Topics of Discussion
What is WORDNET?????
Major Lexical Relations.
Uses of Wordnet.
Wordnets in India.
What is WORDNET?????
WordNet is a lexical database for the English
language based on conceptual look-up.
George A. Miller who began the WordNet project in
the mid 1980s.
Organizes lexical information in terms of word
meanings rather than word form.
Wordnet can also be used as a thesaurus.
Miller on Wordnet
“In terms of coverage, WordNet’s goals
differ little from those of a good
standard college-level dictionary, and
the semantics of WordNet is based on
the notion of word sense that
lexicographers have traditionally used
in writing dictionaries. ”
Wordnet: International Scenario
Wordnet is a network of words linked by
lexical and semantic relations.
The first wordnet in the world was for
English developed at Princeton over 15 years.
The Eurowordnet- linked structure of
European language wordnet was built in
1998 over 3 years.
Wordnets for Hindi and Marathi being built
at IIT Bombay are amongst the first IL
All these are proposed to be linked into the
IndoWordnet which eventually will be
linked to the English and the Euro wordnet.
Can canary sing? – pretty fast response.
Can canary fly ? – a bit slower response.
Does canary have skin ? – a slow response.
Fundamental Design Questions
Syntagmatic VS Paradigmatic ???
Syntagmatic – when words appear together in a unit.
Paradigmatic – if words are linked in a lexical resource
When we hear a word , many words come to our mind
For cat :
animal , mammal – Paradigmatic
mew , purr , furry - Syntagmatic
Different ways of expressing related concepts
cat, feline, Siamese cat
Overlaps with basic and subordinate levels
Synonyms are almost never truly substitutable
Used in different contexts
Have different implications
This is a point of contention
Most words have more than one sense
Homonym: same sound and/or spelling,
Polysemy: different senses of same word
That dog has floppy ears.
She has a good ear for jazz.
bank (financial) has several related senses
the building, the institution, the notion of where
money is stored
Use one aspect of something to stand for the whole
The building stands for the institution of the bank.
Library stands for a whole set of books ..
Mostly all collective nouns came under this.
Related to Super ordinate and Subordinate level
hyponym(robin , bird)
hypernym(animal , bird)
A is a hypernym of B if B is a type of A
A is a hyponym of B if A is a type of B
meronym(beak , bird)
meronym(bark , tree)
holonym(tree , bark)
Transitive conceptually but not lexically
The knob is a part of the door.
The door is a part of the house.
The knob is a part of the house
Holonyms are (approximately) the inverse of
but not large, little
Many antonymous relations can be reliably detected
by looking for statistical correlations in large text
WordNet Sub-Graph (English)
A place that serves as the living
quarters of one or mor efamilies