Web Standards

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Web Standards

  1. 1. by Helior Colorado
  2. 2. History of the Internet
  3. 3. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born
  4. 4. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
  5. 5. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)
  6. 6. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ★ was the Internet before www.
  7. 7. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ★ was the Internet before www. ★ first to use packet switching techniques over network
  8. 8. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ★ was the Internet before www. ★ first to use packet switching techniques over network ★ used by government and universities only - not the public
  9. 9. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ★ was the Internet before www. ★ first to use packet switching techniques over network ★ used by government and universities only - not the public HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
  10. 10. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ★ was the Internet before www. ★ first to use packet switching techniques over network ★ used by government and universities only - not the public HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Designed to link independent documents together
  11. 11. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ★ was the Internet before www. ★ first to use packet switching techniques over network ★ used by government and universities only - not the public HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Designed to link independent documents together Designed by Tim Berners-Lee
  12. 12. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ★ was the Internet before www. ★ first to use packet switching techniques over network ★ used by government and universities only - not the public HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Designed to link independent documents together Designed by Tim Berners-Lee Designed to markup document content in ways a computer could understand
  13. 13. History of the Internet 1991 - World Wide Web was born HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Successor of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ★ was the Internet before www. ★ first to use packet switching techniques over network ★ used by government and universities only - not the public HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Designed to link independent documents together Designed by Tim Berners-Lee Designed to markup document content in ways a computer could understand Designed to be simple and easy for anyone to adopt
  14. 14. History of the Internet
  15. 15. History of the Internet After 1991...
  16. 16. History of the Internet After 1991... Businesses took interest to use the web as a marketing tool
  17. 17. History of the Internet After 1991... Businesses took interest to use the web as a marketing tool Used as online brochure and catalog
  18. 18. History of the Internet After 1991... Businesses took interest to use the web as a marketing tool Used as online brochure and catalog ★ nothing much you could do with it
  19. 19. History of the Internet After 1991... Businesses took interest to use the web as a marketing tool Used as online brochure and catalog ★ nothing much you could do with it
  20. 20. History of the Internet After 1991... Businesses took interest to use the web as a marketing tool Used as online brochure and catalog ★ nothing much you could do with it Web Design as a profession began
  21. 21. History of the Internet After 1991... Businesses took interest to use the web as a marketing tool Used as online brochure and catalog ★ nothing much you could do with it Web Design as a profession began ★ through the demand from the market
  22. 22. History of the Internet After 1991... Businesses took interest to use the web as a marketing tool Used as online brochure and catalog ★ nothing much you could do with it Web Design as a profession began ★ through the demand from the market ★ with limited set of capabilities
  23. 23. History of the Internet After 1991...
  24. 24. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good)
  25. 25. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades
  26. 26. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0
  27. 27. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element
  28. 28. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element ★ introduction of <table> element
  29. 29. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element ★ introduction of <table> element ★ introduction to image maps
  30. 30. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element ★ introduction of <table> element ★ introduction to image maps 3.2
  31. 31. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element ★ introduction of <table> element ★ introduction to image maps 3.2 ★ adopted Netscape’s visual elements
  32. 32. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element ★ introduction of <table> element ★ introduction to image maps 3.2 ★ adopted Netscape’s visual elements Browsers support for images, tables, frames
  33. 33. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element ★ introduction of <table> element ★ introduction to image maps 3.2 ★ adopted Netscape’s visual elements Browsers support for images, tables, frames Many companies embraced the Web
  34. 34. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element ★ introduction of <table> element ★ introduction to image maps 3.2 ★ adopted Netscape’s visual elements Browsers support for images, tables, frames Many companies embraced the Web ★ competition became fierce
  35. 35. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Good) HTML version upgrades 2.0 ★ enhancement of <form> element ★ introduction of <table> element ★ introduction to image maps 3.2 ★ adopted Netscape’s visual elements Browsers support for images, tables, frames Many companies embraced the Web ★ competition became fierce ★ online presence became vital
  36. 36. History of the Internet After 1991...
  37. 37. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Bad)
  38. 38. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Bad) Technologies were abused Table-based design
  39. 39. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Bad) Technologies were abused Table-based design Browsers Wars!! Netscape vs. Microsoft
  40. 40. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Bad) Technologies were abused Table-based design Browsers Wars!! Netscape vs. Microsoft Convoluted source code
  41. 41. History of the Internet After 1991... Evolution of the Web (The Bad) Technologies were abused Table-based design Browsers Wars!! Netscape vs. Microsoft Convoluted source code Sneaky techniques were used
  42. 42. Further into the future...
