Web 2.0: a course


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Course on "Web 2.0" at University of Camerino - 2011
prof. Carlo Vaccari

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Web 2.0: a course

  1. 1. Web 2.0 blog, wiki, tag, social network: what are they, how to use them and why they are important
  2. 2. This material is distributed under the Creative Commons "Attribution - NonCommercial - Share Alike - 3.0", available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ . Part of the slides is the result of a welcome distance collaboration with prof. Roberto Polillo, University Milan Bicocca ( http://www.rpolillo.it )
  3. 3. Program * Introduction, course program and start course tools * New Web trends: the "old" Web and Web 2.0 * Web 2.0 in general: definition * What is a blog and web 2.0 contents * What is a wiki, Wikipedia in theory and in practice * Technical Web 2.0 Specifications (Ajax, RSS, …), mash-up * Tagging and Social bookmarking * The Google World: the algorithm, docs.google, Android, ... * Web 2.0 and Social characteristics, social networks (Flickr, facebook, …) * Gov 2.0 Open Gov and Open Data Some theory: * Metcalfe's Law, Reed and Pareto, power curves, long tail, network theory, ...
  4. 4. Presentation Course organization Web 2.0 experiences: blogs, wikis and social networks (R/W) Use of 2.0 tools for the course: starting from the wiki http://camerinoweb20.wikispaces.com/ Evaluation based on - your work during lessons - exercises on web sites of the course - final presentation of your work (use “understandable” nickname!) Language: if you have any doubt or any question: please stop me!
  5. 5. Presentation <ul><li>Facebook
  6. 6. MySpace
  7. 7. Linkedin
  8. 8. Twitter
  9. 9. Flickr
  10. 10. YouTube
  11. 11. Slideshare
  12. 12. Del.icio.us </li></ul><ul><li>Blogger
  13. 13. Wordpress
  14. 14. Wikimedia
  15. 15. Wikipedia
  16. 16. Google Docs
  17. 17. Google Earth
  18. 18. iPhone
  19. 19. iPad </li></ul>How many of you use ... self-presentation
  20. 20. the Web Intro: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4CV05HyAbM (Information Revolution) http://www.worldofends.com <ul><li>The Internet isn't complicated
  21. 21. The Internet isn't a thing. It's an agreement
  22. 22. The Internet is stupid
  23. 23. Adding value to the Internet lowers its value
  24. 24. All the Internet's value grows on its edges
  25. 25. Money moves to the suburbs
  26. 26. The Internet has three virtues: </li></ul>a. No one owns it b. Everyone can use it c. Anyone can improve it
  27. 27. the Web Tim Berners-Lee (1995): &quot;I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the TCP Protocol and Domain Name System ideas and – Ta-da! – the World Wide Web!” basic architecture:
  28. 28. the Web today http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm http://www.hitwise.com/us/resources/data-center Net Neutrality: - &quot;dumb, minimal network&quot; with smart terminals, vs. the previous paradigm of the smart network with dumb terminals - no data discrimination (all bits are equal) - access freedom http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_neutrality http://www.savetheinternet.com/
  29. 29. web history (by Polillo) CERN World Wide Web Mosaic (NCSA) W3C by Tim Berners-Lee Netscape IPO, MS IE, Amazon, eBay NASDAQ Boom and fall Google IPO; Firefox WEB 1.0 WEB 2.0 crisis prehistory AOL buys Netscape; Google start 9/11 Napster Financial Crisis crisis 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 90
  30. 30. the Web today World web sites – 1995-2011 ( http://www.netcraft.com ) note: the curve follows the 2009 crisis and the current recovery
  31. 31. the Web today slides by Mary Meeker (Morgan Stanley) on Internet Trends http://www.scribd.com/doc/42793400/Internet-Trends-Presentation (have pdf or YouTube) and http://www.slideshare.net/guest1222bdb/mary-meeker-april-2010-internet-trends
  32. 32. the Web today <ul>Agosto 2009 </ul><ul><li>Google.com
  33. 33. Yahoo!
  34. 34. Facebook
  35. 35. Youtube
  36. 36. Windows live
  37. 37. Msn
  38. 38. Blogger.com
  39. 39. Wikipedia
  40. 40. Baidu 
(cn search engine)
  41. 41. Yahoo Giappone
  42. 42. myspace
  43. 43. Google India
  44. 44. Google Germania
  45. 45. Twitter
  46. 46. qq.com 
(cn social network ) </li></ul><ul>R.Polillo - Ottobre 2010 </ul><ul>from www.alexa.com see update at: </ul><ul>http://www.alexa.com/topsites </ul><ul>(also by Country, by Category) </ul><ul>Agosto 2010 </ul><ul><li>Google.com
  47. 47. Facebook
  48. 48. Youtube
  49. 49. Yahoo!
  50. 50. Windows live
  51. 51. Baidu.com
  52. 52. Wikipedia
  53. 53. Blogger.com
  54. 54. Msn
  55. 55. Twitter
  56. 56. Qq.com
  57. 57. Yahoo Giappone
  58. 58. Google India
  59. 59. Taobao.com (cn)
  60. 60. Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo!
  61. 61. Msn
  62. 62. Google.com
  63. 63. eBay
  64. 64. Amazon
  65. 65. Microsoft.com
  66. 66. MySpace
  67. 67. Google.co.uk
  68. 68. Aol.com
  69. 69. Go.com </li></ul><ul> 2005 </ul>
  70. 70. Web 2.0 definition The term “Web 2.0” was first used at O’Reilly Media Web 2.0 Conference (October 2004) It 's a catchword/slogan, which identifies a major paradigm shift in web “ Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as a platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform” Tim O’Reilly
  71. 71. Web 2.0 definition From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 : “ Web 2.0 describes the changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aim to enhance creativity , secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the web. Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of web-based communities and hosted services, such as social-network sites, video sharing sites, wikis, blogs, and folksonomies.” Pronounce?? 2 - point|dot – O|0 http://www.zdnet.com/blog/saas/20-pronounced-two-point-oh/290
  72. 72. Web 2.0 definition still from Wikipedia: Web 2.0 can be described in 3 parts which are as follows: <ul><li>Rich Internet Application ( RIA ) - It defines the experience brought from desktop to browser ... Some buzz words related to RIA are AJAX and Flash
  73. 73. Service-oriented Architecture ( SOA ) - It is a key piece in Web 2.0 which defines how Web 2.0 applications expose its functionality so that other applications can leverage and integrate the functionality providing a set of much richer applications (Examples are: Feeds, RSS, Web Services, Mash-ups)
  74. 74. Social Web - It defines how Web 2.0 tend to interact much more with the end user and making the end user an integral part. </li></ul>
  75. 75. “ Web 1.0 was all about connecting people. It was an interactive space, and I think Web 2.0 is of course a piece of jargon, nobody even knows what it means. If Web 2.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along. And in fact, you know, this Web 2.0, quote, it means using the standards which have been produced by all these people working on Web 1.0. It means using the document object model, it means for HTML and SVG and so on, it's using HTTP, so it's building stuff using the Web standards, plus Javascript of course. So Web 2.0 for some people it means moving some of the thinking client side so making it more immediate, but the idea of the Web as interaction between people is really what the Web is. That was what it was designed to be as a collaborative space where people can interact.” http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/podcast/dwi/cm-int082206.txt Web 2.0 according to Tim Berners Lee
  76. 76. Web 2.0 map
  77. 77. Web 2.0 map
  78. 78. Web 2.0 meme map A meme , a relatively newly coined term, identifies ideas or beliefs that are transmitted from one person or group of people to another. The concept comes from an analogy: as genes transmit biological information, memes can be said to transmit idea and belief information. The word meme originated with Dawkins' 1976 book The Selfish Gene . To emphasize commonality with genes, Dawkins coined the term &quot;meme&quot; by shortening &quot;mimeme&quot;, which derives from the Greek word mimema (&quot;something imitated&quot;)
  79. 79. http://web2magazine.blogspot.com/2007/01/thanks-for-web-2.html other lists: http://www.go2web20.net/#tag:most-popular or http://web2010.discoveryeducation.com/web20tools.cfm 2.0 tools: a list
  80. 80. Web 2.0 general characteristics The most important features of Web 2.0 are: <ul><li>Web 2.0 sites are platforms that allow a strong interaction between users
  81. 81. Users benefit from innovative services using powerful graphical interfaces
  82. 82. Users provide the value added by the self-production of contents and knowledge sharing. In this way we exploit and enhance the collective intelligence, real engine of Web 2.0
  83. 83. The services offered are constantly updated , so as to quickly correct mistakes and add new features as they become available (this feature is also called &quot; perpetual beta &quot;) </li></ul>
  84. 84. Web 2.0 general characteristics From a functional point of view, what characterizes Web 2.0 is basically the central and leading role of the user by user becomes more and more a controller of your data and navigating content, making the same producer of information and, simultaneously, the main Judge of the products from other All the great success stories of Web 2.0 show a true reversal of the paradigms of communication that our generation was used to. The communication &quot; one to many &quot; moves to &quot; many to many &quot; video “The Machine is us/ing us” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE
  85. 85. Web 2.0 general characteristics Internet as Operating System : O'Reilly http://www.slideshare.net/timoreilly/state-of-the-internet-operating-system-web2-expo10 http://radar.oreilly.com/2010/03/state-of-internet-operating-system.html Internet OS new subsystems: - Search: big data, a link is a vote, media search - Media access: access to various type of media, access control - Communications: voice and video, collision with providers - Identity and Social Graph: Facebook connection and networks - Payment: PayPal, Amazon, Apple … - Advertising: the real engine carrying money - Location: new services - Activity streams: managing user attention to virtual locations - Time: now, need for speed - Image and Speech recognition: Googles, automated vehicles - Government Data: open data, linked data, new visualization Browser: control over frontend interface! http://gs.statcounter.com/
  86. 86. Web 2.0 examples Google Page Rank , based on &quot;opinions&quot; (links) of other sites Wikipedia encyclopedia with entries determined and constructed by users Ebay , where each seller and buyer has a public reputation given by other users depending on his behavior Google Maps where users use standardized data in creative ways, giving rise to new services Blog , where participation replaces communication Social networks (Flickr, Myspace, Facebook) that collect and organize content provided by users Most used 2.0 sites: http://movers20.esnips.com/TableStatAction.ns?reportId=100
  87. 87. Blog http://it.youtube.com/watch?v=NN2I1pWXjXI (Blog) Short for web log (event log) public diary: website maintained by specialized software (Content Management System (CMS) family), designed for simple publishing of text and multimedia images The units of content ( posts ) are published in temporal sequence ( http://www.wordreference.com/definition/post ) Template usage for the User Interface From one to three columns, header, ev. footer In the bottom of each post, signature, date / time, permalink, b acklink/trackback to other blogs posts referencing my blog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog
