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Theoretical &
practical
considerations for
serious games
development &
implementation in
medical education
AMEE 2019.08.26...
WORKSHOP FACILITATORS
•Todd P Chang, MD MAcM
•Martin V Pusic, MD PhD
•Eric B Bauman, PhD FSSH
•Chaoyan Dong, PhD
•Gerald R...
NO CONFLICTS & DISCLOSURES
•Elizabeth K Kachur, PhD
•Martin V Pusic, MD, PhD
•Chaoyan Dong, PhD
•Eric B Bauman, PhD, FSSH
...
OBJECTIVES
1. List types of games and game elements
used in medical education, with examples
2. Select types of games to f...
BRIEF TERMINOLOGY
And definitions
WHAT IS A ‘GAME’?
4 DEFINING TRAITS OF
A GAME
1. Goal
2. Rules
3. Feedback System
4. Voluntary
Participation
“WINNING” IS NOT A
NECESSARY GAME TRAIT
TYPES OF GAMES
1.Role playing
2.Frame games
3.Puzzles
4.Cross words
5.Game Show / Trivia
6.Strategy Game
7.Physical/Moveme...
WHAT GAMES DO YOU PLAY?
WHAT IS A GAME’?
A game is a system in which players, participants engage in an artificial
conflict, contrived activity ba...
WHAT IS A ‘SERIOUS GAME’?
…but designed to achieve an intentional purpose for learning, behavioral
change including but no...
WHAT IS ‘GAME-BASED LEARNING’?
Learning that takes place with and/or as a game… provides instructional content
where the i...
SERIOUS GAME vs
ENTERTAINMENT
GAME
Entertainment Games: strive to keep
immersed within the game environment as
long as pos...
SUMMARY TERMINOLOGY
•Game
•Serious Game
•Entertainment Game
•Game-based Learning
ANY QUESTIONS SO FAR?
WORKSHOP AGENDA
WORKSHOP AGENDA
20 35 20 15
Why Games?
Retention Rates
Students who learned by doing: 75%
Students who learned from lecture: 5%
(Magennis and Farrell ...
Why Games?
Retention Rates
Students who learned by simultaneously
seeing, hearing, and doing: 90%
Students who learned by ...
Foundations of Game-based Learning
David Kolb’s
Experiential Learning
Cycle
Foundations of Game-based Learning
Donald Schön
Patricia Benner
Reflection
- on action
- in action
Actions
Outcomes
Proble...
Contemporary Theory
Kurt Squire
Designed Experience
• Participant
experience or
learning as
Performance
James Paul Gee
Soc...
Fit and Integration
Didactic
Preparation
Games, XR,
Interactive
Applications
Task Trainer
or Simulator
Real World
Experien...
Fit and Integration
Effective
AppealingEfficient
Proper Fit
Learning
Objectives
Complexity
Cost Time
Aleckson, J., & Ralst...
SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY
Application of Game Types to potential Educational Objectives
GAMES - SQUARED
Let’s Play!
Problem Card: Description of a learning challenge
Solution Cards
• Game Type
• Pros (Advantages)
• Cons (Limitations)
Best fit?
Reward
GAME ABOUT
GAMES
Learn
about
different
types of
games
and
discuss
the
pros/cons
of each
1. Distribute Solution
Cards/playe...
!
!
Post-Game Reflections:
• How did it feel?
• What did you learn?
• Did the game achieve its goal?
• How could format/ru...
Next up…
What are some of the key characteristics,
elements and features of effective games
and game strategies?
Learning Principles
for Good Games
James Paul Gee
What Video Games Have to
Teach Us About Learning
and Literacy - 2003
Problem Solving Problem Solving
Empowerment
Risk
Feedback
Edge
Context
Transfer
Empowerment Problem Solving
Empowerment
Risk
Feedback
Edge
Context
Transfer
Risk Problem Solving
Empowerment
Risk
Feedback
Edge
Context
Transfer
Feedback Problem Solving
Empowerment
Risk
Feedback
Edge
Context
Transfer
Edge Problem Solving
Empowerment
Risk
Feedback
Edge
Context
Transfer
http://mashable.com/2010/07/13/game-mechanics-busines...
Context Problem Solving
Empowerment
Risk
Feedback
Edge
Context
Transfer
Transfer Problem Solving
Empowerment
Risk
Feedback
Edge
Context
Transfer
Seven Keys
to PERFECT Games
Problem Solving
Empowerment
Risk
Feedback
Edge
Context
Transfer
IMPLEMENTATION
Now how will you make it fit?
Fit and Integration
Didactic
Preparation
Games, XR,
Interactive
Applications
Task Trainer
or Simulator
Real World
Experien...
Fit and Integration
Effective
AppealingEfficient
Proper Fit
Learning
Objectives
Complexity
Cost Time
Aleckson, J., & Ralst...
IMPLEMENTATION CONSIDERATIONS
•What is your context?
•Who are your
learners?
• How will you
implement the game
fir the fir...
THANK YOU
dr.toddchang@gmail.com
• Todd P Chang, MD MAcM
• Martin V Pusic, MD PhD
• Eric B Bauman, PhD FSSH
• Chaoyan Dong...