  43. 43. More technologies are added
  44. 44. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet)
  45. 45. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation
  46. 46. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted
  47. 47. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow)
  48. 48. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked!
  49. 49. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked! Frames-based navigation, because css sucked!
  50. 50. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked! Frames-based navigation, because css sucked! JavaScript (not Java!)
  51. 51. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked! Frames-based navigation, because css sucked! JavaScript (not Java!) Created by Sun Microsystems and Netscape
  52. 52. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked! Frames-based navigation, because css sucked! JavaScript (not Java!) Created by Sun Microsystems and Netscape Inconsistent support across browsers
  53. 53. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked! Frames-based navigation, because css sucked! JavaScript (not Java!) Created by Sun Microsystems and Netscape Inconsistent support across browsers CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
  54. 54. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked! Frames-based navigation, because css sucked! JavaScript (not Java!) Created by Sun Microsystems and Netscape Inconsistent support across browsers CGI (Common Gateway Interface) Primarily written in PERL
  55. 55. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked! Frames-based navigation, because css sucked! JavaScript (not Java!) Created by Sun Microsystems and Netscape Inconsistent support across browsers CGI (Common Gateway Interface) Primarily written in PERL Commonly distributed with Javascript snippets
  56. 56. More technologies are added CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) First attempt to separate content and presentation Although very slow to be adopted HTML (4.slow) Table-based design, because css sucked! Frames-based navigation, because css sucked! JavaScript (not Java!) Created by Sun Microsystems and Netscape Inconsistent support across browsers CGI (Common Gateway Interface) Primarily written in PERL Commonly distributed with Javascript snippets Plug ‘n’ Play - “Who cares how it works?”
  57. 57. Sites created under different versions
  58. 58. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers
  59. 59. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology
  60. 60. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology No support for certain technologies
  61. 61. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology No support for certain technologies Different Devices (mobile phones, PDA, etc.)
  62. 62. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology No support for certain technologies Different Devices (mobile phones, PDA, etc.) Limited screen real-estate
  63. 63. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology No support for certain technologies Different Devices (mobile phones, PDA, etc.) Limited screen real-estate Layouts were broken
  64. 64. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology No support for certain technologies Different Devices (mobile phones, PDA, etc.) Limited screen real-estate Layouts were broken Different Media (print, screen readers, etc.)
  65. 65. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology No support for certain technologies Different Devices (mobile phones, PDA, etc.) Limited screen real-estate Layouts were broken Different Media (print, screen readers, etc.) Varying interfaces, methods, and purpose
  66. 66. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology No support for certain technologies Different Devices (mobile phones, PDA, etc.) Limited screen real-estate Layouts were broken Different Media (print, screen readers, etc.) Varying interfaces, methods, and purpose Rethink design approach to fit needs of users
  67. 67. Sites created under different versions Different Browsers Inconsistent interpretation of technology No support for certain technologies Different Devices (mobile phones, PDA, etc.) Limited screen real-estate Layouts were broken Different Media (print, screen readers, etc.) Varying interfaces, methods, and purpose Rethink design approach to fit needs of users That’s if they bothered to support those other users!
  68. 68. DHTML
  69. 69. DHTML The dirty word of the web.