  88. 88. Blog (CMS) <ul>HTTP </ul><ul>internet </ul><ul>Web server </ul><ul>CMS </ul><ul>Data base </ul><ul>Web pages </ul><ul>Browser </ul><ul>Blog reader </ul><ul>Browser </ul><ul>Blogger </ul><ul>Browser </ul><ul>Admin </ul><ul><li>pre-installed (online service)
  89. 89. on my server </li></ul>
  90. 90. Blogs use RSS feeds (see below) and “tagging” (see below) Installed on your server or on existing website (free / fee) Born in 1997, exploded in 2002, the number today? the most complete survey -who, what, how: http://www.technorati.com/blogging/state-of-the-blogosphere/ http://it.blogbabel.com/metrics/ http://vaccaricarlo.wordpress.com (see stats) http://camerino20.wordpress.com Blog
  91. 91. Bloggers' Code of Conduct <ul>1.Take responsibility not just for your own words, but for the comments you allow on your blog. 2. Label your tolerance level for abusive comments. 3. Consider eliminating anonymous comments. 4. Ignore the trolls. 5. Take the conversation offline, and talk directly, or find an intermediary who can do so. 6. If you know someone who is behaving badly, tell them so. 7. Don't say anything online that you wouldn't say in person. (Proposed by Tim O’Reilly, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blogger%27s_Code_of_Conduct) </ul>
  92. 92. Who are the Bloggers http://technorati.com/blogging/article/day-1-who-are-the-bloggers/
  93. 93. Corporate Blog Corporate blog is a blog written and edited by a company to share information about their products and services Unlike a website, where communication is directed to users, a corporate blog is to exchange bidirectional. In fact, a corporate blog is a new marketing model: tools born for consumer used for business A corporate blog is a way by which producer and consumer of information. The very fact of opening a blog means to start a process of analysis of company weaknesses http://googleblog.blogspot.com/ http://blog.ducati.com/ : new tools! http://mariosundar.wordpress.com/2008/05/05/top-15-corporate-blogs-ranked-may-2008/
  94. 94. Corporate Blog 10 Tips for Corporate Blogging http://mashable.com/2010/07/20/corporate-blogging-tips/ 1. Establish a Content Theme and Editorial Guidelines 2. Choose a Blogging Team and Process 3. Humanize Your Company 4. Avoid PR and Marketing 5. Welcome Criticism 6. Outline a Comment Policy 7. Get Social 8. Promote Your Blog 9. Monitor Mentions and Feedback 10. Track Everything
  95. 95. Microblogging Constant publication of short contents in the network, in the form of text messages (usually up to 140-200 bytes), images, video, MP3 audio, but also bookmarks, citations and notes These contents are published on a social networking site, visible to everyone or only to people in your community http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micro-blogging http://www.twitter.com http://it.youtube.com/watch?v=ddO9idmax0o (Twitter)
  96. 96. Twitter Started in 2006 Growth: TPD (tweets per day) 2007 – 40k 2008 – 1M 2010 – 65M TPS tweets per second record 6939 1.1.2011 (Japan time 00:01) sport record: Super Bowl 2011 4064 TPS http://blog.twitter.com/2011/01/celebrating-new-year-with-new-tweet.html RT - retweet DM - direct message @user - to mention or reply to user # - hashtag also for “micro-meme” URL shortening to fit in 140 bytes used in “twitter revolutions” Egypt 2011, Tunisia 2010-2011, Iran 2009
  97. 97. Twitter Source: The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project
  98. 98. Twitter Source: The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project
  99. 99. User Generated Content ! (Read/Write Web) The user becomes an “active” protagonist Now it's important not only read the Web but also know how to write the Web (Jenkins): is this the new Digital Divide? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-generated_content two billion users, more than 200 million web sites (blogs included...) Content re-use and aggregation Web 2.0 contents - 1
  100. 100. Re-use Contents do not finish their life cycle when they are first published online, but thanks to re-use, are used for third party service, coupled with similar content, submitted for discussion or evaluation, tagged and socially shared, etc. . The main reuse is the aggregation of online content: join content from different sources The technology that aggregates is the syndication , namely the provision of contents from Web sites and online services. The main form of syndication is the Really Simple Syndication ( RSS ) a system for distributing content via XML files, allowing to constantly update users of the service each time the content is updated Web 2.0 contents - 2
  101. 101. Folksonomy - Tags and metadata In Web 2.0, tag means that labels are posted up to content, characterizing it by categories and keywords The idea behind the tag is simple: ensure that their content becomes searchable, linkable and useful based on semantic parameters (qualitative and quantitative) defined by users 2.0 applications allow to link to any content one or more tags, selected by the user. This happens for all types of content, from text (blogs) to photographs, to the videos on YouTube. Make categorization of sites using keywords selected by users Overlapped associative relationship using Tag – More Flexible Natural Information Retrieval Using User’s Activities Example: Tagging of Flickr or del.icio.us Web 2.0 contents - 3
  102. 102. Folksonomy and Semantic Web The idea of providing a system of classification (taxonomy) shared, open and bottom-up for the Net contents, is clearly at odds with the principles of the Semantic Web, whose goal is to build an order from the top Tagging instead produces, in a completely anarchic and efficient way, a folksonomy (neologism formed from the combination of folk (people) and taxonomy (classification)), whose goal is not to produce the absolute order, but the &quot;best disorder possible &quot;, ie one that meets the searches and knows how to adapt to an evolving set of content, constantly changing its system of classification according to mental model emerging among the users http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web Web 2.0 contents - 4
  103. 103. Geotagging Geotagging may be understood as a particular application of the tagging. You can categorize contents even from a geographical point of view: to affix a tag that contains geographic information in an image, text or video is very easy and can lead to a significant increase in the content's value es. flickr http://flickr.com/photos/37385373@N00/161862482/ and photo http://picasaweb.google.it/vaccaricarlo/Francigena2008/photo#map Web 2.0 contents - 5
  104. 104. Geotagging From the user's point of view geotagging means being able to create an annotated map, customized and shared with third parties GIS in the Web 2.0 becomes Geoweb, a system that grants users to access information via a map rather than using keywords - Geoweb: new services like Google Earth, NASA World Wind, Windows Live Local, Yahoo Maps, etc. Unlike GIS, used mostly by businesses and institutions, the Geoweb is a tool that reaches a much larger number of users. http://maps.google.com - Other – Photo How to insert Google maps into appications http://www.google.com/intl/en/press/annc/embed_maps.html Web 2.0 contents - 6
  105. 105. Wiki: introduction Wikis, invented in 1995 by Ward Cunningham , have emerged as one of the simplest means to collaborate online. A wiki, a term in the Hawaiian language that means &quot;quick&quot; or &quot;very fast&quot;, is a web-based environment for sharing and managing documents and files where users can view and add content, but also to modify existing content posted by other users http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dnL00TdmLY (wiki) The term wiki also refers to the software used to create a wiki website (Wikipedia is the most famous website based on wiki technology) A wiki enables documents to be written collaboratively in a simple language using a web browser Wiki technology is the easiest way by which web pages can be created and updated
  106. 106. Email vs. Wiki collaboration
  107. 107. Wiki and wiki farms Cunningham's Top Ten Wiki Engines and Wiki Farms Wiki farms host wikis, often for free: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki_farm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_wiki_farms Wikia, founded by Jimmy Wales, Wikipedia founder (2011: 165k communities hosted, 2M users, 350M pages/month)), started for free, now freemium (remove ads) http://www.wikia.com/wiki/Wikia see http://lostpedia.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page http://uncyclopedia.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page ;-) about 1 million wikis managed by www.wikispaces.com
  108. 108. Enterprise Wiki Wikis can be a valuable support to the work activities. So a company can acquire its own wiki platforms, providing a service wiki for use by employees. The use of wikis can be a useful tool for managing business information, customers, projects and document workflow. http://www.wiki.istat.it e http://wiki.istat.it http://www1.unece.org/stat/platform/display/msis/Software+Sharing http://www.essnet-portal.eu/project-information/core
  109. 109. Wikipedia: introduction Wikipedia is one of the major Web 2.0 sites Wikipedia was created in 2001 with the goal of an encyclopedia free and reliable. Jimmy Wales, founder of the project, spoke of &quot;an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language.&quot; The result went beyond all expectations: Wikipedia, with over 18 million entries and 20 million registered users, is the largest collection of human knowledge. Wikipedia exists in over 270 different languages and receives over 60 million hits per day http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia
  110. 110. Wikipedia: five pillars http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars 1: Encyclopedia - Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia 2: NPOV - Wikipedia has a neutral point of view 3: Free - Wikipedia is free content that anyone can edit and distribute 4: Code of conduct and etiquette - Wikipedians should interact in a respectful and civil manner 5: Ignore all rules - Wikipedia does not have firm rules
  111. 111. Wikipedia: Core Content Policies NPOV http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view Verifiability http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability No original research http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:No_original_research Biographies of living persons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Biographies_of_living_persons What Wikipedia is not http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:What_Wikipedia_is_not Citing sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources
  112. 112. Wikipedia: some number
  113. 113. Wikipedia: some number http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:About http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_of_Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Statistics http://stats.wikimedia.org/EN/ see Comparisons In 2006 the journal Nature compared Wikipedia and the prestigious Encyclopaedia Britannica, reaching an opinion of equal authority (3.86 mistakes per article for Wikipedia, the Encyclopedia Britannica 2.92). License: started GFDL , now Creative Commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Community_portal vandalism, wikilinks
  114. 114. Wikipedia: traffic <ul>R.Polillo - Ottobre 2010 </ul><ul>www.alexa.com </ul><ul>(Nov 2010) </ul>
  115. 115. Wikipedia: follows
