English for Chemistry Shadia Yousef Banjar Assistant Professor in Linguistics
Introduction There are several ways of broadly categorizing the sciences, e.g. pure science is the systematic study of natural or physical phenomena by observation and experiment , critical testing and review, and ordering by general principles, applied science is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge; technology is the application of applied science.
Exact sciences are those which typically require precise measurements, such as physics , and to a lesser degree, chemistry . Descriptive sciences are those which are more oriented towards classification and description, such as biology and paleontology . There are several ways of broadly categorizing the sciences, e.g. Pure science is systematic study of natural or physical phenomena by observation and experiment , critical testing and review, and ordering by general principles. Applied science is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge; technology is the application of applied science.
The pure natural sciences are typically divided into the physical sciences and the biological sciences , both of which can be subdivided. The major physical sciences are physics , astronomy , chemistry , and geology ; the main biological sciences are botany and zoology .
The sciences aren't distinct and independent from each other, but rather, there are interconnections and cross -fertilisations . These interrelationships are often responsible for much of the progress today in several specialized fields of research, such as molecular biology and genetics . Several interdisciplinary sciences, such as biochemistry , have been created as a result.. Advances can be the result of research by teams of specialists representing different sciences, both pure and applied.
Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and the changes that they undergo. In particular, chemistry is the study of elements (substances containing only one kind of atom ) and the compounds (substances containing combined elements) they form. Chemists work with reactions between substances to create plastics , medicines , dyes , and many other materials useful in our modern world. They study what substances are made of, and how they can be altered or combined to create new materials. 92 elements occur in nature, and another 17 have been created in nuclear laboratories. Several million compounds have been synthesised by chemists.
There are two main divisions, organic and inorganic. Organic chemistry originated with the isolation of medical compounds from animals and plants. It has expanded to include the reactions of carbon based compounds (which are 100 times more numerous than non-carbon based compounds) and the study of molecules . Inorganic chemistry studies the preparation, properties, and reactions of all chemical elements and compounds except those that are carbon based.
DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY <ul><li>In the field of science there are many different types of chemistry . The following page will deal with five such chemistries . </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Chemistry </li></ul>
Organic Chemistry <ul><ul><li>This specific type of chemistry is concerned with elements containing carbon. Carbon is only the fourteenth most common element on earth, yet it creates the largest number of different compounds. This type of chemistry is important to the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries. All living organisms contain at least some amount of carbon in their body. </li></ul></ul>
Inorganic Chemistry <ul><ul><li>This branch of chemistry deals with substances not containing carbon and that are not organic. Examples of such substances are minerals found in the earth's crust and non-living matter. There are many branches of inorganic chemistry. They include bioinorganic chemistry, nuclear science and energy, geochemistry, and synthetic inorganic chemistry, just to name a few. </li></ul></ul>
Physical Chemistry <ul><ul><li>This type of chemistry deals with the discovery and description of the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances. This means also that it provides a basis for every bit of chemistry including organic, inorganic, and analytical. This chemistry is defined as dealing with the relations between the physical properties of substances and their chemical formations along with their changes. </li></ul></ul>
Biochemistry <ul><ul><li>Biochemistry is a science that is concerned with the composition and changes in the formation of living species. This type of chemistry utilizes the concepts of organic and physical chemistry to make the world of living organisms seem much clearer. Some people also consider biochemsitry as physiological chemistry and biological chemistry. The scientists that study biochemistry are called biochemists. They study such things as the properties of biological molecules, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Other topics they focus on are the chemical regulation of metabolism, the chemistry of vitamins, and biological oxidation. </li></ul></ul>
Analytical Chemistry <ul><ul><li>This kind of chemistry deals mostly with the composition of substances. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>All these branches of chemistry must deal with each other one way or another. If they didn't work in unison it would be impossible for these chemistries to perform the functions we need for experiments. For example you wouldn't be able measure the change of an organic substance without knowing how to use analytical chemistry. </li></ul>Source : The text on my page was taken from the book, " Addison - Wesley Chemistry " , Addison - Wesley Chemistry, SI Edition Copyright 1993 Addison - Wesley Chemistry Publisher Limited .