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An Investigation on Effect of Welding Speed on Strength of Welded Joint using TIG Welding Process

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1385
AN INVESTIGATION ON EFFECT OF WELDING SPEED ON STRENGTH OF
WELDED JOINT USING TIG WELDING PROCESS
Prof. Janunkar Rajeshwar G1, Prof. Allurkar Siddharaj2, Prof. Kanase Ravindra M3
1 Assistant Prof, Automobile Engineering Department, Dhole Patil College Engineering, Wagholi , Pune, India
2 Head of Dept, Automobile Engineering Department Dhole Patil College Engineering, Wagholi ,Pune, India
3 Lecturer, P. Dr. V.V. Patil College of Engineering And Technology, Pravaranagar, Maharastra, india
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Abstract - Tungsten Inert Gas Welding performance is
generally calculated on the basis of Tensile Strength, Depth of
Penetration, Aspect Ratio and Hardness. The important TIG
machining parameters results to the performancemeasuresof
the process are voltage, current, welding speed, shielding gas
flow rate, voltage, current, electrode gap, root gap and filler
materials .The measurement of TIG performance on the basis
of Tensile Strength, Bead Geometry, Depth of Penetration and
Hardness for various materials. A number of approaches are
used in the literature to clear the problems related with
optimization of the parameters. It is observed that a review of
the variety of approaches developed would help. Recently in
aerospace, shipping and in process industry aluminum and its
alloys are generally used because of their valuable properties
such as light weight and better weld ability. The current study
aim to compare mechanical properties of AA5083andAA6063
for different bevel heights and groove angle keeping root
opening constant. The specimens are prepared by using V
groove butt weld joints. For this Project work gastungsten arc
welding process is selected because TIG welding is the process
of joining two materials in the presence of inert gas with high
quality.
Keywords- TIG,Bevel Angle,Groove Angle.
1. INTRODUCTION
There are wide range of welding methods available for
welding materials such as submerged arc welding, electro
slag welding, electron beam welding, Gas Tungsten arc
welding methods and Gas metal arc welding .The method of
the weld depends on materials to be welded, the thicknessof
the base materials and type of voltage and current. TIG
(Tungsten inert gas) welding is the most popular gas arc
welding process used in several industries.Otherarcwelding
processes have poor quality when they are compared to TIG
(Tungsten inert gas) welding processes. TIG welding also
needs more accuracy in spatter reduction and welding
quality of the bead. Shielding gas in TIG welding is suitable
for protection of atmospheric conditions.
In this TIG (Tungsten inert gas) welding we discuss the
effect of the power source, gas flow rate, type of current, filer
wire, electrodes, TIG Machine settings andshieldgaseswhich
are most needful in determining arc penetration, arc stability
and defect free welds. Welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys
and magnesium alloys is an important issue because of their
wide applications in industries.
Fig1: Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Process
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Hyde.T.H. et. al. observed some typical results obtained
from continual damage mechanics analyses for calculating
weld repair performance. Results presented cover a rangeof
analysis, taking account of the effects of repair dimensions,
geometry change during creep system biding, reheating
effects in the weld metal of damage level and initial partial
repair welds etc.
Balasubramanian.R.R.et.al. Analyzed and compared the
mechanical properties of non-heat treatable Aluminumalloy
AA5083 and heat treatable Aluminum alloy AA7020 using
TIG welding. AA5556 filler material was used to weld
AA7020 alloy and 5183A filler material for AA5083 alloy.
Effect of pulsing mode over conventional mode process was
also investing iGATE for AA5083 alloy. Low heat input
process interrupt because AA5083 and AA7020 have low
melting point material. The alternating current (A.C) power
source has been selected because of better cleaning action
and more heat concentration on the materials can be
avoided. Mechanical testing like impact test, tensile test,
hardness test and bend have been critically analyzed andthe
properties were summarized and correlated with
microstructure.
Juang.S.C. et.al stated that the selection of process
parameters for obtaining an optimum geometry of the weld
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1386
pool has several quality example, the front height, back
height, front width and back width of the weld pool .To
consider these quality characteristics. Taguchi’s method is
adopted to analyze the effect of each then to determine the
process parameters with the optimal weld geometry.
Experimental results are provided to calculate the proposed
approach.
Hyde.T.H. et.al. studied damage analysis and finite element
creep were performed for a series of new, partially repaired,
service aged and fully repaired circumferential welds in Cr
Mo main heat pipes under internal pressure and a uniform
axial stress, using simplified symmetric models.Thicknessof
pipe was 64.5mm, angle 18 and welding width is 48 mm.