  116. 116. Wikipedia: follows &quot;The point is not that each entry is probabilistic, but that the entire encyclopedia behave probabilistic ... To put it another way, in the Britannica quality varies from, say, 5 to 9 with an average of 7. In Wikipedia ranges from 0 to 10, with an average of, say, 5. But given that Wikipedia has ten times the voices of the Britannica, you have a better chance of finding an entry on Wikipedia sensible on any topic &quot; &quot;What makes Wikipedia really extraordinary is the fact that improves over time: it treats itself as if its huge and growing army of workers was an immune system&quot; &quot;The true miracle of Wikipedia is that this system, open to contributions from non professional users, does not collapse into anarchy&quot; C. Anderson, The Long Tail Wikipedia beneath the surface http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QY8otRh1QPc
  117. 117. Wikipedia: follows Recent changes: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:RecentChanges&hidebots=0&hideminor=0&hideliu=1 Who is modifying Wikipedia? (2.0 application) http://www.lkozma.net/wpv/index.html Other Wikimedia projects http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_Foundation#Projects Humour http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Silly_Things Vandalism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Vandalism Wikipedia quality is not a surprise: as Eric Raymond says &quot;given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.&quot; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus%27_Law
  118. 118. push vs. pull Push techologies : Es.: newsletter, mailinglist (subscribe / unsubscribe) Action taken by the server, which sends the messages to the recipients Pull technologies: Es.: Feed RSS, podcast, twitter , … Action taken by the client, which queries the server to see if there are new messages
  119. 119. pull benefits <ul><li>Can have a single &quot;aggregator&quot; for a variety of sources
  120. 120. Aggregator can filter messages from different sources, according to some criterion
  121. 121. No spam: the client must communicate its address
  122. 122. To stop the service the client should not communicate anything to the sources
  123. 123. The client is not &quot;disturbed&quot; to each new messages </li><ul><ul><li>-> order, security, efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  124. 124. Web Feed Web feed: informational content, expressed in a stable form, interchangeable between applications Feeds are available from information sources (eg blogs, news sites, ...) and harvested by aggregators (or RSS readers) After the user subscription to a collection of feeds, the aggregator sends it to him on request http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_feed
  125. 125. RSS RSS (acronym for RDF Site Summary or for Really Simple Syndication) is based on XML, from which inherits simplicity, extensibility and flexibility. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0klgLsSxGsU (RSS) Almost alternative to traditional Web page RSS since 1999, Atom since 2004 Benefits compared to newsletter: <ul><li>possibility of having a single aggregator for various sources
  126. 126. avoid spam
  127. 127. receive real-time information selected and customized </li></ul>Aggregators also for browsers: Firefox bookmarks Live, WizzRSS and other plugins https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/search/?q=rss
  128. 128. Syndication In the language of the media, &quot;syndication&quot; is the process by which a single article is distributed simultaneously, through an intermediary, to many newspapers (eg Peanuts cartoons) <ul>R.Polillo - Ottobre 2010 </ul><ul>Agenzia </ul>
  129. 129. Aggregators: Netvibes Broadband network and billions of Web pages are valuable resources only if used carefully and intelligently. So we have to optimize time, streamlining navigation path and not get lost in the cognitive overload that often becomes chaos. For example, Netvibes allows you to organize information sources into customized grids, now available on mobile The personalized page, easy to implement with simple drag and drop, let you keep an eye on the updates of sites of interest, mail, news, etc.. We should not worry about going to look for information on the web but these are coming in automatically, to our aggregator. http://www.netvibes.com/
  130. 130. Aggregators Google Reader: RSS and Atom feed aggregator, since 2005 To subscribe to a feed: URL of the feed (or the site that produces it) or search for feeds using keywords (or tags) Subscribing to RSS thematic groups of default (link &quot;Find and search feeds ...) Google Reader has recently achieved a very cool feature, the plug-in Gears, which allows you to read feeds offline (good also for Gmail etc.) Access from mobile, including iPhone http://www.google.com/reader/m http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Reader
  131. 131. Aggregators http://www.igoogle.com , started from 2005 Personal start page: web feeds, bookmarks, gadgets http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IGoogle http://news.google.com : news aggregator since 2002 Automatically aggregates information taken from over thousand of sources of information around the world by grouping items of similar content Available for various regions and languages News selected by computer algorithms, information sources are chosen by Google, the criteria are not known
  132. 132. Tagging Tagging is the issuance of one or more keywords ( tags , in fact) to files on online platforms for sharing (documents, video, audio, etc) as YouTube videos or Flickr photos Tagging comes from different needs including the need to manage the huge amount of data online: in web 1.0, and even more in 2.0, information overload (cognitive overload) is an important issue and a classification is necessary for retrieving relevant information.
  133. 133. Tagging The tagging can be seen as an evolution of classical taxonomy: from taxonomy to folksonomy where folksonomy is a neologism that means a more collaborative categorization using freely chosen keywords. It's a term which in effect belongs to the 2.0 world: in its definition, it refers to the methodology used by groups of people who work voluntarily to organize information into categories available through the web http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy
  134. 134. Tag cloud The keyword cloud (tag cloud) provides a representation of common tags. The tag cloud is a visual representation of labels or keywords used on a website (or in a document). The list is typically presented in alphabetical order, with the characteristic of a larger font used for the most important words. Example: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tag_cloud http://tagcrowd.com/ http://www.wordle.net/
  135. 135. Web 2.0 techniques From AJAX: HTML liberation from - Post / Get - asynchronous model (stateless) http://gmail.com with the &quot;WIMP&quot; (windows, icons, menus and pointers) GUI, the Web comes close to desktop applications and Rich Internet Applications (RIA) arise Technical tools: <ul><li>AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)
  136. 136. ATOM - RSS
  137. 137. API integration - interaction
  138. 138. MASH-UP: Hybrid - Plugins (XUL!)
  139. 139. many links http://www.onstrat.com/web2/ </li></ul>
  140. 140. Web 2.0 – moving to servers Centralization – decentralization cycle Technology mainframe -> LAN / fat client -> Web / thin client Monopolist IBM -> Microsoft -> Google Data Central (local) -> Decentralized (local) -> Central (global)
  141. 141. Web 2.0 – AJAX AJAX Components - XHTML and CSS to format the information - DOM objects, manipulated through Javascript, to interact with the information presented - The XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the server - XML as a format for exchanging data between servers and clients First use of the term: http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives/000385.php (see schema) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajax_%28programming%29 http://gmail.com : first AJAX appearance ... (see source) In deep: http://www.w3schools.com/Ajax/Default.Asp http://www.xul.fr/en-xml-ajax.html
  142. 142. Web 2.0 : development tools 2.0: agile technologies: <ul><li>constant evolution
  143. 143. development phases divided in little interactions
  144. 144. care to current project needs </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development Frameworks available: <ul><li>Ruby On Rails, fw open MVC based on Ruby (OO)
  145. 145. Django, fw open MVC Python
  146. 146. Symfony fw open MVC PHP5 with AJAX support
  147. 147. Zend framework fw open PHP5
  148. 148. Google web toolkit fw open java, plugin for Eclipse/NetBeans </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_web_application_frameworks W3C http://www.w3.org/2006/rwc/ manages a group on “Rich Web Clients Activity” to improve client-side Web functionalities
  149. 149. Web 2.0 techniques: XUL XUL (XML User Interface Language) is a language used to define graphical interfaces Used for Firefox, Thunderbird and their extensions and plugins http://blog.mozilla.com/addons/2008/11/19/1-billion-add-on-downloads/ http://blog.mozilla.com/addons/2010/07/01/2-billion-downloads/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XUL : film references
  150. 150. Web 2.0 : mash-up Meaning: mash = mixture, medley to mash = to crush, to squeeze (term used even in music) Web application that integrates dynamic content or services from multiple sources (eg RSS or via API) to create a new service http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_(web_application_hybrid) (why portal |= mashup) a good presentation: http://www.slideshare.net/valicac/mashups-87355#slideshow_stats (choose the bes t)
  151. 151. Web 2.0 : examples of mash-up http://www.blogitalia.it/mappa/ http://www.housingmaps.com/ a partments for rent and for sale geo-referenced (Googlemaps + www.craigslist.com) http://www.twitspy.com/ real-time tweets http://portwiture.com/ your twitter status … in photos! http://twitrratr.com/ tweets: positive, neutral, negative http://www.search-cube.com/ visual search-engine http://www.nyartbeat.com/bubbles NY art in bubbles http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/ color search-engine “ There are creative people all around the world, hundreds of millions of them, and they are going to think of things to do with our basic platform that we didn’t think of.” Vinton Cerf
  152. 152. Web 2.0 : examples of mash-up http://pipes.yahoo.com/pipes/ MashMaker di Intel http://softwarecommunity.intel.com/articles/eng/1505.htm http://code.google.com/apis/gdata/basics.html http://www.programmableweb.com/ “Keeping you up to date with APIs, mashup and the Web as a platform” Most popular mashups: http://www.programmableweb.com/mashups/directory/1?view=text http://mashupawards.com/winners/
  153. 153. Web 2.0 : examples of mash-up Source: http://www.programmableweb.com/mashups
  154. 154. Web 2.0 : examples of mash-up http://www.perspctv.com A &quot;dashboard&quot; to monitor the flow of news about certain topics on different information channels (CNN, Twitter Search, Technorati, Daylife, Alexa, Google's Insight for Search, and other) “ This project presents different perspectives in our world, including that of Mainstream media and user-generated content on the Internet. Explore the similarities and the disparities, hear the many voices that have emerged and choose which view, if any, makes the most sense to you. What we think vs. what they say we think -- All the chatter on the Internet, all the traditional news media coverage, and all the pollsters -- Perspctv brings it all together in a simple and elegant manner -- and gives a unique &quot;dashboard&quot; picture of the elections at any one given moment in time, totally un-biased.”
