AP 19th C Women and Jews


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AP 19th C Women and Jews

  1. 1. Women’s Suffra" inLate 19$ C. England
  2. 2. Women  in  Victorian  England  •  Focus  =  family  •  Ideal  woman  =  Queen   Victoria  
  3. 3. Women’s  Suffrage  •  Many  women    vocal   about  demands  for   social  &  poliBcal   equality  •  “SuffrageEes”  
  4. 4. Emmeline  Pankhurst  *  SuffrageEe:  militant  -­‐  arrested  and   imprisoned  *  She  and  her  daughters  Christabel  &   Sylvia  formed  the  Women’s  Social  &   Poli0cal  Union  (WSPU)  
  5. 5. Emmaline  Pankhurst  was  sent  to  a  local  girls  school  in  Manchester.  At  the  age  of  fiBeen   she   went   to   a   finishing   school   in   Paris.   This   account   appeared   in   her  autobiography,  My  Own  Life,  in  1914  The   educaBon   of   boys   was   considered   a   much   more   serious   maEer   than   the  educaBon  of  girls.  My  parents…  discussed  the  quesBon  of  my  brothers  educaBon  as  a   maEer   of   real   importance.   My   educaBon   and   that   of   my   sister   were   scarcely  discussed  at  all.  Of  course  we  went  to  a  carefully  selected  girls  school,  but  beyond  the  facts  that  the  headmistress  was  a  good  woman  and  that  all  the  pupils  were  girls  of  my  own  class,  nobody  seemed  concerned.  A  girls  educaBon  at  that  Bme  seemed  to  have  for  its  prime  object  the  art  of  making  a  home  aEracBve.  When  I  was  fiVeen  I  was  sent  to  school  in  Paris.  The  school  was  under  the  direcBon  of   Marchef   Girard   a   woman   who   believed   that   girls   educaBon   should   be   quite   as  thorough   as   the   educaBon   of   boys.   She   included   chemistry   and   other   sciences   in  the   course,   and   in   addiBon   to   embroidery   she   had   her   girls   taught   bookkeeping.  When  I  was  nineteen  I  finally  returned  from  school  in  Paris  and  took  my  place  in  my  fathers  home  as  a  finished  young  lady.  
  6. 6. TacBcs  •  SuffrageEes  resorted  to  drasBc,  oVen  violent,   measures   –  Disrupted  Parliament   –  Chained  selves  to  things  (i.e.  the  wheel  of  the   Prime  Minister’s  carriage)   –  Fought  back  when  arrested   –  Arson  
  7. 7. TacBcs  •  Hunger  Strikes  in  Prison   –  Resulted  in  brutal  force   feedings  
  8. 8. In   her   book   Memories   of   a   Militant,   Annie   Kenney  explained  the  use  of  the  hunger  strike    In  1909  Wallace  Dunlop  went  to  prison  and  defied  the  long  sentences   that   were   being   given   by   adopBng   the   hunger-­‐strike.   Release   or   Death   was   her   moEo.   From   that   day,  July  5th,  1909,  the  hunger-­‐strike  was  the  greatest  weapon  we   possessed   against   the   Government…   before   long   all  SuffrageEe  prisoners  were  on  hunger-­‐strike,  so  the  threat  to   pass   long   sentences   on   us   had   failed.   Sentences   grew  shorter.    
  9. 9. Constance   LyQon   was   force-­‐fed   in   October   1909.   An   account   of   her  experiences  was  included  in  her  book  Prison  and  Prisoners    Two   of   the   wardresses   took   hold   of   my   arms,   one   held   my   head   and   one   my  feet.   The   doctor   leant   on   my   knees   as   he   stooped   over   my   chest   to   get   at   my  mouth.  I  shut  my  mouth  and  clenched  my  teeth…  The  doctor  seemed  annoyed  at  my  resistance  and  he  broke  into  a  temper  as  he  pried  my  teeth  with  the  steel  implement.  The  pain  was  intense  and  at  last  I  must  have  given  way,  for  he  got  the   gap   between   my   teeth,   when   he   proceeded   to   turn   it   unBl   my   jaws   were  fastened  wide  apart.  Then  he  put  down  my  throat  a  tube,  which  seemed  to  me  much  too  wide  and  something  like  four  feet  in  length.  I  choked  the  moment  it  touched   my   throat.   Then   the   food   was   poured   in   quickly;   it   made   me   sick   a   few  seconds   aVer   it   was   down.   I   was   sick   all   over   the   doctor   and   wardresses.   As   the  doctor   leV   he   gave   me   a   slap   on   the   cheek.   Presently   the   wardresses   leV   me.  Before  long  I  heard  the  sounds  of  the  forced  feeding  in  the  next  cell  to  mine.  It  was   almost   more   than   I   could   bear,   it   was   Elsie   Howley.   When   the   ghastly  process   was   over   and   all   quiet.   I   tapped   on   the   wall   and   called   out   at   the   top   of  my   voice.   No   Surrender,   and   then   came   the   answer   in   Elsies   voice,   No  Surrender.  