Authors stated that because of complicated nature of the
problem analytical solutions cannot be obtained for stress
and strain within welds.
Oh .Y. J. et. al. studied for bottom nozzle failure mechanicsof
R.P. (water reactor pressure vessel) under conditions
concluding that crack and severe accident, like separations
were revealed at the nozzle weld material to R.P.V. (water
reactor pressure vessel) interfaces indicating the need of
normal stress component rather than the shear stress in the
creep stress.
Ipek .N. E.et.al. stated that the gas metal arc welding
(GMAW) process which is commonly used in manufacturing
of variety of nonferrous and ferrous metals becauseitmostly
increases the quality of welding. The aim of this study is to
develop an approach that gives the determination of critical
GMAW variables and optimization of process variables by
using integrated and goal programming (GP) methods
conjunctively. This paper presents a methodology for
determining the variables of a GMA process with multiple
objectives utilizing full- factorial design of regression
analysis, experiments and goal programming.
III. MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 Materials
The material used to carry out experimental work to
investigate V groove butt weld joint for strength analysis
using AA6063 and AA5083. The dimensions of weld
materials are 4×50×200mm.
Table 1. Chemical composition of Filler material AA6063
Elements Al Si Cu Mg Cr
Weight % 97.9 0.6 0.28 1.0 0.2
Table 2. Chemical composition of work material AA5083
Elements Al Si Cu Mg Cr
Weight % 95.45 0.4 0.1 4.0 0.05
3.2 Welding geometry
The both plates are welded by the single V-groove butt weld
with different groove angles andbevel heights.Thegeometry
of butt weld joint is as follows.
3.3 Welding process
 TIG Welding
TIG welding is an electric arc welding process in which the
energy is produced by an electric arc burning between the
non consumable tungsten electrode and the work piece. The
inert gases are used to give the shielding over the electrodes
and weld pools. Inert gases are in active in nature so
neglected the contaminate. Different types of tungsten
electrodes are used within the process.
3.4 Experimental
Tensile Testing Results
The tensile test carried out on welded specimen is Tabulated
Bellow
Table 3.Tensile strength& Percentage Elongation
Specimen Ultimate Tensile
strength (MPa)
% Elongation
Welded Specimen 185 to 234 08
Unwelded
Specimen
250 20
The specimen were welded effectively at welding speed of
0.3,0.6,0.9,1.2 cm/sec. The results of the tensile test are
mentioned bellow. The metal will be welded with these four
different welding speeds by using TIG welding process.
Table 4. Tensile strength at weld speed 0.3 cm/sec
Work
piece
No.
Welding
Speed
(cm/sec)
Bevel
Angle
(degrees)
Bevel
height
(mm)
Tensile
Strength
(M.PA)
1 0.3 30 1 199
2 0.3 40 1.5 230
3 0.3 50 2 215
Base Metal 250
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1387
Table 5. Tensile strength at weld speed 0.6 cm/sec
Work
piece
No.
Welding
Speed
(cm/sec)
Bevel Angle
(degrees)
Bevel
height
(mm)
Tensile
Strength(
M.PA)
1 0.6 30 1 225
2 0.6 40 1.5 234
3 0.6 50 2 230
Base Metal 250
Table 6. Tensile strength at weld speed 0.9cm/sec
Work
piece
No.
Welding
Speed
(cm/sec)
Bevel
Angle
(degrees)
Bevel
height
(mm)
Tensile
Strength
(M.PA)
1 0.9 30 1 195
2 0.9 40 1.5 220
3 0.9 50 2 225
Base Metal 250
Table 7. Tensile strength at weld speed 1.2 cm/sec
Work
piece
No.
Welding
Speed
(cm/sec)
Bevel
Angle
(degrees)
Bevel
height
(mm)
Tensile
Strength
(M.PA)
1 1.2 30 1 180
2 1.2 40 1.5 185
3 1.2 50 2 182
Base Metal 250
From the above table, it will be observed that there are no
drafting changes in the tensile strength of the welded
specimen at welding speed 0.3 cm/sec. However there is a
sudden decrease in the strength of welded speed at 1.2
cm/sec.
IV.CONCLUSION
Following are the possible outcomes which are obtained at
the end of test and experimentation.
1) The depth of weld bead will decrease with increase in
bevel height at different groove angles of V butt joint.
2) Maximum tensile strength of 234 MPa has been observed
at will speed of 0.6 cm/sec. These indicate the strength of
welded specimen is lower than base metal.
3) Tensile strength is always higher with lower welding
speed. This suggests that lower range of welding speed will
be more suitable for drive highest tensile strength.