  155. 155. mash-up Strengths <ul><li>&quot;Lightweight&quot; application
  156. 156. (reduced code volume, low-cost application development)
  157. 157. Ease of application development
  158. 158. (availability of tools that do not require high technical skills - es.pipes)
  159. 159. Availability of large databases
  160. 160. Low (or no) cost of acquiring and updating data
  161. 161. Quick Set-up application
  162. 162. (time-to-market, possibility of quick prototyping) </li></ul>
  163. 163. mash-up Critical <ul><li>Dependence on data sources
  164. 164. (data quality, performance, availability and continuity of service, changes in service policies, stability -> fragility, &quot;the strength of its weakest link&quot;)
  165. 165. API standards and versioning
  166. 166. Intellectual property and copyright
  167. 167. (&quot;right to remix: to what extent?)
  168. 168. Privacy
  169. 169. (cross and filter data can generate problems not existing in the original data) </li></ul>
  170. 170. Mobilize web sites http://www.masternewmedia.org/how-to-mobilize-my-website-best-tools-to-convert-your-blog-into-a-mobile-site/ example: http://ready.mobi/results.jsp?uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.istat.it&locale=en_EN test about web sites appearance in mobile phones standard: http://www.w3.org/TR/mobileOK-basic10-tests/
  171. 171. Google: searching http://techcrunch.com/2011/04/10/the-new-information-age/ Each search engine has three main components: - Crawler - Database - Interface and query software The crawler is a software program which surfs the net and brings the pages in the index. The crawler also takes note of the links it finds and uses them to gradually reach new pages with new links The index is a huge database where pages are stored with all metadata and where all the words are &quot;reversed&quot; by creating indexes / keys for each The interface receives the user's request, try to interpret it and passes the request to the &quot;query processor&quot; that works on the index
  172. 172. Google: searching search engine schema http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Search_engine
  173. 173. Google: searching The searches are usually very short: 20% use a word, almost 50% is composed of two or three words, only 5% more than six words Also the &quot;searches&quot; are distributed according to a &quot;long tail&quot; curve, approximately 50% of daily searches are unique. Do you know GoogleWhacking? About 90% of users use the first four engines: G Y AOL and Bing (G> 50%) The traffic on search engines has two peaks in the morning (in the office) and one in the evening (once returned home). The approx cost of acquiring a customer ranges from $ 70 mail advertising, online advertising to $ 50, $ 20 of the yellow pages up to $ 8 (!)for links related
  174. 174. Google: “old” searching First search engines: Archie 1990 (ftp command line query) Veronica Gopher 1993 (search only documents title) WebCrawler 1994, the first to index the text of the pages. First good search engine: AltaVista (1995), born in DEC laboratories; thanks to Alpha 64bit processor it could launch a thousand crawler simultaneously. AltaVista answered the first year to 4 billion searches! Sold to Compaq, AltaVista was transformed into a portal Yahoo! Born as &quot;David's and Jerry's Guide to the WWW&quot; with a directory approach (see archive.org), a great success thanks to the link with Netscape. Yahoo! used its own directory service and for the search it used outboard engine: OpenText, AltaVista, then Inktomi and Google. 2009: Yahoo! and Microsoft Bing http://ppcblog.com/search-history/ http://www.searchenginehistory.com/ http://www.wordstream.com/articles/internet-search-engines-history
  175. 175. Google: born Brin and Page studied at Stanford and Page had the degree thesis on “the Web as a graph” with Terry Winograd. The project BackRub (1995) was a system to find links on the Web, store and republishing them for analysis to see which pages pointing to a Then (1994) given page. In 1996 BackRub began to index the Web and, through the interpretation of graphs, also to assess the relative importance of sites. So was born the basic concept of Page Rank algorithm, that takes into account both the number of links a site receives and the number of links to each of the sites linked to the first. In 1998 Brin and Page released the features of PageRank in paper &quot;The Anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search engine&quot; and founded Google Inc. based in classic garage.
  176. 176. Google: the algorithm The secret of Google success is in the algorithm, obviously covered by secret, even if the network you can find its most important features A SEO expert has developed the “Randfish theorem&quot; http://www.seomoz.org/ in which an hypothesis is presented about the Google scoring method (Keywords used * 0.3) + (Domain revelance * 0.25) + (Links in input * 0.25) + (User data * 0.1) + (Content Quality * 0.1) + (Manual push) - (Penalty automatic & manual) = Google Score
  177. 177. Google: the algorithm Factors in the keywords use : * Keywords in title tag * Keywords in header tags * Keywords in the document text * Keywords in internal links pointing to page * Keywords in domain name and / or URL
  178. 178. Google: the algorithm Domain relevance: * History of registration * Domain “age” * Importance of links pointing to the domain * Domain relevance on the subject, based on incoming and outgoing links * Links historical use & patterns to the domain Score of incoming links: * Links “age” * Quality of domains that send the link * Quality of pages sending the link * Links text * Assessment of quantity / weight of the links (PageRank) * Relevance of pages sending the link
  179. 179. Google: the algorithm User data: * All-time percentage of clicks (CTR) on the results page of search engines * Time spent by users on the page * Number of searches for URL / domain name * History of visits / usage of the URL / domain name that Google users can monitor (toolbar, wifi, analytics, etc.) Content quality: * Potentially given by hand for searches and the most popular pages * Provided by Google internal evaluators * Automated algorithms to assess the text (quality, readability, etc.)
  180. 180. Google: the algorithm The original patent (1998) U.s Patent file # 6,285,999 ; METHOD FOR NODE RANKING IN A LINKED DATABASE A method assigns importance ranks to nodes in a linked database, such as any database of documents containing citations, the world wide web or any other hypermedia database. The rank assigned to a document is calculated from the ranks of documents citing it. In addition, the rank of a document is calculated from a constant representing the probability that a browser through the database will randomly jump to the document. The method is particularly useful in enhancing the performance of search engine results for hypermedia databases, such as the world wide web, whose documents have a large variation in quality. Inventor: Page; Lawrence (Stanford, CA) Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University (Stanford, CA)
  181. 181. Google: the algorithm The simplified formula http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PageRank Where: * PR[A] is PageRank value for A page * PR[B] ... PR[n] are PageRank values for pages B ... n linking to A * L[B] ... L[n] is the total numer of links in pages B ... n * d (damping factor) is the probability that an imaginary surfer who is randomly clicking on links will go on clicking. it is generally assumed that the damping factor will be set around 0.85. It represents the PageRank percentage passing from one page to another.
  182. 182. Google: the algorithm PageRank in detail (from www.google.com/corporate/tech.html ) PageRank reflects our view of the importance of web pages by considering more than 500 million variables and 2 billion terms. Pages that we believe are important pages receive a higher PageRank and are more likely to appear at the top of the search results. PageRank also considers the importance of each page that casts a vote, as votes from some pages are considered to have greater value, thus giving the linked page greater value. We have always taken a pragmatic approach to help improve search quality and create useful products, and our technology uses the collective intelligence of the web to determine a page's importance.
  183. 183. Google: the algorithm Hypertext-Matching Analysis: Our search engine also analyzes page content. However, instead of simply scanning for page-based text (which can be manipulated by site publishers through meta-tags), our technology analyzes the full content of a page and factors in fonts, subdivisions and the precise location of each word. We also analyze the content of neighboring web pages to ensure the results returned are the most relevant to a user's query.
