La Belle Époque !e Beautiful A"	     1870-1914
France•  Franco-­‐Prussian	  War	  (1870-­‐71)	     –  France	  “goaded”	  into	  declaring	  war	  by	  Bismarck	     –  ...
Third French Republic Declared!•  September,	  1870	  •  Napoleon	  III	  abdicated	  	  •  New	  government	  headed	  	 ...
The Third French Republic•  Thiers’	  government	  was	  seen	  as:	       – Too	  conservaGve	       – Too	  royalist	   ...
Paris in Revolt…Again!•  The	  Paris	  Commune	     [Communards]	  was	     elected	  on	  March	  28	     and	  establish...
Attempted Communard Reforms*  Allowed	  trade	  unions	  &	  workers	  cooperaGves	  to	       take	  over	  factories	  n...
Civil War!                                       The	  Commune	  was	  Troops	  from	   Versailles	        Communards	   ...
The Communards
L’Hôtel de Ville Destroyed
Communard Casualties                25,000	                  Communards	                  killed	                  35,000	...
Mur des FédérésOn	   28	   May	   1871,	   147	   communards	   were	   brought	   to	   this	   wall	   at	   Père	  Lach...
Significance of Paris Commune•  First	  example	  of	  working	     people	  taking	  power	     (Proletariat	  RevoluGon!...
Third French Republic•  PoliGcally	  very	  unstable	       •  Rivalry	  between	  monarchists	  and	  republicans	       ...
The Dreyfus Affair
The Dreyfus Affair*  1894:	  a	  bordereau	  (list	  of	  French	  military	        documents)	  was	  found	  in	  the	  ...
The Dreyfus Affair*  Dreyfus	  was	  tried,	  convicted	  of	  treason,	     and	  sent	  to	  Devil’s	  Island	  in	  Fre...
The Dreyfus Affair     *  A	  famous	  author,	  Émile	  Zola	          published	  an	  open	  leXer	          called	  J...
J’Accuse!
The Dreyfus Affair                                        An5-­‐                                                          ...
Dreyfus, the Traitor!
The Dreyfus Affair*  1899	  –	  New	  trial	  *  Brought	  back	  from	  Devil’s	  Island	  a	  broken	  man	  *  Results:...
La Belle Époque   19th	  C.	  French	  Society
1889 WORLD EXPOSITION•  Centennial	     CelebraGon	  of	  French	     RevoluGon	  •  Gustave	  Eiffel	  •  Eiffel	  Tower	  ...
THE BOURGEOISIE•  Fashion,	  behavior,	     eGqueXe	  mimicked	  the	     aristocracy	  •  Frequented:	     –  Theater	   ...
Bourgeoisie	  enjoy	  a	  stroll	  at	  Porte	  Dauphine	  (ca.	  1900)	  
A	  café	  on	  the	  Grands	  Boulevards	  (1900)	  
Bourgeois	  children	  play	  at	  the	  Jardin	  du	  Luxembourg	  (1899)	  Children	  of	  the	  working	  class	  in	  ...
VIVE LA BOHÈME!
THE BOHEMIAN WAY•  Challenged	  status	  quo	  •  Rejected	  mainstream	     values	  	  •  Mocked	  bourgeoisie	  •  Comp...
THE BOHEMIANS•  MoXo:	  “ Truth,	  beauty,	     freedom	  and	  love”	  •  Frequented	  cafés	  &	     music	  halls	  •  ...
MONTMARTRE
LE MOULIN ROUGE•  Est.	  1889	  •  Most	  famous	  symbol	  of	     the	  Bohemian	  life	  
AT THE MOULIN ROUGE•  Dancers	  (Can-­‐   Can)	  •  Elephant	  •  Drink	       –  Absinthe	  
OMG! It’s the Can-Can!
AP La Belle Époque
AP La Belle Époque
AP La Belle Époque
AP La Belle Époque
AP La Belle Époque
AP La Belle Époque
AP La Belle Époque
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AP La Belle Époque

  1. 1. La Belle Époque !e Beautiful A" 1870-1914
  2. 2. France•  Franco-­‐Prussian  War  (1870-­‐71)   –  France  “goaded”  into  declaring  war  by  Bismarck   –  France  loses  –  Napoleon  III  is  captured  •  1871  –  German  unificaGon   –  Emphasizes  the  weakness  of  France  
  3. 3. Third French Republic Declared!•  September,  1870  •  Napoleon  III  abdicated    •  New  government  headed     by  Adolphe  Thiers   •  conGnued  the  fight  against  the  Germans  •  France  surrendered  in  February,   1871  aQer  40,000  Parisians  died  
  4. 4. The Third French Republic•  Thiers’  government  was  seen  as:   – Too  conservaGve   – Too  royalist   – Too  ready  to  accept  a  humiliaGng  peace  with  Prussia  •  French  gov’t  est.  at  Versailles,  NOT  Paris   – Parisians    angry   – Opposed  policies  of  new  gov’t   – AXempted  to  restore  order  in  Paris  
  5. 5. Paris in Revolt…Again!•  The  Paris  Commune   [Communards]  was   elected  on  March  28   and  established  itself  at   the  Hôtel  de  Ville  
  6. 6. Attempted Communard Reforms*  Allowed  trade  unions  &  workers  cooperaGves  to   take  over  factories  not  in  use  and  start  them  up   again  *  Set  up  unemployment  exchanges  in  town  halls  *  Provide  basic  elementary  educaGon  for  all    they   were  strongly  against  church-­‐controlled  schools  *  AXempted  to  set  up  girls  schools  *  Daycare  near  factories  for  working  mothers  
  7. 7. Civil War!  The  Commune  was  Troops  from   Versailles   Communards   suppressed  by   government  troops  led   by  Marshal  Patrice   MacMahon  during  the   last  week  of  May,  1871    Known  as  the  “Bloody   Week”  
  8. 8. The Communards
  9. 9. L’Hôtel de Ville Destroyed
  10. 10. Communard Casualties 25,000   Communards   killed   35,000  arrested  
  11. 11. Mur des FédérésOn   28   May   1871,   147   communards   were   brought   to   this   wall   at   Père  Lachaise  Cemetery  and  shot,  then  thrown  in  an  open  trench  at  the  end  of   the   wall.   The   wall   remains   a   symbol   to   the   French   leQ   of   the  struggles  of  the  people.  
