Parts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar


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Parts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

  1. 1. LANE 333 - MORPHOLOGY 2012 – Term 1 Parts of speech: Form-Classes 12 By: Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1 11/17/2011
  2. 2. PARTS OF SPEECH• Parts of speech are labels forcategories in which words are usuallyplaced.• Words can be categorized according tohow they work within phrases, clausesor sentences.• Traditionally, they are known as partsof speech. In modern linguistics, theyare known as word classes.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2 11/17/2011
  3. 3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND• Early in the 1540, the Latin grammarwritten in English by William Lyly waspublished in 1540.• eight parts of speech was introduced: nouns adverbs pronouns Conjunctions Verbs Prepositions participles interjections DECLINED UNDECLINEDDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3 11/17/2011
  4. 4. cont., HISTORICAL BACKGROUND• In1640, Ben Jonson introduced: EnglishGrammar.•Jonson followed the Latin Parts of speech.• by the 1760s, the participles had beendropped.•Lowth chose these parts of speech:nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs,adverbs, prepositions, and interjections.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4 11/17/2011
  5. 5. cont., HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • In 1795, Murray’s English Grammar was introduced. • Murray adopted the eight parts of speech of Lowth, to which he added the articles. •These parts of speech are: articles, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and interjections.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5 11/17/2011
  6. 6. cont., HISTORICAL BACKGROUND•Traditional English grammars assignclass membership following Latin-deriveddefinitions of parts of speech.• several problems are raised as thedefinitions of the traditional parts ofspeech are based on two differentcriteria.•The definitions of nouns and verbs arebased on meaning while the rest arebased on function.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6 11/17/2011
  7. 7. cont., HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Example: 1. ‘a red shirt’: The word red is the name of a colour and hence is a noun, but it modifies the noun shirt and hence is an adjective. • Therefore: we have to set up a more elaborate yet workable set of word classes: formal classes and functional/structural classes.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7 11/17/2011
  8. 8. Parts of speech Parts of speech may be classified into three groups: 1-The form-classes: These are: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. The term form-class is used because membership in a class is determined by the form of a word. 2-The positional-classes: There are four main positional classes: nominal, verbal, adjectival, and adverbial. Membership in these classes is determined by position or word order. 3-The structure-classes: such as prepositions and auxiliaries. The structure classes are small, stable, and closed.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8 11/17/2011
  9. 9. Form Classes•The inflectional or derivational morphologydetermines the membership of words to parts ofspeech or form classes:1. nouns2. Verbs3. adjectives4. adverbs• Form classes are large and open as they readilyadmit new members, e.g. workaholic, minibus.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9 11/17/2011
  10. 10. A. Nouns Nouns are identified as nouns by two aspects of form: 1. inflectional morphemes, and 2. derivational morphemes. • The inflectional morphemes are: A- the noun plural {-s pl} ,and B- the noun possessive {-s ps}.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10 11/17/2011
  11. 11. cont., Nounse.g. The author seems tired•‘author’ is a noun because it can bechange to the plural in the same position,with the readjustment of seems to theplural form seem: The authors seem tired.• But in the sentence: Her brother may author a new biography.•‘author’ cannot be made plural andhence is not a noun.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11 11/17/2011
  12. 12. cont., Nouns• Nouns may have only a plural form, e.g. clothes,goods, pants, oats, scissors, glasses.• Nouns are also identified by certain derivationalsuffixes, e.g. The -ity suffix added to an adjectiveas in the noun ‘purity’.•Although the use of inflectional suffixes is apractical tool for noun identification, derivationalsuffixes cannot be neglected.•Some words are never inflected: e.g. drainage,manhood, nourishment.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12 11/17/2011
  13. 13. B.Verbs• Verbs have five different inflectional forms: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) stem present third present Past Tense Past Participle person singular participle rise rises rising rose risen •Any word that has three or more of these inflectional forms is said to belong to the form- class called the verb .For example, cut has the minimum of three forms: cut, cuts, cutting. •Derivational suffixes that help identify verbs are few; e.g. solidify, strengthen, colonize. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13 11/17/2011
  14. 14. C. Adjectives • A word that is inflected with –er and –est and that is capable of forming adverbs with –ly and or nouns with –ness is called an adjective. • We can usually identify adjectives by derivational suffixes alone; e.g. cultural, readable, reddish.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14 11/17/2011
  15. 15. D. Adverbs • The adverb has four suffixes: the derivational suffixes –ly, -wise, -ward, and –s . the free form like. • Words consisting of: a source noun+-ward are at home in the positions of both adjectives and adverbs, as in: 1-The earthward drop of the parachutist was spectacular. ( adjective position). 2-As she stepped out the plane door and parachuted earthward. (adverb position).Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15 11/17/2011
  16. 16. NOTICE• There are a few words that do not allow or do nothave inflectional or derivational suffixes to be usedwith them. These words are referred to as‘nonsuffixing forms’ or ‘uninflected words’. Examples:1. Words traditionally called nouns e.g. tennis2. Words traditionally called adverbs e.g. never3. Words traditionally called adjectives e.g. only4. Most words in structure classes e.g. the, must,from, and.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16 11/17/2011
  17. 17. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17 11/17/2011