Women in Victorian England • Focus = family • Ideal woman = Queen Victoria
Women’s Suﬀrage • Many women vocal about demands for social & poliBcal equality • “SuﬀrageEes”
Emmeline Pankhurst * SuﬀrageEe: militant -‐ arrested and imprisoned * She and her daughters Christabel & Sylvia formed the Women’s Social & Poli0cal Union (WSPU)
Emmaline Pankhurst was sent to a local girls school in Manchester. At the age of ﬁBeen she went to a ﬁnishing school in Paris. This account appeared in her autobiography, My Own Life, in 1914 The educaBon of boys was considered a much more serious maEer than the educaBon of girls. My parents… discussed the quesBon of my brothers educaBon as a maEer of real importance. My educaBon and that of my sister were scarcely discussed at all. Of course we went to a carefully selected girls school, but beyond the facts that the headmistress was a good woman and that all the pupils were girls of my own class, nobody seemed concerned. A girls educaBon at that Bme seemed to have for its prime object the art of making a home aEracBve. When I was ﬁVeen I was sent to school in Paris. The school was under the direcBon of Marchef Girard a woman who believed that girls educaBon should be quite as thorough as the educaBon of boys. She included chemistry and other sciences in the course, and in addiBon to embroidery she had her girls taught bookkeeping. When I was nineteen I ﬁnally returned from school in Paris and took my place in my fathers home as a ﬁnished young lady.
TacBcs • SuﬀrageEes resorted to drasBc, oVen violent, measures – Disrupted Parliament – Chained selves to things (i.e. the wheel of the Prime Minister’s carriage) – Fought back when arrested – Arson
TacBcs • Hunger Strikes in Prison – Resulted in brutal force feedings
In her book Memories of a Militant, Annie Kenney explained the use of the hunger strike In 1909 Wallace Dunlop went to prison and deﬁed the long sentences that were being given by adopBng the hunger-‐strike. Release or Death was her moEo. From that day, July 5th, 1909, the hunger-‐strike was the greatest weapon we possessed against the Government… before long all SuﬀrageEe prisoners were on hunger-‐strike, so the threat to pass long sentences on us had failed. Sentences grew shorter.
Constance LyQon was force-‐fed in October 1909. An account of her experiences was included in her book Prison and Prisoners Two of the wardresses took hold of my arms, one held my head and one my feet. The doctor leant on my knees as he stooped over my chest to get at my mouth. I shut my mouth and clenched my teeth… The doctor seemed annoyed at my resistance and he broke into a temper as he pried my teeth with the steel implement. The pain was intense and at last I must have given way, for he got the gap between my teeth, when he proceeded to turn it unBl my jaws were fastened wide apart. Then he put down my throat a tube, which seemed to me much too wide and something like four feet in length. I choked the moment it touched my throat. Then the food was poured in quickly; it made me sick a few seconds aVer it was down. I was sick all over the doctor and wardresses. As the doctor leV he gave me a slap on the cheek. Presently the wardresses leV me. Before long I heard the sounds of the forced feeding in the next cell to mine. It was almost more than I could bear, it was Elsie Howley. When the ghastly process was over and all quiet. I tapped on the wall and called out at the top of my voice. No Surrender, and then came the answer in Elsies voice, No Surrender.
TacBcs • Martyrdom – Emily Davison – Threw self in front of King George V’s horse to draw aEenBon to the cause
RepresentaBon of the People Act * 1918 -‐ Women over 30 got the right to vote * All men gained suﬀrage – Property qualiﬁcaBons were completely eliminated! * Reform Act of 1928 – Women over 21 years of age gained the right to vote at last!
EmancipaBon • New German Empire – 1871 – Abolished all restricBons on Jews • Marriage • OccupaBon • Residence • Property ownership – BUT…sBll no gov’t employment & general discriminaBon sBll an issue
Jewish Life in Central & Western Europe • Entered professions, arts, business – much success • Majority improved economic situaBon – Entered middle class • Strong naBonal idenBty w/ their country of residence
Modern AnB-‐SemiBsm • Resurgence -‐ post stock market crash 1873 – Result of Jewish “ﬁnancial control” • New talk of a Jewish “race” (not religion) emerged – Jews posed “biological threat” to Germans
Modern AnB-‐SemiBsm (cont.) • Popular with: – ConservaBves – Extremist naBonalists – People who felt threatened by Jewish compeBBon • Created PoliBcal ParBes to aEack & degrade Jews
The Zionist Movement • Theodore Herzl (1860-‐1904) • Father of Modern Zionism • Zionism: movement toward Jewish poliBcal naBonhood • Wrote Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) – 1896 • Response to Viennese mayor and AnB-‐Semite Karl Lueger & his “ChrisBan Socialists”
Eastern European AnB-‐SemiBsm • Most oppressive here • Russia – No emancipaBon – Over ½ Euro Jew pop in Russia • 4 million of Europe’s 7 million Jews lived in Russia (1880)
Pale of SeElement Catherine The Great established the Pale of SeElement in 1791 as a territory for Russian Jews to live. Created under pressure to rid Moscow of Jewish business compeBBon and "evil" inﬂuence on the Russian masses, the Pale of SeElement included the territory of present-‐day Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Belorussia. More than 90% of Russian Jews were forced to live in the poor condiBons of the Pale, which made up only 4% of imperial Russia. SBll, the Jewish populaBon in Russia grew from 1.6 million in 1820 to 5.6 million in 1910. Even within the Pale, Jews were discriminated against; they paid double taxes, were forbidden to lease land, run taverns or receive higher educaBon. Virtual Jewish Library
The May Laws of 1882 restricted Jews in the Pale to urban areas, which were oVen overcrowded and oﬀered limited economic opportuniBes. In addiBon thousands of Jews fell vicBm to devastaBng pogroms in the 1870s and 1880s. The pogroms, boycoEs and other anB-‐SemiBc depredaBons Jews faced in the Pale led to mass immigraBon to the United States (two million between 1881 and 1914)
Russian Jews • Gov’t used anB-‐SemiBsm to distract from own unpopularity – Denounced Jews as foreign exploiters who corrupted naBonal tradiBons • 1880-‐1882 – wave of violent pogroms began in Southern Russia & would conBnue intermiEently for decades
Pogrom An organized, oVen oﬃcially encouraged, massacre or persecuBon of a minority group, esp. against Jews
MigraBon • Many Jews emigrated Western Europe & US • 1881-‐1914 – Apx 2.75 million Jews leV Eastern Europe