4) It will be observed that bevel angle is suitable for
maximum strength ranging from 30 degree to 45 degree.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, I would like to express my deep sense of
gratitude and indebtedness to my supervisor Siddharaj
Allurkar H.O.D, Automobile Engineering Department for his
invaluable encouragement and providing me extraordinary
experiences throughout the work and every phase of work
inspired for innumerable ways and the vital contribution as
and when required during this project. His involvement with
originality has triggered and nourished my intellectual
maturity that has helped me for a long time to come. I am
proud to record that I had the opportunity to work with an
exceptionally experienced Professor like him. I am highly
grateful to Principal, Dhole Patil College Engineering,
Wagholi , Pune, India for their kind support and permission
to use the facilities available in the Institute.
REFERENCES
[1] Ugur Esme, Melih Bayramoglu, Yugut Kazancoglu, Sueda
Ozgun Optimization of weld bead geometry in Tig welding
process using grey relation analysis and taguchi method.
Original scientific article/Izvirni znanstveni clanek -2009, P
143 149.
[2] S.C. Juang, Y.S. Tarng Process parameter selection for
optimizing the weld pool geometry in the tungsten inert gas
welding of stainless steel. Journal of Materials Processing
Technology 122 (2002), P 33–37.
[3] S. Krishnanunni, Dr. Josephkunju Paul C, V Narayanan
Unni Effect of Welding Conditions on Hardness of
Commercially Pure Titanium Akgec International Journal of
Technology, Vol. 3, No. 2, P 19-24.
[4] Raghuvir Singh, Dr. N.M Suri, Prof. Jagjit Randhawa
Optimization of Process Parameters for TIG welding of 304L
Stainless Steel using Response Surface Methodology.
International Journal of Mechanical Science and Civil
Engineering Volume 2 Issue 2 (June 2013 Issue), P 36-40.
[5] Wenchao Dong, Shanping Lu, Dianzhong Li, Yiyi Li GTAW
liquid pool convections and the weld shape variations under
helium gas shielding. International Journal of Heat and Mass
Transfer 54 (2011), P 1420–1431.
[6] Dongjie Li, Shanping Lu, Wenchao Dong, Dianzhong Li,
Yiyi Li Study of the law between the weld pool shape
variations with the welding parameters under two TIG
processes. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 212
(2012), P 128– 136.
[7] Parikshit Dutta, Dilip Kumar Pratihar Modeling of TIG
welding process using conventional regression analysis and
neural network-based approaches. Journal of Materials
Processing Technology 184 (2007), P 56–68.
[8] Shanping Lu, Hidetoshi Fujii, Kiyoshi Nogia Arc
ignitability, bead protection and weld shape variations for
He–Ar–O2 shielded GTA welding on SUS304 stainless steel.
Journal of materials processing technology 209 (2009), P
1231–1239.
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An Investigation on Effect of Welding Speed on Strength of Welded Joint using TIG Welding Process

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1385 AN INVESTIGATION ON EFFECT OF WELDING SPEED ON STRENGTH OF WELDED JOINT USING TIG WELDING PROCESS Prof. Janunkar Rajeshwar G1, Prof. Allurkar Siddharaj2, Prof. Kanase Ravindra M3 1 Assistant Prof, Automobile Engineering Department, Dhole Patil College Engineering, Wagholi , Pune, India 2 Head of Dept, Automobile Engineering Department Dhole Patil College Engineering, Wagholi ,Pune, India 3 Lecturer, P. Dr. V.V. Patil College of Engineering And Technology, Pravaranagar, Maharastra, india ---------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Tungsten Inert Gas Welding performance is generally calculated on the basis of Tensile Strength, Depth of Penetration, Aspect Ratio and Hardness. The important TIG machining parameters results to the performancemeasuresof the process are voltage, current, welding speed, shielding gas flow rate, voltage, current, electrode gap, root gap and filler materials .The measurement of TIG performance on the basis of Tensile Strength, Bead Geometry, Depth of Penetration and Hardness for various materials. A number of approaches are used in the literature to clear the problems related with optimization of the parameters. It is observed that a review of the variety of approaches developed would help. Recently in aerospace, shipping and in process industry aluminum and its alloys are generally used because of their valuable properties such as light weight and better weld ability. The current study aim to compare mechanical properties of AA5083andAA6063 for different bevel heights and groove angle keeping root opening constant. The specimens are prepared by using V groove butt weld joints. For this Project work gastungsten arc welding process is selected because TIG welding is the process of joining two materials in the presence of inert gas with high quality. Keywords- TIG,Bevel Angle,Groove Angle. 