Unif. of italy


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Unif. of italy

  1. 1. Key Individuals The Unification of Italy
  2. 2. Count Cavour [The “Head”/”Architect” Giuseppi Garibaldi [The “Sword”/Cavalier” King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Mazzini [The “Heart”/Poet” Italian Nationalist Leaders  Risorgimento-The period of, or the movement for, the liberation and political unification of Italy, beginning about 1750 and lasting until 1870.
  3. 3. Giuseppe Mazzini <ul><li>Born in Genoa </li></ul><ul><li>Studied to be a lawyer </li></ul><ul><li>Became member of the Carbonari in 1827 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;charcoal burners” were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Led failed attempts at revolution during the 1830s </li></ul><ul><li>Founded ‘Young Italy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized new Italian state after 1870 </li></ul>
  4. 4. What were Mazzini’s aims? Encouraged people to see themselves as part of a nation Wanted democratic independent Italian Republic Had concept of ‘Third Rome’ – a civilising influence on the world Third Rome describes the idea that some European city, state, or country is the successor to the legacy of the Roman Empire (the &quot;first Rome&quot;) and its successor state
  5. 5. What were Mazzini’s methods? ‘ Education and revolution’ Sought support from young educated m/class Italian people to drive the Austrians out Hoped that publicity and propaganda would create revolutionary class Constitutional monarchies seen as stop-gap only
  6. 6. Carbonari Insurrections: 1820-1821 “ Coalmen.”
  7. 7. How big an impact did Mazzini have on the Unification of Italy? <ul><li>Gave encouragement to Italian patriotism </li></ul><ul><li>Presented new view of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired Garibaldi to join movement </li></ul><ul><li>Helped to win international publicity for Italian freedom. Defence of Rome in 1849 was heroic failure </li></ul><ul><li>By his actions put pressure on Cavour and others to act more positively </li></ul>
  8. 8. How successful was Mazzini? <ul><li>Had little practical experience </li></ul><ul><li>Overestimated level of support – ignored problems of the peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Support was limited </li></ul><ul><li>All his plots failed! </li></ul><ul><li>Some middle class alienated by his revolutionary stance </li></ul><ul><li>Made no attempt to win support from peasants and town workers </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mazzini’s verdict on Italy, 1871 <ul><li>Italian territory under foreign control </li></ul><ul><li>Foreigners had played too important a role in unification </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappy with new constitution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour <ul><li>Member of Piedmontese ruling class </li></ul><ul><li>Great admirer of British system of government </li></ul><ul><li>Initially aimed at expanding Piedmont rather than uniting Italy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cavour – Foreign Policy <ul><li>Aware of shortcomings of ‘Italia fara da se’ </li></ul><ul><li>( Italy will operate on its own ”) </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to move Austrians out of Lombardy & Venetia </li></ul><ul><li>As PM had considerable control over foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>1854 – outbreak of Crimean War: Britain & France vs Russia </li></ul><ul><li>15,000 troops sent to support France & GB </li></ul>
  12. 12. Piedmont-Sardinia Sends Troops to the Crimea What does Piedmont-Sardinia get in return?
  13. 13. Cavour and the Crimean War <ul><li>Some doubt over motivation but perhaps aimed to gain support from GB & France </li></ul><ul><li>Troops played only minor role but did win respect & gratitude from allies </li></ul><ul><li>Congress of Paris (1856) dealt with peace negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Cavour not directly involved in talks </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cavour wins support <ul><li>Foreign support & diplomacy seen as main successes </li></ul><ul><li>Also important was link with National Society </li></ul><ul><li>Number of its leaders beginning to accept Piedmont as focus for unification </li></ul><ul><li>Cavour now looked to France for help against Austria </li></ul>
  15. 15. Napoleon III and Italian Unity <ul><li>Former member of the Carbonari </li></ul><ul><li>His troops had crushed Roman Republic in 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Had his own reasons for aiding Piedmont </li></ul><ul><li>Probably favoured federation headed by Pope </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Orsini Bomb Plot! <ul><li>In January 14, 1858 Felice Orsini (an Italian patriot) attempted to assassinate Napoleon III </li></ul><ul><li>Felt Nap. III was responsible for failure of earlier revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Hoped that this would aid Italian unity </li></ul><ul><li>His act, designed to arouse world interest in the Italian cause, paradoxically influenced Napoleon's own decision to intervene in favor of Italian unification. </li></ul><ul><li>Orsini was sent to the guillotine on 13 March 1858. </li></ul>
  17. 17. War with Austria <ul><li>1859 War provoked with Austria </li></ul><ul><li>French (with limited help from Piedmont) won 2 closely fought victories </li></ul><ul><li>Austria on brink of surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon III now pulled put of the war – unexpectedly </li></ul><ul><li>Cavour was furious – resigned as PM </li></ul>