  70. 70. WYSIWYG editors
  71. 71. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management
  72. 72. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients
  73. 73. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients Made anyone believe they were web designers
  74. 74. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients Made anyone believe they were web designers Common folk created pages
  75. 75. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients Made anyone believe they were web designers Common folk created pages Less experts and therefore more disasters
  76. 76. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients Made anyone believe they were web designers Common folk created pages Less experts and therefore more disasters Generation which is referred to “Neighbors’ cousin’s nephew’s friend” who could build you a website
  77. 77. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients Made anyone believe they were web designers Common folk created pages Less experts and therefore more disasters Generation which is referred to “Neighbors’ cousin’s nephew’s friend” who could build you a website Created heavy file size pages
  78. 78. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients Made anyone believe they were web designers Common folk created pages Less experts and therefore more disasters Generation which is referred to “Neighbors’ cousin’s nephew’s friend” who could build you a website Created heavy file size pages Due to convoluted source code
  79. 79. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients Made anyone believe they were web designers Common folk created pages Less experts and therefore more disasters Generation which is referred to “Neighbors’ cousin’s nephew’s friend” who could build you a website Created heavy file size pages Due to convoluted source code Attempt to support all browser features
  80. 80. WYSIWYG editors Helped with Content Management GUI interface for clients Made anyone believe they were web designers Common folk created pages Less experts and therefore more disasters Generation which is referred to “Neighbors’ cousin’s nephew’s friend” who could build you a website Created heavy file size pages Due to convoluted source code Attempt to support all browser features Generated by a machine
  81. 81. Enter Web Standards
  82. 82. 33% 33% 33%
  83. 83. 33% 33% 33%
  84. 84. Content 33% 33% 33%
  85. 85. Content “Data” 33% 33% 33%
  86. 86. Content Presentation “Data” 33% 33% 33%
  87. 87. Content Presentation “Data” “Look & Feel” 33% 33% 33%
  88. 88. Content Presentation “Data” “Look & Feel” 33% 33% 33% Behavior
  89. 89. Content Presentation “Data” “Look & Feel” 33% 33% 33% Behavior “Manipulation”
  90. 90. 33% 33% 33%
  91. 91. html 33% 33% 33%
  92. 92. html css 33% 33% 33%
  93. 93. html css 33% 33% 33% javascript
  94. 94. Content or “Markup”
  95. 95. Content or “Markup” Semantic
  96. 96. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly
  97. 97. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly Pragmatics
  98. 98. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly Pragmatics the practical use; most comprehensible; clean; clear purpose
  99. 99. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly Pragmatics the practical use; most comprehensible; clean; clear purpose Identify elements as needed
  100. 100. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly Pragmatics the practical use; most comprehensible; clean; clear purpose Identify elements as needed using class or id attributes
  101. 101. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly Pragmatics the practical use; most comprehensible; clean; clear purpose Identify elements as needed using class or id attributes use names that describe the content, not its visual distinction
  102. 102. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly Pragmatics the practical use; most comprehensible; clean; clear purpose Identify elements as needed using class or id attributes use names that describe the content, not its visual distinction example:
  103. 103. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly Pragmatics the practical use; most comprehensible; clean; clear purpose Identify elements as needed using class or id attributes use names that describe the content, not its visual distinction example: use “secondary_content” not “right_column”
  104. 104. Content or “Markup” Semantic understand the meaning of tags; use them correctly Pragmatics the practical use; most comprehensible; clean; clear purpose Identify elements as needed using class or id attributes use names that describe the content, not its visual distinction example: use “secondary_content” not “right_column” use “alert_warning” not “bright_red”
  105. 105. Presentation or “Styles”
  106. 106. Presentation or “Styles” Separation
  107. 107. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents
  108. 108. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents use: <link rel=”stylesheet” media=”screen” href=”styles.css” />
  109. 109. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents use: <link rel=”stylesheet” media=”screen” href=”styles.css” /> Consistency
  110. 110. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents use: <link rel=”stylesheet” media=”screen” href=”styles.css” /> Consistency avoid styles that are not standards-compliant
  111. 111. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents use: <link rel=”stylesheet” media=”screen” href=”styles.css” /> Consistency avoid styles that are not standards-compliant Always style with CSS
  112. 112. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents use: <link rel=”stylesheet” media=”screen” href=”styles.css” /> Consistency avoid styles that are not standards-compliant Always style with CSS Avoid using markup to style elements based on their default visual output
  113. 113. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents use: <link rel=”stylesheet” media=”screen” href=”styles.css” /> Consistency avoid styles that are not standards-compliant Always style with CSS Avoid using markup to style elements based on their default visual output example:
  114. 114. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents use: <link rel=”stylesheet” media=”screen” href=”styles.css” /> Consistency avoid styles that are not standards-compliant Always style with CSS Avoid using markup to style elements based on their default visual output example: don’t use <b>, <i>, <u>, <blink>
  115. 115. Presentation or “Styles” Separation keep style sheets independent from other documents use: <link rel=”stylesheet” media=”screen” href=”styles.css” /> Consistency avoid styles that are not standards-compliant Always style with CSS Avoid using markup to style elements based on their default visual output example: don’t use <b>, <i>, <u>, <blink> use font-weight: 600, font-style: italic, border-bottom: solid 1px
  116. 116. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation”
  117. 117. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive
  118. 118. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements
  119. 119. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements Use DOM to select elements
  120. 120. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements Use DOM to select elements consistent use of id and class attributes
  121. 121. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements Use DOM to select elements consistent use of id and class attributes Graceful Degradation
  122. 122. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements Use DOM to select elements consistent use of id and class attributes Graceful Degradation make features that compliment pages without making pages rely on them for functionality
  123. 123. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements Use DOM to select elements consistent use of id and class attributes Graceful Degradation make features that compliment pages without making pages rely on them for functionality If a technology isn’t available, pages still render correctly
  124. 124. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements Use DOM to select elements consistent use of id and class attributes Graceful Degradation make features that compliment pages without making pages rely on them for functionality If a technology isn’t available, pages still render correctly Progressive Enhancement
  125. 125. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements Use DOM to select elements consistent use of id and class attributes Graceful Degradation make features that compliment pages without making pages rely on them for functionality If a technology isn’t available, pages still render correctly Progressive Enhancement adding functionality after providing basic content and function
  126. 126. Behavior or “DOM Manipulation” Unobtrusive separation without disruption of other elements Use DOM to select elements consistent use of id and class attributes Graceful Degradation make features that compliment pages without making pages rely on them for functionality If a technology isn’t available, pages still render correctly Progressive Enhancement adding functionality after providing basic content and function enhance experience of capable clients
  127. 127. Advantages
  128. 128. Advantages ★SEO
  129. 129. Advantages ★SEO ★Smaller file sizes, better bandwidth
  130. 130. Advantages ★SEO ★Smaller file sizes, better bandwidth ★Accessible to all user clients
  131. 131. Advantages ★SEO ★Smaller file sizes, better bandwidth ★Accessible to all user clients ★Backwards compatible
  132. 132. Advantages ★SEO ★Smaller file sizes, better bandwidth ★Accessible to all user clients ★Backwards compatible ★Future compliant
  133. 133. Advantages ★SEO ★Smaller file sizes, better bandwidth ★Accessible to all user clients ★Backwards compatible ★Future compliant ★Minimal maintenance
  134. 134. We’re past all that, aren’t we?
  135. 135. Even a decade later....
  136. 136. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool
  137. 137. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design
  138. 138. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags
  139. 139. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags VVC teaches JavaScript without acknowledging the DOM
  140. 140. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags VVC teaches JavaScript without acknowledging the DOM VVC doesn’t even teach CSS!
  141. 141. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags VVC teaches JavaScript without acknowledging the DOM VVC doesn’t even teach CSS! S0ll having a hard 0me adop0ng!
  142. 142. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags VVC teaches JavaScript without acknowledging the DOM VVC doesn’t even teach CSS! S0ll having a hard 0me adop0ng! WYSIWYG sGll exist (and aren’t too much different then yesteryear)
  143. 143. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags VVC teaches JavaScript without acknowledging the DOM VVC doesn’t even teach CSS! S0ll having a hard 0me adop0ng! WYSIWYG sGll exist (and aren’t too much different then yesteryear) S0ll overly complex source code
  144. 144. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags VVC teaches JavaScript without acknowledging the DOM VVC doesn’t even teach CSS! S0ll having a hard 0me adop0ng! WYSIWYG sGll exist (and aren’t too much different then yesteryear) S0ll overly complex source code Replaced table‐based design with un‐seman0c DIV tags
  145. 145. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags VVC teaches JavaScript without acknowledging the DOM VVC doesn’t even teach CSS! S0ll having a hard 0me adop0ng! WYSIWYG sGll exist (and aren’t too much different then yesteryear) S0ll overly complex source code Replaced table‐based design with un‐seman0c DIV tags .mobi (top‐level domain)
  146. 146. Even a decade later.... VVC teaches HTML as if it were a forma4ng tool Table‐based design Non‐seman0c use of tags VVC teaches JavaScript without acknowledging the DOM VVC doesn’t even teach CSS! S0ll having a hard 0me adop0ng! WYSIWYG sGll exist (and aren’t too much different then yesteryear) S0ll overly complex source code Replaced table‐based design with un‐seman0c DIV tags .mobi (top‐level domain) Influences people to believe that the mobile web should be a  different experience than a consistent Internet we experience on  the desktop
  147. 147. Final Thoughts.
  148. 148. Helior Colorado me@helior.info

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