Italian and German Unification


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  • Italian and German Unification

    1. 1. The Unification of Italy and Germany Garibaldi Bismarck
    2. 2. What is Nationalism? <ul><li>Nationalism is a feeling of belonging and loyalty that causes people to think of themselves as a nation. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 19 th and 20 th centuries, nationalism was a </li></ul><ul><li>powerful force that could: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create one nation from many separate countries (ex. Italy and Germany) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break one nation up into many countries (ex. Austria-Hungary, and Turkey) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Nationalism <ul><li>Nationalism can be a cause of war (ex. WWI and WWII) </li></ul><ul><li>It has encouraged colonies to seek independence from their colonizers. (ex. India, Indonesia, and countries in Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism can take many different forms but certain factors need to be present for it to grow . </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Italian States Unite, 1859-1870
    5. 5. Barriers to Italian Nationalism <ul><li>Italy was divided into several states. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy did not threaten the balance of power in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Congress of Vienna, Italy was made up of nine different states: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Piedmont-Sardinia (the largest state) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venetia and Lombardy belonged to Austria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Pope ruled the Papal States in central Italy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the other states were ruled by foreign princes under Austrian control </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Barriers to Italian Nationalism <ul><li>Geography - mountains split Italy West and East; the Po river, North and South </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy – as most of the population could not read and write, nationalistic propaganda was difficult to spread </li></ul><ul><li>The Pope - felt a united Italy would lessen his rights in the papal states </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of consensus - Italian states disagreed on a leader and type of government </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of European support - European nations felt a strong Italy would interfere with their plans </li></ul>
    7. 7. Factors That Led to Italian Unification <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy is isolated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Alps are to the North, surrounded by oceans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic isolation allows Italy to develop its own ways, customs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italians are very proud of their heritage, including the Italian Renaissance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s conquest of Italian states led to a desire not to be conquered again  Italian unity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efforts of Three Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour </li></ul>
    8. 8. Giuseppe Mazzini, “Prophet of Italian Unification” <ul><li>He was a member of the Carbonari . </li></ul><ul><li>The Carbonari were a secret group which used violence to obtain what it wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>He formed Young Italy , made up of young people whose job it was to arouse enthusiasm for a united nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried revolution but it failed . </li></ul>
    9. 9. Mazzini- Essay on Nationalism (1852) <ul><li>Directions: Read the essay and answer the following questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the two questions at the heart of the revolutions? How are the two questions exemplified in the French Revolution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does consanguinity mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you sum up the second argument for unity? </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Count Cavour, “Architect of Italian Unification” <ul><li>Count Camillo di Cavour was the “architect” (planner) of Piedmont-Sardinia’s revolt against Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>This revolt encouraged other Italian states to revolt. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Giuseppe Garibaldi, “The Sword of Italian Unification” <ul><li>Garibaldi first invaded Sicily, then urged them to join Piedmont-Sardinia under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Garibaldi handed over all conquered lands to Victor Emmanuel. </li></ul>
    12. 12. How Italy was United <ul><li>The Addition of the Papal States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victor Emmanuel conquers the Papal States; stops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garibaldi’s advance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unification nears completion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1860: elections were held in all of Italy, except </li></ul><ul><li>Venetia and Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>1861: in the city of Turin, representatives of a united </li></ul><ul><li>nation formed a parliament and proclaimed the establishment of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Victor Emmanuel II
    14. 14. Problems Faced by a United Italy <ul><li>Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy is a constitutional monarch. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to vote is limited to upper and middle class property holders. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Catholics refuse to participate in new nation (as did the Pope). </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery and corruption were frequent in poor, uneducated lower classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Italian speaking areas were not united with the central government. </li></ul><ul><li>Some felt Italy should become a world power and fight for colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy lacked industrial development, agriculture, and natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Prices were high, people could not afford manufactured goods. </li></ul>
    15. 15. A German Nation is Forged