  12. 12. Significance of Paris Commune•  First  example  of  working   people  taking  power   (Proletariat  RevoluGon!)  •  Source  of  inspiraGon  for  future   Communists  &  Socialists  (i.e.   Lenin,  Trotsky,  Mao  Zedong)  
  13. 13. Third French Republic•  PoliGcally  very  unstable   •  Rivalry  between  monarchists  and  republicans   •  A  number  of  scandals  including  The  Dreyfus  Affair   [L’Affaire]  •  Because  there  were  so  many  facGons    all   gov’ts  =  coaliGons  •  SGll,  it  survived  longer  than  any  other   regime  since  1789!  
  14. 14. The Dreyfus Affair
  15. 15. The Dreyfus Affair*  1894:  a  bordereau  (list  of  French  military   documents)  was  found  in  the  trash  of  the   German  Embassy  in  Paris  *  French  counter-­‐intelligence  suspected  Captain   Alfred  Dreyfus,     from  a  wealthy  AlsaGan      Jewish  family    one  of  the      few  Jews  on  the  General  Staff  
  16. 16. The Dreyfus Affair*  Dreyfus  was  tried,  convicted  of  treason,   and  sent  to  Devil’s  Island  in  French   Guiana  *  The  real  culprit  was  Major  Esterhazy,   whose  handwriGng  was  the  same  as  that   on  the  bordereau   *  The  government  tried  him  and  found  him   not  guilty  in  two  days  
  17. 17. The Dreyfus Affair *  A  famous  author,  Émile  Zola   published  an  open  leXer   called  J’Accuse!     –  He  accused  the  army  of  a   mistrial  and  cover-­‐up   –  The  government  prosecuted   him  for  libel   –  Found  him  guilty    sentenced   to  a  year  in  prison  
  18. 18. J’Accuse!
  19. 19. The Dreyfus Affair An5-­‐ Dreyfusards  *  Public  opinion  divided    reflected  divisions  in  Fr.  Society  *  Dreyfusards  =  anG-­‐clericals,  intellectuals,  Free  Masons,  &   Socialists  *  An5-­‐Dreyfusards  =  army  supported,  monarchists,  &   Catholics   *  the  honor  of  the  army  was  more  important  than  Dreyfus’  guilt  or   innocence  
  20. 20. Dreyfus, the Traitor!
  21. 21. The Dreyfus Affair*  1899  –  New  trial  *  Brought  back  from  Devil’s  Island  a  broken  man  *  Results:   – Found  guilty  again,  BUT  with  extenuaGng  circumstances   – Was  given  a  presidenGal  pardon   – Exonerated  in  1906   – Served  honorably  in  WWI   – Died  in  1935  
  22. 22. La Belle Époque 19th  C.  French  Society
  23. 23. 1889 WORLD EXPOSITION•  Centennial   CelebraGon  of  French   RevoluGon  •  Gustave  Eiffel  •  Eiffel  Tower  =  Entrance   to  Fair  
  24. 24. THE BOURGEOISIE•  Fashion,  behavior,   eGqueXe  mimicked  the   aristocracy  •  Frequented:   –  Theater   –  Opera   –  Restaurants   –  Casinos   –  Gardens  
  25. 25. Bourgeoisie  enjoy  a  stroll  at  Porte  Dauphine  (ca.  1900)  
  26. 26. A  café  on  the  Grands  Boulevards  (1900)  
  27. 27. Bourgeois  children  play  at  the  Jardin  du  Luxembourg  (1899)  Children  of  the  working  class  in  the  slums  (1900)  
  28. 28. VIVE LA BOHÈME!
  29. 29. THE BOHEMIAN WAY•  Challenged  status  quo  •  Rejected  mainstream   values    •  Mocked  bourgeoisie  •  Comprised  of     –  ArGsts   –  Students   –  Writers  
  30. 30. THE BOHEMIANS•  MoXo:  “ Truth,  beauty,   freedom  and  love”  •  Frequented  cafés  &   music  halls  •  Most  popular  areas:   –  LaGn  Quarter   –  Montmartre   Lapin  Agile,  1905  
  31. 31. MONTMARTRE
  32. 32. LE MOULIN ROUGE•  Est.  1889  •  Most  famous  symbol  of   the  Bohemian  life  
  33. 33. AT THE MOULIN ROUGE•  Dancers  (Can-­‐ Can)  •  Elephant  •  Drink   –  Absinthe  
  34. 34. OMG! It’s the Can-Can!

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