  184. 184. Other links about search engines http://docs.google.com/View?id=dfvwdtqp_1c8x6bmd8 https://docs.google.com/present/view?id=dfvwdtqp_31dqxqk8g9&ndplr=1 https://docs.google.com/present/view?hl=en&id=dfvwdtqp_35hq27gfhk http://www.wired.com/magazine/2010/02/ff_google_algorithm/all/1
  185. 185. Google The Google search-engine is now the most important access point to the network. http://gs.statcounter.com/#search_engine-ww-monthly-200807-201104 Search on Google, or to google , is now part of common language. You don't know? Ask Google! Services offered by Google (BigG!) now are many. A big part of Web 2.0 world now belongs to Google: YouTube, Google Earth / Maps / Calendar / Reader, ... and now Google went in browser market with Chrome and in mobile market with Android http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usage_share_of_web_browsers http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/who-is-winning-the-u-s-smartphone-battle/
  186. 186. Google Dance Google periodically updates engine algorithms to penalize what it considers spam by specialists SEM / SEO (Search Engine Marketing / Optimization): the position index is so important that many websites are written containing only links to &quot;climb&quot; the sites that pay. There is no doubt that these attacks continue against spamming trade also serves to &quot;push&quot; services AdWords advertising. Other frauds are possible with AdSense, where site owners earn from clicks on sponsored links on their sites; sometimes robot programs are used, sometimes workers offshore to click on the links and gain (an estimated 30% of advertising budgets so go missing) AdSense has helped to create the long tail of advertising, bringing hundreds of thousands of businesses to advertise and thousands of sites offering it. https://www.google.com/adsense/static/en/Publishertools.html
  187. 187. Google In 2007 Big Brother Award Italy has awarded Google the dubious prize of &quot;most invasive technology”, motivating the decision this way: &quot;Brin, one of the founders of Google likes to say its employees &quot;Do not Be Evil&quot; and this became the company slogan. The admiration for Google and his services and its success as a company can not hide the fact that every search, every e-mail, post on Google Groups is recorded and analyzed, even if anonymous, and all the analysis head on the profiling of the navigator. Google, given the size, is the entity in the world potentially more threatening to privacy. With the recent purchase of DoubleClick.com giant of advertising and online profiling, which enlarges the potential data mining of Google, it seems that the motto could now become &quot;Do not Be Evil, buy the Devil.&quot; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Google
  188. 188. Google AdWords <ul><li>AdWords (introduced in 2000) is the main advertising from Google, and the main source of revenue (more than $ 28 billion in 2010)
  189. 189. Advertisers specify the search words that bring their ads on the right of the results page of search engine (&quot;sponsored links&quot;)
  190. 190. The advertiser pays when the user clicks on the ad (Pay Per Click) and the price per click is determined by complex rules (paying more than the ad shown first)
  191. 191. The service is managed online: the software makes all the work (negotiations, sales, execution) </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AdWords http://adwords.google.com http://investor.google.com/financial/tables.html from advertising a big part of income
  192. 192. Google AdWords
  193. 193. Google AdWords top queries covers only 3% of total -> long tail http://bnoopy.typepad.com/bnoopy/2005/03/the_long_tail_o.html http://www.google.com/adwords/pdf/hc/growing_adwords_en.pdf
  194. 194. Google AdSense <ul><li>With this service, Google &quot;administer&quot; advertising space on the web pages of the sites customers
  195. 195. Google places ads in the web pages, according to criteria of semantic correlation with pages of the host site
  196. 196. The host site is paid &quot;per click&quot;
  197. 197. AdSense has brought hundreds of thousands of small businesses to advertise and offer it to thousands of sites
  198. 198. Google currently shares 68% of revenues generated by AdSense with content network partners. </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AdSense
  199. 199. Google AdSense <ul></ul><ul>R.Polillo - Ottobre 2010 </ul>
  200. 200. Google Operating Systems Android : open-source platform Linux-based for mobile device application developments Google Chrome OS : netbooks/notebooks platform “ Google Chrome OS is an open source, lightweight operating system that will initially be targeted at netbooks. Later this year we will open-source its code, and netbooks running Google Chrome OS will be available for consumers in the second half of 2010. (...) Google Chrome OS will run on both x86 as well as ARM chips and we are working with multiple OEMs to bring a number of netbooks to market next year. The software architecture is simple — Google Chrome running within a new windowing system on top of a Linux kernel.” http://googlesystem.blogspot.com/2009/07/google-chrome-operating-system.html
  201. 201. Google Operating Systems Android : see Android.ppt Google Chrome OS : first systems in 2011 http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/12/google-chrome-os-summary/ http://www.google.com/chromeos/features.html http://www.chromium.org/chromium-os http://www.chromium.org/chromium-os/chromiumos-design-docs/software-architecture
  202. 202. Google tricks Google tells what information is collected when using the search engine and what is done to protect the privacy of users: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iPkvNr2cpqg http://www.google.com/webmasters/docs/search-engine-optimization-starter-guide.pdf Search in the blogs: http://blogsearch.google.it/ Search history http://www.google.com/history Sites comparison: http://www.google.com/insights/search/ # Other: http://www.google.com/intl/en/options/ and http://labs.google.com/
  203. 203. Using Social Software software that gives users a way to connect (usually through the contents sharing). - Value sharing: social applications where increased users participation increases in quality and quantity of content and therefore a higher value of the service. The collective dimension, then, is the guarantee of the existence and quality of service. Eg Wikipedia - Value sharing and cooperation : cooperation on contents not only shared but co-created, becomes an additional element of value. The ability to &quot;create together&quot; contents increases of an order of magnitude the degree of relationship between people and promotes sociability from the moment of creating content. Eg docs.google.com Web 2.0 social aspects 1
  204. 204. Which is the value of the contents of Web 2.0 applications As a service acquires contents (and value) through the direct participation of users and visitors, Web 2.0 applications are in a sense &quot; hostage &quot; of the user High and sustained user participation is a condition of survival of social networking sites The popularity of Web 2.0 service seems to be a critical element that sometimes overwhelms the same quality User power vs. Big Companies power What should happen if users run away from google/facebook? Web 2.0 social aspects 2
  205. 205. Participation Many services adopt mixed policies to promote participation (Eg some parts of the site visible to everyone) Another factor to consider is the degree of customization of users participation. Systems such as WordPress, for example, allow the owners of the blog to set up different levels of access to content production and to enable comments at all or only to registered users Another aspect to consider: many Web 2.0 services combine free use and use fee ( freemium ) - the paying customers receive the highest quality services, additional functionality, while not paying are excluded Web 2.0 social aspects 3
  206. 206. New authorship dimensions: Copyright and Copyleft Production, sharing, assessing and putting some content in the network open a lot of issues related to copyright, putting sometimes in crisis, the concept of copyright itself Questions: <ul><li>Who owns, in fact, contents shared and commented?
  207. 207. It is wholly owned by those who wrote or you can assign to writer AND commentators?
  208. 208. And if so, to what extent?
  209. 209. Are sufficient and suitable only quantitative criteria to determine the degree of Authorship? </li></ul>All this, moreover, is complicated in the case of collective or co-created content in distributed editors: for example, who is the author and owner of publishing rights of Wikipedia voices? Creative Commons … see licences Web 2.0 social aspects 4
  210. 210. Web 2.0 users Web 2.0 sites are since many years in the first positions as users number: web 2.0 became a “mass” phenomenon http://www.alexa.com/site/ds/top_sites?ts_mode=global&lang=none some funny number http://thefuturebuzz.com/2009/01/12/social-media-web-20-internet-numbers-stats/ O'Reilly reflection: Internet Operating System http://www.slideshare.net/timoreilly/state-of-the-internet-operating-system-web2-expo10
  211. 211. Web 2.0 users During 2007-2009 the media gave prominence to a narrow subset of Web 2.0 sites, YouTube and Second Life first But which sites are actually the most visited and used? The answer is not simple, since the object “Web 2.0 sites” is not perfectly defined However, some studies have tried to shed light on some aspects of the phenomenon. According to the survey project JISC University of Oxford, Queen of Web 2.0 is Wikipedia http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2007/03/16/some-real-data-on-web-20-use/
  212. 212. Social network “ social networks” are the heirs of Usenet, the network of discussion groups (newsgroups) using nntp protocol Today the newsgroups and their archives are under the &quot;protection&quot; of Google, which guarantees the continuation in &quot;web&quot; mode http://groups.google.it/groups/dir?hl=it&sel=33592333&expand=1 Many terms used in social networks (and in all 2.0 applications) were born in the Usenet community: post, thread, lurker, troll, ...