  10. 10. TacBcs  •  Martyrdom   –  Emily  Davison   –  Threw  self  in  front  of  King  George  V’s  horse  to   draw  aEenBon  to  the  cause    
  11. 11. RepresentaBon  of  the  People  Act  *  1918  -­‐  Women  over  30  got   the  right  to  vote  *  All  men  gained  suffrage   –  Property  qualificaBons  were   completely  eliminated!  *  Reform  Act  of  1928   –  Women  over  21    years  of  age   gained  the  right  to  vote  at   last!  
  12. 12. Jews in 19$ C. Europe
  13. 13. EmancipaBon  •  New  German  Empire  –  1871   –  Abolished  all  restricBons  on  Jews   •  Marriage   •  OccupaBon   •  Residence   •  Property  ownership   –  BUT…sBll  no  gov’t  employment  &  general   discriminaBon  sBll  an  issue  
  14. 14. Jewish  Life  in  Central  &  Western   Europe  •  Entered  professions,  arts,  business  –  much   success  •  Majority  improved  economic  situaBon   –  Entered  middle  class  •  Strong  naBonal  idenBty  w/  their  country  of   residence  
  15. 15. Modern  AnB-­‐SemiBsm  •  Resurgence  -­‐  post  stock  market  crash  1873   –  Result  of  Jewish  “financial  control”  •  New  talk  of  a  Jewish  “race”  (not  religion)   emerged   –  Jews  posed  “biological  threat”  to  Germans  
  16. 16. Modern  AnB-­‐SemiBsm  (cont.)  •  Popular  with:   –  ConservaBves   –  Extremist  naBonalists   –  People  who  felt  threatened  by  Jewish  compeBBon  •  Created  PoliBcal  ParBes  to  aEack  &  degrade   Jews  
  17. 17. The  Zionist  Movement   •   Theodore  Herzl  (1860-­‐1904)   •   Father  of  Modern  Zionism   •   Zionism:  movement  toward   Jewish  poliBcal  naBonhood   •   Wrote  Der  Judenstaat  (The   Jewish  State)  –  1896     •   Response  to  Viennese  mayor   and  AnB-­‐Semite  Karl  Lueger  &   his  “ChrisBan  Socialists”  
  18. 18. Eastern  European  AnB-­‐SemiBsm  •  Most  oppressive  here  •  Russia   –  No  emancipaBon   –  Over  ½  Euro  Jew  pop  in  Russia   •  4  million  of  Europe’s  7  million  Jews  lived  in  Russia   (1880)  
  19. 19. Pale  of  SeElement     Catherine   The   Great   established   the   Pale   of   SeElement   in   1791   as   a   territory  for  Russian  Jews  to  live.  Created  under  pressure  to  rid  Moscow  of   Jewish  business  compeBBon  and  "evil"  influence  on  the  Russian  masses,   the   Pale   of   SeElement   included   the   territory   of   present-­‐day   Poland,   Latvia,   Lithuania,   Ukraine   and   Belorussia.   More   than   90%   of   Russian   Jews  were  forced  to  live  in  the  poor  condiBons  of  the  Pale,  which  made   up  only  4%  of  imperial  Russia.  SBll,  the  Jewish  populaBon  in  Russia  grew   from   1.6   million   in   1820   to   5.6   million   in   1910.   Even   within   the   Pale,   Jews  were  discriminated  against;  they  paid  double  taxes,  were  forbidden   to  lease  land,  run  taverns  or  receive  higher  educaBon.     Virtual  Jewish  Library  
  20. 20.      The  May  Laws  of  1882  restricted   Jews  in  the  Pale  to  urban  areas,   which   were   oVen   overcrowded   and   offered   limited   economic   opportuniBes.   In   addiBon   thousands  of  Jews  fell  vicBm  to   devastaBng   pogroms   in   the   1870s  and  1880s.  The  pogroms,   boycoEs   and   other   anB-­‐SemiBc   depredaBons   Jews   faced   in   the   Pale  led  to  mass  immigraBon  to   the   United   States   (two   million   between  1881  and  1914)  
  21. 21. Russian  Jews  •  Gov’t  used  anB-­‐SemiBsm  to  distract  from  own   unpopularity   –  Denounced  Jews  as  foreign  exploiters  who   corrupted  naBonal  tradiBons  •  1880-­‐1882  –  wave  of  violent  pogroms  began   in  Southern  Russia  &  would  conBnue   intermiEently  for  decades  
  22. 22. Pogrom       An   organized,   oVen   officially   encouraged,   massacre   or   persecuBon   of   a   minority   group,   esp.  against  Jews  
  23. 23. MigraBon  •  Many  Jews  emigrated    Western  Europe  &   US  •  1881-­‐1914   –  Apx  2.75  million  Jews  leV  Eastern  Europe