GAMIFICATION vs SERIOUS GAMES
GAMIFICATION
• Application of
game design
elements to
traditionally
nongame
contexts.
Deterding, S. (2014). The lens of in...
Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development
Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development
Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development
Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development
Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development
Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development
Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development
Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development
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Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development

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Chang, T., P., Pusic, M.V., Bauman, E.B., Dong, C., Stapleton, G., Kachur, E. (2019, August). Theoretical & practical considerations for serious games development & implementation in medical education. Meeting of the Association of Medical Educators in Europe, Vienna, AT.

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Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Serious Games Development

  1. 1. Theoretical & practical considerations for serious games development & implementation in medical education AMEE 2019.08.26 Wien, AT
  2. 2. WORKSHOP FACILITATORS •Todd P Chang, MD MAcM •Martin V Pusic, MD PhD •Eric B Bauman, PhD FSSH •Chaoyan Dong, PhD •Gerald R Stapleton, MS •Elizabeth K Kachur, PhD
  3. 3. NO CONFLICTS & DISCLOSURES •Elizabeth K Kachur, PhD •Martin V Pusic, MD, PhD •Chaoyan Dong, PhD •Eric B Bauman, PhD, FSSH •Gerald R Stapleton, MS •Todd P Chang, MD, MAcM
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES 1. List types of games and game elements used in medical education, with examples 2. Select types of games to fit curricular needs 3. Discuss an implementation plan for applying games to their own setting
  5. 5. BRIEF TERMINOLOGY And definitions
  6. 6. WHAT IS A ‘GAME’?
  7. 7. 4 DEFINING TRAITS OF A GAME 1. Goal 2. Rules 3. Feedback System 4. Voluntary Participation
  8. 8. “WINNING” IS NOT A NECESSARY GAME TRAIT
  9. 9. TYPES OF GAMES 1.Role playing 2.Frame games 3.Puzzles 4.Cross words 5.Game Show / Trivia 6.Strategy Game 7.Physical/Movement Game 8.Dance Game 9.Escape Game 10.Survival Game 11.Memory Games 12.Scavenger Hunt 13.Treasure Hunt 14.Story Games 15.Tabletop / Board Games 16.Slide Presentation 17.Multi Media • Role Playing Game • Puzzle • Real-time Strategy Game / Resource Management • 1st Person Shooter (FPS) • Platform Game • Adventure Game • Sports Game • Online / Massive Multi- Player Online (MMO) Bigdeli & Kaufman Med J Islamic Rep Iran 2017.
  10. 10. WHAT GAMES DO YOU PLAY?
  11. 11. WHAT IS A GAME’? A game is a system in which players, participants engage in an artificial conflict, contrived activity based on a well designed experience that is defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome Salen, K., Tekinbaş, K. S., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. MIT press. Squire, K. (2006). From content to context: Videogames as designed experience. Educational researcher, 35(8), 19-29
  12. 12. WHAT IS A ‘SERIOUS GAME’? …but designed to achieve an intentional purpose for learning, behavioral change including but not limited to social justice, health, etc… Serous Games attend to or map back to learning or training objectives De Freitas, S. (2006). Learning in immersive worlds: A review of game-based learning.
  13. 13. WHAT IS ‘GAME-BASED LEARNING’? Learning that takes place with and/or as a game… provides instructional content where the intent is to promote knowledge and skill transfer Van Eck, R. (2006). Digital game-based learning: It's not just the digital natives who are restless. EDUCAUSE review, 41(2), 16.
  14. 14. SERIOUS GAME vs ENTERTAINMENT GAME Entertainment Games: strive to keep immersed within the game environment as long as possible. Serious Games: Aim transfer knowledge or develop skills to be applied in the real-world with efficiency. • A good Serious Game may be intentionally and inherently short
  15. 15. SUMMARY TERMINOLOGY •Game •Serious Game •Entertainment Game •Game-based Learning
  16. 16. ANY QUESTIONS SO FAR?
  17. 17. WORKSHOP AGENDA
  18. 18. WORKSHOP AGENDA 20 35 20 15
  19. 19. Why Games? Retention Rates Students who learned by doing: 75% Students who learned from lecture: 5% (Magennis and Farrell - 2005)
  20. 20. Why Games? Retention Rates Students who learned by simultaneously seeing, hearing, and doing: 90% Students who learned by doing: 80% Students who learned by seeing: 40% Students who learned by hearing: 20% Joyce - 2005
  21. 21. Foundations of Game-based Learning David Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle
  22. 22. Foundations of Game-based Learning Donald Schön Patricia Benner Reflection - on action - in action Actions Outcomes Problem Planning Solving Benner P. From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley; 1984 Schön DA. The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books; 1983
  23. 23. Contemporary Theory Kurt Squire Designed Experience • Participant experience or learning as Performance James Paul Gee Socially Situated Cognition • Learning is situated within a material, social and cultural experience Gee, J.P. (2003). What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York, NY: Palgrave-McMillan. Squire, K.D. (2006). From Content to Context: Videogames as Designed Experience. Educational Researcher, 35(8), 19-29.