1. INTRODUCTION There are wide range of welding methods available for welding materials such as submerged arc welding, electro slag welding, electron beam welding, Gas Tungsten arc welding methods and Gas metal arc welding .The method of the weld depends on materials to be welded, the thicknessof the base materials and type of voltage and current. TIG (Tungsten inert gas) welding is the most popular gas arc welding process used in several industries.Otherarcwelding processes have poor quality when they are compared to TIG (Tungsten inert gas) welding processes. TIG welding also needs more accuracy in spatter reduction and welding quality of the bead. Shielding gas in TIG welding is suitable for protection of atmospheric conditions. In this TIG (Tungsten inert gas) welding we discuss the effect of the power source, gas flow rate, type of current, filer wire, electrodes, TIG Machine settings andshieldgaseswhich are most needful in determining arc penetration, arc stability and defect free welds. Welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys is an important issue because of their wide applications in industries. Fig1: Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Process 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Hyde.T.H. et. al. observed some typical results obtained from continual damage mechanics analyses for calculating weld repair performance. Results presented cover a rangeof analysis, taking account of the effects of repair dimensions, geometry change during creep system biding, reheating effects in the weld metal of damage level and initial partial repair welds etc. Balasubramanian.R.R.et.al. Analyzed and compared the mechanical properties of non-heat treatable Aluminumalloy AA5083 and heat treatable Aluminum alloy AA7020 using TIG welding. AA5556 filler material was used to weld AA7020 alloy and 5183A filler material for AA5083 alloy. Effect of pulsing mode over conventional mode process was also investing iGATE for AA5083 alloy. Low heat input process interrupt because AA5083 and AA7020 have low melting point material. The alternating current (A.C) power source has been selected because of better cleaning action and more heat concentration on the materials can be avoided. Mechanical testing like impact test, tensile test, hardness test and bend have been critically analyzed andthe properties were summarized and correlated with microstructure. Juang.S.C. et.al stated that the selection of process parameters for obtaining an optimum geometry of the weld
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1386 pool has several quality example, the front height, back height, front width and back width of the weld pool .To consider these quality characteristics. Taguchi’s method is adopted to analyze the effect of each then to determine the process parameters with the optimal weld geometry. Experimental results are provided to calculate the proposed approach. Hyde.T.H. et.al. studied damage analysis and finite element creep were performed for a series of new, partially repaired, service aged and fully repaired circumferential welds in Cr Mo main heat pipes under internal pressure and a uniform axial stress, using simplified symmetric models.Thicknessof pipe was 64.5mm, angle 18 and welding width is 48 mm. Authors stated that because of complicated nature of the problem analytical solutions cannot be obtained for stress and strain within welds. Oh .Y. J. et. al. studied for bottom nozzle failure mechanicsof R.P. (water reactor pressure vessel) under conditions concluding that crack and severe accident, like separations were revealed at the nozzle weld material to R.P.V. (water reactor pressure vessel) interfaces indicating the need of normal stress component rather than the shear stress in the creep stress. Ipek .N. E.et.al. stated that the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process which is commonly used in manufacturing of variety of nonferrous and ferrous metals becauseitmostly increases the quality of welding. The aim of this study is to develop an approach that gives the determination of critical GMAW variables and optimization of process variables by using integrated and goal programming (GP) methods conjunctively. This paper presents a methodology for determining the variables of a GMA process with multiple objectives utilizing full- factorial design of regression analysis, experiments and goal programming. III. MATERIALS AND METHOD 3.1 Materials The material used to carry out experimental work to investigate V groove butt weld joint for strength analysis using AA6063 and AA5083. The dimensions of weld materials are 4×50×200mm. Table 1. Chemical composition of Filler material AA6063 Elements Al Si Cu Mg Cr Weight % 97.9 0.6 0.28 1.0 0.2 Table 2. Chemical composition of work material AA5083 Elements Al Si Cu Mg Cr Weight % 95.45 0.4 0.1 4.0 0.05 3.2 Welding geometry The both plates are welded by the single V-groove butt weld with different groove angles andbevel heights.Thegeometry of butt weld joint is as follows. 3.3 Welding process  TIG Welding TIG welding is an electric arc welding process in which the energy is produced by an electric arc burning between the non consumable tungsten electrode and the work piece. The inert gases are used to give the shielding over the electrodes and weld pools. Inert gases are in active in nature so neglected the contaminate. Different types of tungsten electrodes are used within the process. 