  213. 213. Social network http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6a_KF7TYKVc (social network) In social networks users create their “profile” (data and photo), and can be “friends” with other users (to confirm) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites facebook vs. MySpace http://www.google.com/insights/search/#q=facebook%2Cmyspace&date=1%2F2008%2012m&cmpt=q how many “friends” on facebook? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbar%27s_number Trend: real-time (like Twitter) and location-based (GPS)
  214. 214. Social network - facebook Facebook: sudden expansion in Italy in 2008 (see Google insight) – why? http://www.vincos.it/osservatorio-facebook/ Reed Law? (see Metcalfe-Reed + LongTail) Expansion in Italy (and other countries): http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics/italy on http://www.socialbakers.com/ see also pages, brands, apps adn advertising Social network sites historical analysis: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html Numbers: http://mashable.com/2009/12/30/facebook-2009 http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics http://www.internetworldstats.com/facebook.htm
  215. 215. Social networks Many websites allow anyone to easily, interactively, create a social network following his needs, whether public or private Ning was a free service (including hosting of the site), now under payment, founded in 2004, reached in 2009 1.9 million social network! http://blog.ning.com/2009/12/happy-new-year-to-our-1-9-million-ning-networks.html now http://www.socialgo.com/ read together document: http://www.experian.com/marketing-services/register-2010-social-networking-report.html http://www.hitwise.com/us/resources/reports-and-webinars
  216. 216. Participation level For which concerns the user participation to “cooperative” websites, some author underlined a participation inequality, for which only 1% of users are really active http://www.useit.com/alertbox/participation_inequality.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1%25_Rule Participation in Social Networks Site see doc Lawlor Summer Seminar talk 2010 v2 wn.ppt
  217. 217. Social side of the Internet Source: The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project
  218. 218. Social side of the Internet Source: The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project
  219. 219. Social side of the Internet Source: The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project
  220. 220. Social network – the digital self Audience unknown : in real life, we see our interlocutor and context of the meeting, in social networks we don't know who can see ourselves in the future, and in which context Merging separate contexts: in real life, we keep separate different aspects of our &quot;self&quot;, in social networks it's very difficult Remarks: The social self http://www.slideshare.net/jtneill/lecture2-social-self-2 The widgetized self in the blogosphere http://www.slideshare.net/silvertje/the-widgetized-self-in-the-blogosphere Autocartography: mapping the self http://www.slideshare.net/rsmyth/autocartography-mapping-the-self
  221. 221. Social network Campaign websites: http://www.thepoint.com “ As a consumer, employee, citizen, activist, parent, or whatever, sometimes you can’t do things alone - you need the power of many . The Point offers a new approach to leveraging the influence of groups and making things happen.” Music education: http://www.keepingscore.org/sites/default/files/swf/tchaikovsky/match-music Move beyond your site: http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/
  222. 222. Social Bookmarking Based on tagging http://del.icio.us/ plugin http://www.stumbleupon.com/ plugin The service allows users to keep track of bookmarks, share with others, discover other users' favorites: everything is based on the association of keywords to your bookmarks No more the old browser bookmarks crowd: a set of tags that helps you to focus on aspects most relevant to you The mechanism for bookmarking and tagging is simplified by the ability to add buttons to your browser with which to mark your favorites and add keywords
  223. 223. Second Life The media have emphasized, often inappropriately, the success of Second Life, a virtual environment where users live a parallel life with 3D graphics. Each user can choose or customize a character (an avatar) and travel and live in a virtual world, spending or earning Linden dollars, convertible (the exchange rate fluctuates around 265 to 1 with the dollar). Obviously there are people who sail out of curiosity. The SL Universe is extremely diverse, ranging from the sale of &quot;property&quot; to gambling, drug-dealing to prostitution, etc.. Recently some investigations have greatly reduced the number of active users that the relevance of business
  224. 224. Enterprise 2.0 definition Term coined by Andrew McAfee (Harvard) in 2006 to describe how the Web 2.0 &quot;technologies could be used on organizations' intranet and extranets&quot; SLATES definition by McAfee: <ul><li>Search : allowing users to search for other users or content
  225. 225. Links : grouping similar users or content together
  226. 226. Authoring : including blogs and wikis
  227. 227. Tags : allowing users to tag content
  228. 228. Extensions : recommendations of users; or content based on profile
  229. 229. Signals : allowing people to subscribe to users or content with RSS feeds </li></ul>To add emergence : the structure emerges continuously from the interactions - as more people contribute more information, the association between the information changes
  230. 230. Enterprise 2.0 definition Enterprise 2.0 Tools Examples Blogs Wordpress, Movable Type, Blogger, Typepad Wikis Mediawiki, Twiki, Confluence, SocialText Syndication RSS, Atom Aggregation Google Reader, Bloglines, NewsGator Dashboards Netvibes, MyYahoo, iGoogle, Yahoo Pipes Bookmarking Delicious, Cogenz, ConnectBeam Micro-blogging Twitter, Yammer, Socialtext Signals Instant messaging Sametime, MSN, Skype Prediction Markets Consensus Point, Inkling Ideas banks Uservoice, Ideascale Office 2.0 Gdocs, Zoho, Office 365 Social Networks (Enterprise): IBM Lotus, Socialtext, Confluence, Jive Thoughtfarmer, Microsoft Sharepoint, Oracle Beehive, Incentivelive, Salesforce Chatter
  231. 231. Enterprise 2.0 tools Enterprise 2.0 - The Wiki One of the most popular forms of Enterprise 2.0 is the business wiki. eg keeping up with a staff directory or a dictionary of industry jargon, or charting the development process of large products or holding online meetings Enterprise 2.0 - The Blog Blogs can also provide a great role in an organization. For example, a human resources blog can be used to post company memos and frequently asked questions can be quickly asked and answered in the blog comments. Blogs can also be used to keep employees informed of major events concerning the company or the department. Blogs can provide that top-to-bottom communication management needs to provide giving also the way to have feedback from employees.
  232. 232. Enterprise 2.0 tools Enterprise 2.0 - Social Networking Social networking provides a great interface for Enterprise 2.0 overcoming the traditional intranet interfaces. Social networking can help with the communication flow of the multiple networks you find in companies (company / department /sub-department / staff) For larger companies, social networking can also provide a great way to find specialized skills and knowledge. Through profiles, a person can detail the projects they have worked on and the various skills and knowledge they have. These profiles can then be used by others to search and find the perfect person for helping out with a particular task.
  233. 233. Enterprise 2.0 tools Enterprise 2.0 - Social Bookmarking The process of tagging and storing documents can become an important aspect of Enterprise 2.0 as the social and collaborative efforts successfully grow the intranet into a primary resource for the company. Social bookmarking allows a person to store important documents and pages using multiple tags. Tags can then be used to search documents other people have bookmarked. Enterprise 2.0 - Micro-blogging Micro-blogging can be used to let teammates know what you are working on and to quickly communicate and organize a group. Micro-blogging can be used to keep employees from wasting time reinventing the wheel. For example, a blog network could use micro-blogging to let writers notify other writers what they are working on. Another example is a programmer about to write a routine that might already be in his co-workers library.
  234. 234. Enterprise 2.0 vs. traditional
  235. 235. Enterprise 2.0 vs. traditional
  236. 236. Enterprise 2.0 vs. traditional The web 2.0 approach assumes that all information exchanges are many-to-many , publicly shared within a specific context (as could be a company enterprise 2.0 space) While traditionally employees would send an email to look for specific information, in E20 applications they publish a blog post. This leads to the emergence of unexpected relationships and connections, by reaching out to a wider audience. Moreover it leads to less redundant information flows, because E20 are searchable while e-mail is not http://www.personalizemedia.com/garys-social-media-count/ Ocè case study “ 2.0 the after.pdf”
  237. 237. Enterprise 2.0 According to Coleman & Levine , there are 10 Trends in Collaboration driving adoption: <ul><li>Convergence of media (audio, video, Web, Unified Comm.)
  238. 238. Presence Everywhere
  239. 239. Integration of synchronous and asynchronous
  240. 240. Collaborative consolidation in IT
  241. 241. Collaboration pushed into the infrastructure
  242. 242. Market Consolidation
  243. 243. Collaboration pushed into critical processes
  244. 244. Changing distribution channels for collaboration
  245. 245. Changing buyers of collaboration services
  246. 246. Mobile collaboration </li></ul>
  247. 247. Why Enterprise 2.0 What are the drivers? Robust collaborative technologies : Technologies today work, and they work well! Ubiquitous connectivity : Convergence of devices and applications has led to the ability to connect anytime, anywhere across multiple platforms (we ain’t cloistered anymore) Globalization : Organizations and teams are spread around the country or the world; vendors have provided solutions to allow teams to work together across space and time Societal and Generational Change : A generation of employees is entering the workforce who have grown up on cable, the Internet, and ready access to information. It’s part of the culture!
  248. 248. Enterprise 2.0: engaged employees Participative Design Principles ( Emery ) : <ul><li>those who have to do the work are in the best position to design the way in which it is structured
  249. 249. effectiveness is greatly improved when teams take responsibility for controlling their own work
  250. 250. the organisation increases its flexibility and responsiveness when people are capable of performing multiple functions and tasks </li></ul>Surveys show (see Gallup ) that engaged employees inspire innovation and share ideas with customers Engaged employees are essential in social computing (see wsj )
  251. 251. Enterprise 2.0: big changes Technology: <ul><li>Cloud computing – web based services
  252. 252. IT Consumerization: consumer adoption of technology has exploded, and people expect that their tools at work will provide the same robust level of communication as their personal computing options
  253. 253. Data Ubiquity. Content and data are everywhere </li></ul>Society: <ul><li>Constant Connection. People are increasingly wired and connected
  254. 254. Crowdsourcing. Institutions recognize the need for community support to achieve objectives
  255. 255. Brand Engagement. Consumers desire to engage brands via social media channels for many reasons, including customer support and feedback </li></ul>
  256. 256. Enterprise 2.0: big changes Work: <ul><li>Work as a constant and collaborative function
  257. 257. Shifting Shifts. work gets done by the first shift in a different location around the globe, around the clock
  258. 258. Always On. As born-digital workers enter the workforce, they bring new concepts of work/life balance to the table.
  259. 259. Accountability Is Key. Focus on corporate accountability and transparency, making measurement an absolute must. </li></ul>
  260. 260. Intranet 2.0 See http://www.slideshare.net/giacomo.mason/intranet-identity (by Giacomo Mason ) The tools are the same (Web 2.0) but difference between Inside and Outside (enterprises!): <ul><li>Control over implementation model (internally hosted)
  261. 261. Standards support
  262. 262. Security and identity
  263. 263. Access to enterprise data
  264. 264. Data quality
  265. 265. Company rules compliance </li></ul>Business Applications Of Social Media Inside Organizations http://www.masternewmedia.org/business-applications-of-social-media-inside-organizations-twitter/
  266. 266. Intranet 2.0 tools usage <ul><li>Templates (eg for company newsletters)
  267. 267. Surveys on internal issues
  268. 268. Contests (among employees and with customers)
  269. 269. Survey, quick polls and statistics (measurement!)
  270. 270. Streaming: corporate videos, company products showcase, ..
  271. 271. Web conferences
  272. 272. Blogs: for Help Desk or Technologies
  273. 273. PodCast for corporate news
  274. 274. Chat
  275. 275. Business Forum (In&Out) </li></ul>Note: need full support of management
  276. 276. A wiki in every Intranet: why See Virtual Teams <ul><li>Slowing of the e-mail flood
  277. 277. Up-to-date: quick information about developments
  278. 278. Open structure: wikis adapt themselves
  279. 279. Powerful tools: linking, embedding objects, imp/exp
  280. 280. Flexibility: > statical web sites
  281. 281. Operability: WYSIWYG editor
  282. 282. Transparency: equal communication
  283. 283. Security: tolerant of mistakes, collective correction
  284. 284. Protection of resources: few system requirements, thin client (browser)
  285. 285. Cost savings: little learning time, simple configuration </li></ul>
  286. 286. Enterprise 2.0: EMail Web based Email: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_webmail_providers Many different applications available: Gmail, Yahoo Mail, HotMail Provide secure web-based access to email Provide 1+ GB storage/user Allow big (20, 50, 100MB) attachments Forward to/from other accounts (used for backup)
  287. 287. Office 2.0 Benefits: <ul><li>No software to download and install on your computer
  288. 288. No need to purchase a software license. You subscribe to the service, which is often free
  289. 289. No need to upgrade the software when new features are added or existing problems removed
  290. 290. Just a thin client with minimum hardware requirements
  291. 291. Access to your documents from any networked computer
  292. 292. You can share files with other users, without your own server
  293. 293. No problem if your computer crashes: the documents are safe </li></ul>
  294. 294. Office 2.0 Disadvantages <ul><li>You need an internet connection with adequate bandwidth
  295. 295. Data security: all your data resides on a remote server, that you do not have control (although you can make regular backups).