  24. 24. Fit and Integration Didactic Preparation Games, XR, Interactive Applications Task Trainer or Simulator Real World Experience Bauman’s Layered Learning Framework ©Bauman 2019 all Rights Reserved Felszeghy S., Pasonen-Seppanen S., Koskela A., Nieminen P, Harkonen K, Paldanius K.M.A., Gabbouj S., Ketola K., Hiltunen M., Lundin M., Haapaniemi T., Sointu E., Bauman E.B., Gilbert G.E, Morto D., & Mahonen A. (In Press). Use of gamification in a histology course: An innovative strategy. BMC Medical Education.
  25. 25. Fit and Integration Effective AppealingEfficient Proper Fit Learning Objectives Complexity Cost Time Aleckson, J., & Ralston-Berg, P. (2011). MindMeld: Micro-Collaboration between eLearning designers and instructor experts. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing Bauman, E. B. and Ralston-Berg, P. (2014). Virtual simulation. In J. Palaganas, J. Maxworthy, C. Epps, and M.E. Mancini (Eds). Defining excellence in simulation. Wolters Kluwer – Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  26. 26. SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY Application of Game Types to potential Educational Objectives GAMES - SQUARED
  27. 27. Let’s Play!
  28. 28. Problem Card: Description of a learning challenge
  29. 29. Solution Cards • Game Type • Pros (Advantages) • Cons (Limitations)
  30. 30. Best fit? Reward
  31. 31. GAME ABOUT GAMES Learn about different types of games and discuss the pros/cons of each 1. Distribute Solution Cards/player, Problem Cards face-down in center 2. Pick 1 Problem Card 3. Each player selects 1 Solution Card and advocates for it to be the BEST FIT for the problem 4. Group ranks solutions by best chance to solve problem 5. Distribute rewards among group as appropriate 5 min/ round
  32. 32. ! ! Post-Game Reflections: • How did it feel? • What did you learn? • Did the game achieve its goal? • How could format/rules be modified?
  33. 33. Next up… What are some of the key characteristics, elements and features of effective games and game strategies?
  34. 34. Learning Principles for Good Games James Paul Gee What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy - 2003
  35. 35. Problem Solving Problem Solving Empowerment Risk Feedback Edge Context Transfer
  36. 36. Empowerment Problem Solving Empowerment Risk Feedback Edge Context Transfer
  37. 37. Risk Problem Solving Empowerment Risk Feedback Edge Context Transfer
  38. 38. Feedback Problem Solving Empowerment Risk Feedback Edge Context Transfer
  39. 39. Edge Problem Solving Empowerment Risk Feedback Edge Context Transfer http://mashable.com/2010/07/13/game-mechanics-business/
  40. 40. Context Problem Solving Empowerment Risk Feedback Edge Context Transfer
  41. 41. Transfer Problem Solving Empowerment Risk Feedback Edge Context Transfer
  42. 42. Seven Keys to PERFECT Games Problem Solving Empowerment Risk Feedback Edge Context Transfer
  43. 43. IMPLEMENTATION Now how will you make it fit?
  44. 44. Fit and Integration Didactic Preparation Games, XR, Interactive Applications Task Trainer or Simulator Real World Experience Bauman’s Layered Learning Framework ©Bauman 2019 all Rights Reserved Felszeghy S., Pasonen-Seppanen S., Koskela A., Nieminen P, Harkonen K, Paldanius K.M.A., Gabbouj S., Ketola K., Hiltunen M., Lundin M., Haapaniemi T., Sointu E., Bauman E.B., Gilbert G.E, Morto D., & Mahonen A. (In Press). Use of gamification in a histology course: An innovative strategy. BMC Medical Education.
  45. 45. Fit and Integration Effective AppealingEfficient Proper Fit Learning Objectives Complexity Cost Time Aleckson, J., & Ralston-Berg, P. (2011). MindMeld: Micro-Collaboration between eLearning designers and instructor experts. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing Bauman, E. B. and Ralston-Berg, P. (2014). Virtual simulation. In J. Palaganas, J. Maxworthy, C. Epps, and M.E. Mancini (Eds). Defining excellence in simulation. Wolters Kluwer – Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  46. 46. IMPLEMENTATION CONSIDERATIONS •What is your context? •Who are your learners? • How will you implement the game fir the first time? • How will you continue the game in the future?
  47. 47. THANK YOU dr.toddchang@gmail.com • Todd P Chang, MD MAcM • Martin V Pusic, MD PhD • Eric B Bauman, PhD FSSH • Chaoyan Dong, PhD • Gerald R Stapleton, MS • Elizabeth K Kachur, PhD
  48. 48. GAMIFICATION vs SERIOUS GAMES
  49. 49. GAMIFICATION • Application of game design elements to traditionally nongame contexts. Deterding, S. (2014). The lens of intrinsic skill atoms: A method for gameful design. Human-Computer Interaction, Special Issue" HCI and Digital Games," Forthcoming. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khalid, R., Lennart, N. (2011). MindTrek’11, September 28-30, 2011, Tampere, Finland. Rutledge et al. Academic Medicine 2018

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