3.4 Experimental Tensile Testing Results The tensile test carried out on welded specimen is Tabulated Bellow Table 3.Tensile strength& Percentage Elongation Specimen Ultimate Tensile strength (MPa) % Elongation Welded Specimen 185 to 234 08 Unwelded Specimen 250 20 The specimen were welded effectively at welding speed of 0.3,0.6,0.9,1.2 cm/sec. The results of the tensile test are mentioned bellow. The metal will be welded with these four different welding speeds by using TIG welding process. Table 4. Tensile strength at weld speed 0.3 cm/sec Work piece No. Welding Speed (cm/sec) Bevel Angle (degrees) Bevel height (mm) Tensile Strength (M.PA) 1 0.3 30 1 199 2 0.3 40 1.5 230 3 0.3 50 2 215 Base Metal 250
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1387 Table 5. Tensile strength at weld speed 0.6 cm/sec Work piece No. Welding Speed (cm/sec) Bevel Angle (degrees) Bevel height (mm) Tensile Strength( M.PA) 1 0.6 30 1 225 2 0.6 40 1.5 234 3 0.6 50 2 230 Base Metal 250 Table 6. Tensile strength at weld speed 0.9cm/sec Work piece No. Welding Speed (cm/sec) Bevel Angle (degrees) Bevel height (mm) Tensile Strength (M.PA) 1 0.9 30 1 195 2 0.9 40 1.5 220 3 0.9 50 2 225 Base Metal 250 Table 7. Tensile strength at weld speed 1.2 cm/sec Work piece No. Welding Speed (cm/sec) Bevel Angle (degrees) Bevel height (mm) Tensile Strength (M.PA) 1 1.2 30 1 180 2 1.2 40 1.5 185 3 1.2 50 2 182 Base Metal 250 From the above table, it will be observed that there are no drafting changes in the tensile strength of the welded specimen at welding speed 0.3 cm/sec. However there is a sudden decrease in the strength of welded speed at 1.2 cm/sec. IV.CONCLUSION Following are the possible outcomes which are obtained at the end of test and experimentation. 1) The depth of weld bead will decrease with increase in bevel height at different groove angles of V butt joint. 2) Maximum tensile strength of 234 MPa has been observed at will speed of 0.6 cm/sec. These indicate the strength of welded specimen is lower than base metal. 3) Tensile strength is always higher with lower welding speed. This suggests that lower range of welding speed will be more suitable for drive highest tensile strength. 4) It will be observed that bevel angle is suitable for maximum strength ranging from 30 degree to 45 degree. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my supervisor Siddharaj Allurkar H.O.D, Automobile Engineering Department for his invaluable encouragement and providing me extraordinary experiences throughout the work and every phase of work inspired for innumerable ways and the vital contribution as and when required during this project. His involvement with originality has triggered and nourished my intellectual maturity that has helped me for a long time to come. I am proud to record that I had the opportunity to work with an exceptionally experienced Professor like him. I am highly grateful to Principal, Dhole Patil College Engineering, Wagholi , Pune, India for their kind support and permission to use the facilities available in the Institute. REFERENCES [1] Ugur Esme, Melih Bayramoglu, Yugut Kazancoglu, Sueda Ozgun Optimization of weld bead geometry in Tig welding process using grey relation analysis and taguchi method. Original scientific article/Izvirni znanstveni clanek -2009, P 143 149. [2] S.C. Juang, Y.S. Tarng Process parameter selection for optimizing the weld pool geometry in the tungsten inert gas welding of stainless steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 122 (2002), P 33–37. [3] S. Krishnanunni, Dr. Josephkunju Paul C, V Narayanan Unni Effect of Welding Conditions on Hardness of Commercially Pure Titanium Akgec International Journal of Technology, Vol. 3, No. 2, P 19-24. [4] Raghuvir Singh, Dr. N.M Suri, Prof. Jagjit Randhawa Optimization of Process Parameters for TIG welding of 304L Stainless Steel using Response Surface Methodology. International Journal of Mechanical Science and Civil Engineering Volume 2 Issue 2 (June 2013 Issue), P 36-40. [5] Wenchao Dong, Shanping Lu, Dianzhong Li, Yiyi Li GTAW liquid pool convections and the weld shape variations under helium gas shielding. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011), P 1420–1431. [6] Dongjie Li, Shanping Lu, Wenchao Dong, Dianzhong Li, Yiyi Li Study of the law between the weld pool shape variations with the welding parameters under two TIG processes. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 212 (2012), P 128– 136. [7] Parikshit Dutta, Dilip Kumar Pratihar Modeling of TIG welding process using conventional regression analysis and neural network-based approaches. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 184 (2007), P 56–68. [8] Shanping Lu, Hidetoshi Fujii, Kiyoshi Nogia Arc ignitability, bead protection and weld shape variations for He–Ar–O2 shielded GTA welding on SUS304 stainless steel. Journal of materials processing technology 209 (2009), P 1231–1239.