  18. 18. IV. Italian Unification <ul><li>Napoleon III committed his troops </li></ul><ul><li>Victory for S-P but only the Northern States fell under their control </li></ul><ul><li>Someone else would have to unify the south </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cavour and Garibaldi <ul><li>Garibaldi raised volunteers to fight for Savoy </li></ul><ul><li>Instead went to Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Cavour not happy – feared consequences of Garibaldi’s actions </li></ul><ul><li>Was torn between trying to stop Garibaldi and offering support </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to stop him failed! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cavour and the Papal States <ul><li>Biggest problem for Cavour was fear of French or Austrian intervention </li></ul><ul><li>To forestall Garibaldi marching on Rome, Cavour sent troops into the Papal States </li></ul><ul><li>Piedmontese troops successful but did not receive the same level of support as Garibaldi’s men </li></ul><ul><li>By end of 1861 Victor Emmanuel acclaimed first King of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Cavour died end of 1861 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Giuseppe Garibaldi <ul><li>Great romantic figure of the Risorgimento </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatic guerrilla leader </li></ul><ul><li>Had distinguished himself in the defence of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Was a follower of Mazzini </li></ul>
  22. 22. Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour
  23. 23. Garibaldi & the campaign of 1861 <ul><li>Hi-jacked the popular revolt in Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Used great cunning to gain control of the island </li></ul><ul><li>His ‘1000 Red Shirts’ gained more and more support </li></ul><ul><li>Had more problems on the mainland but was successful in defeating King of Naples </li></ul><ul><li>Handed his conquests over to VE II </li></ul>
  24. 24. A Unified Peninsula! <ul><li>A contemporary British cartoon, entitled &quot; Right Leg in the Boot at Last ,&quot; shows Garibaldi helping Victor Emmanuel put on the Italian boot. </li></ul>
  25. 25. VI. Unified Italy <ul><li>1. 1861 - Italy formally unified as a nation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Victor Emmanuel II was their first king. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Count Cavour their 1st Prime Minister. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Florence was first capital. </li></ul><ul><li>5. 1871 – capital moved to Rome </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Kingdom of Italy: 1871
  27. 27. Italy 1861-1870 <ul><li>Kingdom of Italy declared – Victor Emmanuel II ‘by the grace of God and the rule of the people’ </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>First parliament met in Turin, March 1861 </li></ul><ul><li>1866 VE II anxious to prove Italian military prowess </li></ul>
  28. 28. Italy 1861-1870 (2) <ul><li>Venetia occupied after Austrian defeat – voted to join with Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Garibaldi made 2 failed attempts to seize Rome (1862, 1867) – little support from the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>1870 Franco-Prussian War saw withdrawal of French garrison </li></ul><ul><li>Pius XI soon withdrew to the Vatican </li></ul>
  29. 29. How united was Italy by 1870? <ul><li>Bad relations with the Papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of common language </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Piedmontese constitution caused conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Franchise restricted – ½ million/22 million </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal aims had little in common with peasantry </li></ul><ul><li>Severe economic problems </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Brigands’ War’ in the South for many years </li></ul><ul><li>Political system did not develop well </li></ul>
  30. 30. Papal States <ul><li>Pope would continue to govern a section of Rome, known as Vatican City </li></ul><ul><li>Lateran Treaty, 1929  made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, ratified June 7, 1929, ending the &quot;Roman Question”(political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929). </li></ul>Coat of Arms-Vatican City
  31. 31. Papal States con’t… <ul><li>signed for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and for Pope Pius XI by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri. The agreements were signed in the Lateran Palace, hence the name by which they are known. </li></ul><ul><li>*guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See </li></ul><ul><li>*established Catholicism as the religion of Italy </li></ul>
  32. 32. Signer’s of the Lateran Treaty <ul><li>PM Benito Mussolini; Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The “Holy See” <ul><li>episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome (who is commonly known as the Pope) </li></ul><ul><li>The Holy See is not the same as the Vatican City State, which came into existence only in 1929, while the Holy See dates back to early Christian times. </li></ul>Flag of Vatican City
  34. 34. VATICAN CITY STATE CELEBRATES 83 YEARS <ul><li>On February 11th, 1929, an historic treaty was signed between the Italian Government and the Vatican re-establishing the political power and diplomatic standing of the Catholic Church, which had been lost when Italy seized Rome, the last of the Papal States, on September 20th, 1870. </li></ul>