  296. 296. Data privacy: see above
  297. 297. Functional completeness: currently, functions provided by online suites is less comprehensive than that provided by traditional suites
  298. 298. Not easy to work off-line: to receive and transmit the changes need to be connected. </li></ul>
  299. 299. Office 2.0: Google Docs <ul><li>Basic info: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eRqUE6IHTEA
  300. 300. WP, spreadsheet and presentation free, web based, usable on your browser
  301. 301. No software to be installed on the client, by default, documents are stored on Google servers
  302. 302. Support cooperative work over the network (sharing, access, simultaneous editing)
  303. 303. Documents can be published on the net (permalink) and embedded in other sites (viewer)
  304. 304. Service &quot;premium&quot; fee (for companies)
  305. 305. http://docs.google.com/?hl=en&pli=1 </li></ul>
  306. 306. Office 2.0 Web based Office: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_office_suite Microsoft: http://workspace.officelive.com/ Zoho: <ul><li>since 2005, India based
  307. 307. Base functions for free, premium services
  308. 308. Many applications: see https://www.zoho.com/ #
  309. 309. see http://www.opencloudmanifesto.org/resources.htm </li></ul>
  310. 310. Storage 2.0 http://www.dropbox.com <ul><li>On-line storage service (late 2008)
  311. 311. Simple interface folder: private, public, shared
  312. 312. You have to install a client (most platforms)
  313. 313. Freemium
  314. 314. Use Amazon S3 http://aws.amazon.com/s3/
  315. 315. Video: https://www.getdropbox.com/screencast </li></ul>Other storage services: <ul><li>http://mozy.com/ (backup services)
  316. 316. http://www.box.net/
  317. 317. http://www.wuala.com/ (technology &quot;grid&quot;)
  318. 318. http://rapidshare.com (file transfer) </li></ul>
  319. 319. Online sites and social network builders <ul><li>Building and publishing web sites and social networks entirely online
  320. 320. No software to download, hosting service [and domain name registration] included
  321. 321. Do not require programming skills
  322. 322. Often basic functions + free premium services
  323. 323. Example for blogs: WordPress or BlogSpot </li></ul>
  324. 324. Online sites and social network builders http://www.webs.com Since 2001, now more than 20 million sites, very easy to use <ul><li>Basic version for free (limited space and bandwidth, ad), premium services (5-20 USD per month)
  325. 325. Many functions: </li><ul><li>Blog, Forum
  326. 326. Members (simple social network)
  327. 327. Upload files, photos, videos, ...
  328. 328. E-commerce (shopping carts, payment via Paypal)
  329. 329. Site statistics
  330. 330. Many widgets and themes </li></ul></ul>Example (students TTC): www.casadiemma.webs.com
  331. 331. Online sites and social network builders http://www.webly.com <ul><li>Easy to use, drag & drop interface (RIA)
  332. 332. Since 2006, now more than a million users
  333. 333. For simple sites (there is no differentiation of roles for the support staff)
  334. 334. You can edit the HTML and CSS Site
  335. 335. Also features blogs, e-commerce, AdSense
  336. 336. Example (students MI): http://www.comproj.weebly.com
  337. 337. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weebly </li></ul>
  338. 338. Software to test: Flock http://www.flock.com/ Based on the code of Firefox, Flock is characterized by the ability to integrate with the major social networking sites and blogging, including Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, WordPress, Blogger, Xanga and del.icio.us. This integration allows users to view contacts, content and online resources in a separate sidebar of your browser and share via simple drag and drop text, links, photos, videos and other digital content.
  339. 339. Bibliography Tim Berners Lee, Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web, 2001 A.L. Barabasi, Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means,2003 Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, 2008 Chris Anderson, The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More , 2006 Sergio Maistrello, La parte abitata della rete , Tecniche Nuove, Milano, 2007 Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: the Next Social Revolution , 2003 Pierre Lévy, Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace , 1999
  340. 340. Web 2.0: some theory Laws: Metcalfe, Sarnoff e Reed The Long Tail Pareto Law Network analysis: “six-degrees of separation” and “small worlds” Eco, Sterling e Lèvy
  341. 341. Metcalfe's Law But why millions of people daily access to platforms such as YouTube or Flickr? We have to go back to Metcalfe's Law: the law is named after its inventor, the American Robert Metcalfe, and dates from the end of the seventies: &quot;The use and value of a network is equal to n(n-1), where n is the number of users. &quot; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metcalfe%27s_law Metcalfe, inventor of Ethernet, founder of 3Com and other companies, is also famous for having predicted the collapse of the internet in 1995 and for having &quot;eaten&quot; literally, as promised, the article in which the forecast was written
  342. 342. The Reed's Law Metcalfe's Law was an evolution of the law of Sarnoff (radio pioneer) that claimed the linear relationship between users on a network and its value David Reed argues that the value of networks does not grow proportionally to the square of users, but exponentially. This applies to the GFN (Group Forming Network), networks where people use computer networks to form groups Image by www.kaltura.com
  343. 343. The expression (&quot;The Long Tail&quot;) was coined by Chris Anderson to describe certain business and economic models such as Amazon.com or Netflix. The term is also used in statistical science to define patterns of wealth distribution or use of vocabulary. In these distributions, a population at high frequency or amplitude population is followed by a low frequency or amplitude, which decreases gradually. In many cases, events infrequent or low amplitude - the long tail - may exceed total number or importance of the initial portion of the curve, so that taken together represent the majority. Anderson argues that all the products in low demand and low sales volume can occupy a market share equal or superior to that of a few bestsellers and blockbusters, if the store or distribution channel are large enough The Long Tail
  344. 344. The Long Tail http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html?pg=1&topic=tail&topic_set
  345. 345. &quot;The simple picture with few hits and many non-relevant hits is irrelevant now assuming the appearance of a confused patchwork of millions of mini-markets and micro-star ... the mass market is turning into a mass of niches. &quot; &quot;The new niche market is not replacing the traditional market of hits: it is only sharing, for the first time, the scene with it.&quot; &quot;For a hundred years we have explored and discarded all but the best-seller, so to use as effectively as possible expensive display racks, screens, channels and attention.&quot; ... think of the distribution costs declined as a receding tide, revealing a new land that has always been there, but that was submerged“ The Long Tail
  346. 346. &quot;98% Rule: in a world of packaging costs almost nonexistent and almost instantaneous access to all digital content, the consumer buys at least one copy of almost all products available (just 98%).&quot; A typical example of &quot;long tail&quot;: self-publishing services, such as http://www.lulu.com/it/ The Long Tail
  347. 347. &quot;The first force, democratizing the production, populates the queue. The second force, democratizing distribution, make available any product. Should enter into scene the third force ... amplified word of mouth (the view of consumers) to meet supply and demand and help people find what they want in this new super-abundance of varieties, because the potential market for long tail can unfold in all its power. &quot; Sturgeon's Law: &quot;90% of everything is trash (crud)” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturgeon%27s_law Sturgeon's Law, which would block the users in physical libraries, in the Net becomes just a matter of filters (see Eco). We need efficient filters (Google!? education!) to separate signal and noise. The Long Tail
  348. 348. The Long Tail and Culture Evolution We are moving from a mass culture (mainstream) in a massively parallel culture There is an explosion of variety and choice of content, transforming mass culture in millions of micro-culture that coexist and interact ... &quot;Ultraniches ... &quot;Tribes of interest&quot; cultural It's the end of the culture of &quot;water bottle&quot; or &quot;prime-time television, where most of the population listens, reads and looks the same pool of hit and now we go toward the micro-cultures, where everyone is interested in different things Parallel phenomenon in the world of production: just-in-time, customization of the product and the elimination of stocks, but ... we are talking about bits, not atoms!
  349. 349. Mainstream TV Mainstream and Impact on Quality “ TV is not vulgar and prurient and dumb because the people who compose the audience are vulgar and dumb. Television is the way it is simply because people tend to be extremely similar in their vulgar and prurient and dumb interests and wildly different in their refined and aesthetic and noble interests.” ( D. Foster Wallace )
  350. 350. Pareto Principle The economist Pareto found that 20% of the population owned 80% of wealth, a ratio fairly constant over time and space. From this &quot;law&quot; the Rule 80 / 20 was born The linguist Zipf discovered that a similar law was valid for the frequency of words: some were very frequent, others much less, according to a report absolutely predictable: the frequency was equal to 1 / n, where n was the ranking (the second is used ½ of the first, third 1/3 and so on) ( Zipf's law ). The classic shape of the power distribution is y=ax k in which y is the diffusion and x the ranking by popularity (See Power Law )
  351. 351. Pareto Principle Note: 80 and 20 are proportions of various phenomena: they should not give 100! Often 10% of products gather 80% of sales! In &quot;Long Tail&quot; markets the 80/20 rule changes in three ways: - More products can be offered - The sales are spread more evenly between hits and tail (the tail swells) with filters and recommendations - The profit is divided equally between hit and non-hit In online marketplace &quot;head&quot; is much less important: eg. the first 5,000 titles in DVD reach 65-70% of offline sales and 40-50% of online sales
  352. 352. Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... topology Euler (1707-1789) laid the foundations for the current &quot;graph theory&quot;, which allow you to outline situations or processes in order to analyze them in terms of algorithms. Subsequently, two Hungarian mathematicians of the twenties, Erdős and Renyi, studied the graphs and deduced that the complex phenomena of nature were random, without laws. Erdős Number http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erd%C5%91s_number is the “distance” between Erdős and other mathematicians See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Degrees_of_Kevin_Bacon
  353. 353. Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... Topology In sociology Milgram studied the &quot;degrees of separation”, the distance that exists between two points of a network based on their indirect links: between two distant strangers, between two web pages on the Internet or between two molecules of a cell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_degrees_of_separation Milgram experiment in 1967 to understand the &quot;distance&quot; between U.S. citizens: selected citizens of Wichita and Omaha (see) must send a letter to two citizens of Boston putting it into the hands of “known” people ... an average of 5.5 steps (although many went missing). Barabasi, &quot;how big is the Web? and how many degrees of separation? &quot;. An experiment in 1998 estimated the &quot;diameter&quot; of the Web to around 19.
