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H istorical method of research


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H istorical method of research

  1. 1. Harsha E.C. CUANLIS008 Calicut University
  3. 3. Contents  Introduction  Purpose  Stages  Collection of data  Tips for collecting data  Source criticism  Example  Limitation  Conclusion
  4. 4. Introduction Historical method is for to study the past in order to understand the present and may be plan the future  It is a system or right procedure for attainment of historical truth  Also known as documentary method
  5. 5. purpose  Uncover the unknown  Answer question  It throws light on present and future trends  To learn how things were done in the past to see if they might be applicable to present day problems  To make people aware of what has happened in the past so, they may learn from past failure and success.  To assist interpretation
  6. 6. Stages  Identification of problem  Formulating hypothesis  Collection of data/fact  Evaluation of data( organizing data)  Interpretation of data  Conclusion  Decision making
  7. 7. Collection of data  Primary sources:-testimony of any eye witness , or of a senses by any other of the senses or of a mechanical device like Dictaphone- Gottschalk  Documents-Annual reports o Newspaper reports o Personal diaries o Autobiographies  Numerical records:-Attendance figures o Census reports o School budgets
  8. 8.  Oral statement:-Stories, myths, tales, songs  Relics :- buildings, monuments, equipments, skelton,fossils photographs, coins Continues…..
  9. 9.  Secondary sources:- second hand information  Chance of errors due to passing of information from one sources to another  E.g.:- Text books, biographies,encyclopadies, reference book Continues…..
  10. 10. An instance If a man decided to do research related to 1st war of Indian independence , he can collect primary data from the participant of 1st war of Indian independence.(he has direct physical relation to that event, he is eyewitness)and he can collect secondary data from the biography of that eye witness or participant.
  11. 11. Tips for collecting data  At least by more than one source should normally be used for to avoid false information  Indication of the originality of the sources increases it’s reliability  Among many primary source or original sources, preference should be given to the one which is contemporary to the event or nearer in time to the period of the event under investigation (if a researcher decided to do research relating to Malabar rebellion- 1921, he should accept data source, which is adjacent or nearest to the period 1921)
  12. 12. Source criticism Garraghan divides source criticism in to 6 inquiries  When was the source , written or unwritten, produced(date)  Where was it produced(localization)  By whom was it produced(authorship)  From what pre-existing material was it produced(analysis)  In what original form was it produced(integrity)  What is the evidential value of its (content credibility)
  13. 13.  External criticism Determining the authenticity, validity, or trust worthiness of the sources  Internal criticism Determination of the reliability or accuracy of the information contained in the source.
  14. 14. Example  Present education system in Kerala  Dropping out of school children in Kerala
  15. 15. Limitation  Historical method of research is limited to what ever data are available  Collection of facts relating to very old event is a problem , as sufficient data may not be available in such cases  Historical events are those taken place in the past, these occur only once and can’t be reproduced or recreated for experimentation  Invaders and rulers of different dynasties may sometimes change the shape and originality of a monument which may result in a faulty conclusion
  16. 16.  Interpreting source is very time consuming  Source of historical materials may be problematic  Any single evidence (document)can make the entire research report vague  Historical writing may be biased Continue……
  17. 17. Conclusion  Everything we always start from what history tell us  This is the only method that can study evidence from the past  Well suited for trend analysis  Unobtrusive in nature  Seven steps are there  Collection of data is the soul of it  Number of limitation are there, but is the only method study from past