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Unit 3 cause-effect essay


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Unit 3 cause-effect essay

  1. 1. UNIT-3<br />CAUSE/EFFECT ESSAY<br />
  2. 2. WHAT IS A CAUSE? WHAT IS AN EFFECT?<br />Cause and effect depend on each other. You can’t have one without the other. A plane crashed. That is the effect. What are the possible causes? Was it a mechanical or human error? Was it due to the weather? Was it a terrorist action? Obviously there are many possible causes. <br />
  3. 3. Cause and Effect analyzes why something happens.<br />Some effects are caused by multiple causes.<br />Some causes, in turn, can result in multiple effects.<br />
  4. 4. A cause essay usually discusses the reasons why something happened. <br />An effect essay discusses what happens after a specific event or circumstance. <br />
  5. 5. Cause and Effect Essay assignments typically use the following language:<br />"What are the causes of X?" <br />"What led to X?"<br />"Why did X occur?"<br />"Why does X happen?"<br />"What would be the effects of X?"<br />
  6. 6. How to write a cause / effect essay<br />STEP-1<br />- Decide whether you want to examine the cause or effect<br />STEP-2<br /><ul><li>Examine each cause and effect thoroughly, using sufficient evidence to prove your points.- </li></li></ul><li>ORGANIZATION<br />Like any other essay, a cause and effect essay begins with an interesting introductory paragraph, which ends in a clear and relevant thesis statement (statement of purpose for the essay). In the introduction to a cause OR effect essay, you can set the stage for the rest of the essay by discussing the cause or the effect you will be exploring in the body of your paper.<br />The introduction is followed by body paragraphs in which you will elaborate upon the thesis.<br />End the essay with a memorable concluding paragraph.<br />
  7. 7. Multiple Causes-->Effect<br />In this pattern, the organization is as follows:<br />Thesis statement: Air pollution is caused by a variety of imperceptible, but controllable industries.<br />I. exhaust gases from cars<br />    A. government does not take enough control<br />    B. citizens are not as conscientious as they could be<br />II. uncontrolled factory gases<br />    A. no regular checks on gases released that need to be regulated<br />    B. factories are inside the borders of residential areas and should be moved<br />III. burning of low-quality coal for heating<br />    A. government does not take enough control<br />    B. other forms of energy are too expensive, but <br />
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  9. 9. Causal chain / Domino<br />In this pattern, the events lead to one another, as in the following organization:<br /> <br />Thesis statement: Using deodorants with chlorofluorocarbon gas will bring the end of world.<br />I. Chlorofluorocarbon gases are contained in most deodorants  and released by  some factories  into the air. <br />II. This gas causes the ozone layer  to become thinner and finally disappear in patches.<br />III. The unfiltered ultraviolet rays of the sun cause overheating in the poles of the earth, where the icebergs start to melt.<br />IV. The huge amount of water released from the poles leads to a rise in the sea-level.<br />V. The sea will cover the land and this will be the end of the world. <br />
  10. 10. Cause-->Multiple Effects<br />In this pattern, the effects of a certain situation  are explained in separate paragraphs, with the following organization:<br /> <br />Thesis statement: Watching too much TV is one of the major sociological issues of this century, which has many effects on the physiology and psychology of people.<br />I. eating disorders<br />    A. TV meals <br />    B. obesity<br />II. communication problems<br />    A. more violence<br />    B. no interpersonal talk<br />
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  12. 12. Introduction<br />Lead-in: Introduce the topic<br />Transition: Present popular assumption of the cause or the effect concerning the topic<br />Thesis Statement: Present your speculation about the causes or effects of the topic (at least three cause or effects)<br />
  13. 13. BODY<br />Body Paragraph 1<br />1. Topic Sentence: Present the first cause or the first effect.<br />2. Supporting Details: Explain and provide examples.<br />3. Closing Remarks: Link the examples back to the topic sentence.<br />Body Paragraph 2<br />1. Topic Sentence: Present the second cause or the second effect.<br />2. Supporting Details: Explain and provide examples.<br />3. Closing Remarks: Link the examples back to the topic sentence.<br />Body Paragraph 3<br />1. Topic Sentence: Present the third cause or the third effect.<br />2. Supporting Details: Explain and provide examples.<br />3. Closing Remarks: Link the examples back to the topic sentence.<br />
  14. 14. Conclusion<br />1. Restate the thesis statement.<br />2. Offer a solution or share insight.<br />
  15. 15. TRANSITION WORDS<br />