  354. 354. Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... Topology An interesting and paradoxical thesis was provided by the sociologist Granovetter with the thesis of &quot;weak ties&quot;: a person has more chance of success as the number of people with whom has superficial relationship increases (small worlds) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_world_phenomenon The &quot;small worlds&quot; are characterized by the existence of hubs or &quot;connectors&quot; (Gladwell). The connectors are described as &quot;a handful of people who have the ability to forge a truly extraordinary exceptional number of friends and knowledge.&quot; Hubs exist in any field, for example in the Internet search engines act as hubs, in cells molecules ATP is one hub
  355. 355. Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... Topology Find examples of &quot;small world&quot; networks in various sciences: chemistry, sociology, computer science
  356. 356. Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... Topology Against the hypothesis of chaos and absence of laws in networks, was formulated the mathematical formulation of a law: the idea inspired by the Italian sociologist Pareto lead to Power Law “scale-free”,according to which 'few major events determine the majority of the acts&quot; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale-free_network
  357. 357. Peer-to-peer (p2p) networks “ Peer-to-peer networks aren't owned by any central authority, nor can they be controlled, killed, or broken by a central authority. Companies and concerns may program and release software for peer-to-peer networking, but the networks that emerge are owned by everyone and no one. They're faery infrastructure, networks whose maps form weird n-dimensional topologies of surpassing beauty and chaos; mad technological hairballs run by ad-hocracies whose members each act in their own best interests. In a nutshell, peer-to-peer technology is goddamn wicked. It's esoteric. It's unstoppable. It's way, way cool.” Cory Doctorow http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cory_Doctorow http://boingboing.net/
  358. 358. Umberto Eco &quot;The student was saying that there is now the Internet, the Great Mother of all encyclopedias, where you can find Syria, cold fusion, the Thirty Years War and the endless debate on the highest of odd numbers. He was saying that the information the Internet provides is immensely larger and often more detailed than those available to the professor. It overlooked an important point: that the Internet says 'almost all' except how-to search, filter, select, accept or reject that information. Everybody is able to store new information, provided he has good memory. But deciding what should be remembered and what is not is a fine art. This makes the difference between those who took a regular course of study (also bad) and self-taught (though brilliant). Umberto Eco
  359. 359. Umberto Eco On the internet some years ago started a new controversy with Eco, born from an interview in which he reaffirms the importance of the filters in culture. Many argue that Web 2.0 is indeed developing its own techniques to better filter the big sea of network (tags, more powerful search engines, social bookmarking) http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/eco/eco.html
  360. 360. Bruce Sterling Vision Bruce Sterling created years ago the Dead Media Project (www.deadmedia.org) explaining that &quot;Our culture is experiencing a profound radiation of new species of media. The centralized dinosaur from-one-to-many media that roared and trampled through the 20th century are poorly adapted for the postmodern technological environment&quot; The media do not die, access tools die (the delivery, technology): the printed word has not supplanted the oral one, cinema did not kill theater, television has not killed radio. Old and new media have been forced to coexist The &quot;black box fallacy&quot; (all content will move to a single black box in our living rooms) ... black boxes in our homes continue to rise! But today we hear the music from the DVD player, car radio, the Walkman, mobile phone, radio web, PC, iPod ... (Jenkins)
  361. 361. Bruce Sterling Vision http://nova.ilsole24ore.com/nova24ora/2007/11/la-visione-di-b.html I would also speak about my vision of Web 2.0, which can be described as a network of ideas connected to each other: lines and circles that intersect and connect with each other. There are many things that distinguish Web 2.0 from Web 1.0. First, the network effects. Web 2.0 comes directly from the web - develops in itself – whilst Web 1.0 was transferred from paper to web. Not only: Web 2.0 is not intended to expand on a single network, but is designed to be ubiquitous, through any means. For example, I am always looking for something that works better than what already exists. The daily research of all of us brings to discover the future. Indeed, the future is where you find it.
  362. 362. Collective Intelligence by P. Lévy &quot;Objects manufacturers are becoming increasingly rare and their work, extensive and mechanized, it is increasingly subject to automation. The work related to information processing are disappearing because communication networks auto-intelligent soon will discharge by themselves most of their duties. The final frontier will be the human being, which is not computerized: the opening of the sensible world, the invention, the relationship, the continuous creation of the collective. ... Everything happens as if the human in all its extent and variety, had become the new raw material. We struggle in order that the collective intelligence become the finished product par excellence. Collective intelligence: the source and goal of all the wealth, open and incomplete, paradoxical output because inner, qualitative and subjective. Collective intelligence: infinite product of the new human economy”
  363. 363. exercise 1 <ul><li>Send me (carlo.vaccari@unicam.it) a mail with your name and surname
  364. 364. Wait for the invitation to the Camerinoweb20 wiki and accept it
  365. 365. Create your profile page in the wiki and add some info about you (and some photo?) with links to your websites/profile
  366. 366. In the wiki create a page in which you will write ALL practices and exercises: start writing there what are your expectations by the course (needs, interests, ...) </li></ul>
  367. 367. exercise 2 <ul><li>Give your own definition of “Web 2.0”
  368. 368. Get familiar with: </li><ul><li>www.yahoo.com
  369. 369. www.amazon.com
  370. 370. www.alexa.com
  371. 371. www.mashable.com
  372. 372. analyse which 2.0 functionalities are present usi ng “wayback machine” from http://www.archive.org </li></ul><li>Read original Tim O’Reilly article about Web 2.0 at http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html
  373. 373. All comments and your considerations listed by date on the wiki in your exercise page (please separate exercises from profile in “Profile page”) </li></ul>
  374. 374. exercise 3 <ul><li>Get familiar with: </li><ul><li>www.technorati.com
  375. 375. Blogger or Wordpress.com
  376. 376. Start your personal blog (at least prototype)
  377. 377. Examine most important blogs in Technorati ranking and first three blog in your country ranking (Italians from http://it.blogbabel.com/metrics ) </li></ul><li>What is a “troll” on the Web? How to define?
  378. 378. Sign up to www.twitter.com , follow somebody and tweet something, using URL shortening and tweet from mobile </li></ul>
  379. 379. exercise 4 <ul><li>Test some Wiki Farm from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki_farm or http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiFarms
  380. 380. Get familiar with Wikipedia, examining tabs “Discussion”, “Edit”, “View History”
  381. 381. Read Wikipedia page on “Wikipedia”
  382. 382. Have a look to other Wikimedia projects
  383. 383. Modify a Wikipedia page (NO vandalism! Camerino? your city?)
  384. 384. Explore Wikia and his communities </li></ul>
  385. 385. exercise 5 <ul><li>Get familiar with feed management in your browser
  386. 386. Netvibes or Google Reader, subscribing to feeds from newspapers, blogs and online services that interest you
  387. 387. Analyze Google News
  388. 388. Define your own start page with one of the following applications: iGoogle, Netvibes, MyYahoo or another, exploring the collection of gadgets / widgets available
  389. 389. (comments and links on the wiki!) </li></ul>
  390. 390. exercise 6 <ul><li>Explore www.programmableweb.com , and report examples of particularly interesting and innovative mashup
  391. 391. Embed images, photos, slides, etc. inside your blog using mashup techniques
  392. 392. Explore the use of yahoo! pipes
  393. 393. (comments and links on the wiki!) </li></ul>
  394. 394. exercise 7 <ul><li>Shortest GoogleWhacking (one or two words)
  395. 395. Try some service from Google Labs
  396. 396. Try some search on Google, Bing and Yahoo!: report about differences between them </li></ul>
  397. 397. exercise 8 <ul><li>Analyze AdWords and give your opinion on its working
  398. 398. Have a look to Chrome browser
  399. 399. Give your opinion about ChromeOs future </li></ul>
  400. 400. exercise 9 <ul><li>Compare Facebook and MySpace characteristics
  401. 401. From newsgroups (nntp) to social networks: continuity and differences
  402. 402. Compare Facebook and Twitter </li></ul>
  403. 403. exercise 10 <ul><li>Your Social Network usage on PC vs. on mobile phone
  404. 404. Describe how Social Networks changed your life and you relationships with “friends”
  405. 405. Test and comment at least one location-based service (Google Latitude, Facebook Places, Foursquare) </li></ul>
  406. 406. exercise 11 <ul><li>Which web 2.0 tools in your opinion should be used first in a company? And why?
  407. 407. Comment Ocè case study and write your impression </li></ul>
  408. 408. exercise 12 <ul><li>Try collaborative features of Google Docs or Zoho websites
  409. 409. Compare two Storage 2.0 web sites features
  410. 410. Publish a simple website about our course using webs or webly and write your impressions on the wiki </li></ul>