to Devil’s Island in French Guiana * The real culprit was Major Esterhazy, whose handwriGng was the same as that on the bordereau * The government tried him and found him not guilty in two days
The Dreyfus Affair * A famous author, Émile Zola published an open leXer called J’Accuse! – He accused the army of a mistrial and cover-‐up – The government prosecuted him for libel – Found him guilty sentenced to a year in prison
The Dreyfus Affair An5-‐ Dreyfusards * Public opinion divided reﬂected divisions in Fr. Society * Dreyfusards = anG-‐clericals, intellectuals, Free Masons, & Socialists * An5-‐Dreyfusards = army supported, monarchists, & Catholics * the honor of the army was more important than Dreyfus’ guilt or innocence
The Dreyfus Affair* 1899 – New trial * Brought back from Devil’s Island a broken man * Results: – Found guilty again, BUT with extenuaGng circumstances – Was given a presidenGal pardon – Exonerated in 1906 – Served honorably in WWI – Died in 1935