  16. 16. SAMPLE ‘CAUSE’ ESSAY<br />Fromthepasttopresent, peopleallovertheworldhavedeterminedtogetmarried, whichmeanslivingtogether. Inotherwords, theydepend on eachotherforloveandsupport. Nevertheless, somecouplesareunabletomaintaintheirrelationship; thereforetheychoosedivorce, which is one of thesolutionstocopewithproblemsbetweenhusbandsandwives. Thedivorceratescontinuallyincreasenowadays, thus it might be arguedthatdivorces can be takenplaceeasierthanthepast. Therearethreemaincauses of divorce: changingwoman'sroles, stress in modern livingandlack of communication. <br />
  17. 17. Thefirstsignificantcause of recentrise in therates of divorce is thatwomenhavecompletelychangedroles. Inthepast, men earnedthemoneytoaffordtheexpense of family, whereaswomenonlyworked in thehomeandtookcare of thechildrenandthefamily, hencewomen, had no moneyleadingtodepending on theirhusband'smoney. Thesesituationsmade it toodifficultformostwomentoseparatefromtheirhusbands. However, theequalitybetween men andwomen in rolesareveryclear at the moment, thuswomen can workoutsidetoearnmoney, while men sharethehouseholdtaskssuch as cooking, cleaning, washing as well as caringforchildren. It can be clearlyseenthatwomenareindependentfromhusbands as they can earnmoneytosupportthemselves. Accordingly, theynowfindthepower in themselvestostand on theirownandthedivorceratesrisedaybyday. <br />
  18. 18. Anothercausetoconfirmtherecentincrease in divorcerates is stress in modern living. Manypeople, wholive in globalization, have a considerableamount of pressuretoearnmoney. Somefamilies can earnmoney, but inadequateforcoveringtheirexpenses, therefore it is easytothinkaboutdivorce. Or, somepeoplearelaidofffromtheircompanies; consequently, thestressoccurs in theirfamily, whichleadstodivorce. Nevertheless, therates of unemploymentcontinuallyincrease; as a result, thedivorcerates can alsorise. It is no doubtthatthestress in modern livingmayleadtorecentlyincreasingdivorcerates. <br />
  19. 19. The final cause of recentlyincreasingdivorce is lack of communication. Owingtofinancialstatus in eachfamily, manypeoplearefairlybusy. Forthisreason, theyhaveinadequate time to talk outtheproblemswiththeirpartners, whichproducesthelikelihood of divorce. Somecouplesareoftenquietwhentheyhaveproblemswitheachother, as a consequencelittleproblems can be expandedtoprobablybecomehugeproblems, resulting in divorce. It is quiteclearthatthemorecommunicationthat is used, themoredivorceratesarereduced. <br />
  20. 20. Inconclusion, a family is one of themostimportantparts of society, thusmanypeople had better be aware of thesignificanceof theirrelationship. At the moment, althoughpeopletendtothinkcarefullybeforetheygetmarried, therates of divorcecontinuouslyriseduetothechanging of women'sroles, stress in modern livingandlack of communication. Let it stop being a substantial problem forthesociety.<br />
  21. 21. SAMPLE ‘EFFECT’ ESSAY<br />EFFECTS OF WATCHING TOO MUCH TV<br />Discoveriesandinvention of devicesarealwayswelcometillwe, humans, find a waytoabuseitsbenefitsand be adverselyaffectedby it. Thiswasthecasewhen Wilhelm Roentgendiscovered x-ray andwithinfiveyears, theBritishArmywasusing a mobile x-ray unittolocatebulletsandshrapnel in woundedsoldiers in the Sudan. TV wasalsoinventedwithpositivethoughts in mind – therewould be no nationalborders, educationandcommunicationwould be worldwide, etc. However, therearephysiologicalandpsychologicaladverseeffects of TV on humanbeings, whichwearenowtryingtoovercome.<br />
  22. 22. One of thephysiologicaleffects of watching TV in excessiveamounts is eye-strain. It is truethattherearespecificationsforwatching TV; TV should be 5 m. awayfromtheeye, theroomshould be adequatelylit, TV should be placed at thesameheightwithoureyes, etc. However, these do not preventoureyesfromgettingtiredifwekeepwatching TV for a long time. <br />
  23. 23. Anothereffect is obesity, which is widelyobserved in peoplewholikewatching TV andeatingsnackseveryday. Thereis even a term “TV snacks” torefertofastfoodthat is suitableforeating in front of theTV. It can be saidthat TV is such a powerfulmachinethatpeoplecannotgetawayfrom it – it is addictive.<br />
  24. 24. Apart fromthephysiologicaleffects, TV alsocausespsychologicaleffects. One is a result of beingexposedtoviolence. Afterseeingsomanyviolentscenes on TV, people start consideringviolentactions normal andtheylosetheirsensitivitytotheirenvironment. Partlyconnectedtothiseffect, theinterpersonalcommunicationamongpeopledecreases. Beinginsensitivetothesuffering of otherpeoplecausespeopletobecomealienated. Also, aftercominghomefromworkpeopleseektorelax in front of the TV, andgenerallypeoplepreferwatching TV totalkingtoeachother. Thisissue is veryimportant since lack of interpersonalrelationshipsmostlyendwithdivorces. <br />
  25. 25. Shortly, inventionsaremeantto be beneficialforhumanbeings, ifweknowhowtobenefitfromthem. TV is one of suchinventionsthatneedto be usedfortherightpurposeonly – beingeducatedandentertainedfor a reasonable (accordingtoage) period of time. Wemay, then, be safefromor at leastreducetheadversephysiologicalandpsychologicaleffects of watchingtoomuch TV.<br />