    16. 16. Background to German Unification <ul><li>Prior to the French Revolution, there were more than 300 German states. </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia and Austria were the largest. </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress of Vienna reduced the number of German states to 39. </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller number of German states encouraged feelings of nationalism and patriotism among these German states. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Barriers to German Unification <ul><li>France preferred 39 weak states to one nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria knew Prussia was most powerful state. </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers of smaller states feared loss of power in a united Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant/Catholic hostility (from Thirty Years’ War). </li></ul><ul><li>Economic differences between western industrial states and agricultural eastern states. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Factors Encouraging German Unification <ul><li>Napoleon encouraged German unification with the Confederation of the Rhine under the Napoleonic Code. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectuals supported a German Nation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heinrich von Treitschke envisioned a German Fatherland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goethe and Schiller saw a common nationality for all Germans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress of Vienna created a German Confederation which was made up of 39 states. </li></ul><ul><li>Zollverein created to increase trade, reduce problems of many state governments; taxes, coinage and postal system. </li></ul>
    19. 19. How Bismarck United Germany Otto von Bismarck
    20. 20. How Bismarck United Germany <ul><li>Prussia led German unification. </li></ul><ul><li>Otto von Bismarck led Prussia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative chosen as Prime Minister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stood for absolutism, Divine Right Monarchy and the Protestant Lutheran church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>did not trust people or democracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master of Realpolitick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Politics of reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough power politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No idealism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William I, King of Prussia appointed Bismarck chief minister in the Prussian Parliament ,1848 </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Bismarck’s Policy of “Blood and Iron” <ul><li>“ Not by speeches and resolutions of majorities are the great questions of the time decided upon – but by blood and iron”. </li></ul>
    22. 22. German Unification <ul><li>Could not persuade parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Declared he would rule without the consent of parliament and without a legal budget </li></ul><ul><li>Aligned with Austria to attack Denmark for Schleswig and Holstein </li></ul><ul><li>Quick victory increases Prussian nationalism </li></ul>
    23. 23. German Unification <ul><li>Prussia controls Schleswig and Austria Holstein </li></ul><ul><li>Hoping this will lead to turmoil he can use Border conflicts with Austria between Schleswig and Holstein </li></ul><ul><li>Austria declares war on Prussia in 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Weeks’ war </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia Annexes more territory </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern and Western Prussia united for first time </li></ul>
    24. 24. France: Bismarck’s Strategy <ul><li>Spanish throne is offered to a relative of the King of Prussia after leaders of the Spanish revolution removed their leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Napoleon (Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew), Emperor of France convinces German prince to refuse crown then sends an envoy to convince William I of Prussia not to accept the crown. </li></ul><ul><li>From the City of Ems, William I sends a telegram to Bismarck about the request, this is called the Ems Dispatch. </li></ul><ul><li>Bismarck, seizing his opportunity, rewords the telegram and publishes it in the newspapers. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Bismarck’s Plan Pays Off <ul><li>Prussians become upset about unfair demands to their king; French are insulted by Prussia. </li></ul><ul><li>France declares war though unprepared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia thus acquires: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French provinces of Alsace & Lorraine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>money to cover the cost of war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Franco-Prussian War completes the unification of Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>South German states unite with north to fight France </li></ul><ul><li>1871: German Empire is formed, William I of Prussia as Emperor. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Kaiser Wilhelm I
    27. 27. Problems Faced by a United Germany <ul><li>Germany was far from democratic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Government of the German Empire was a federal union of states with the King of Prussia as ruler and a two house legislature with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A powerful 61 member appointed upper house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 400 member lower house chosen by universal male suffrage (all men could vote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong king who made government appointments, strong upper house had power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strong army, soldiers prominent in society </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Bismarck’s Policies <ul><li>Made socialism illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Improved working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Persecuted national and religious minorities, especially Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>In foreign affairs, tried to isolate France by making friendships with Austria and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Realpolitik </li></ul><ul><li>Realpolitik was Bismarck’s foreign policy  decisions are not based on ideological or moral considerations; decisions should be based on self-interest. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Comparing Revolutions, Revolts, and Unifications <ul><li>What is one factor that has been present in all of the conflicts we have studied so far? Why do you think this factor repeatedly shows up? </li></ul>