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Phonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar


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LANE 333

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Phonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

  1. 1. LANE 333 - MORPHOLOGY 2012 – Term 1PHONESTHEMES 8 By: Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com1 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/2/2011
  2. 2. p. Phonesthemes“The word phonestheme is, a blending of phoneme and esthetic,indicating quite elegantly the tendency of certain sounds to acquireesthetic or emotional connotations.” Verbatim: VERBATIM: The Language Quarterly Vol XIII No 3Phonestheme : a sound that, because it appears in a number ofwords of similar meaning, has a recognizable semantic association.Nordberg (1986) writes ‘‘Sound symbol or phonestheme ... is thesynesthetic combination of a certain sound or sound sequence with aparticular notion or a particular connotative content.’’Jakobson and Waugh (1979) define sound symbolism as ‘‘an inmost,natural association between sound and meaning’’. Malkiel (1994) uses the term phonosymbolism to mean the same, hewrites, as sound symbolism.2 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  3. 3. What exactly is the relation between phonesthemes and morphemes? Are phonesthemes really morphemes or are they something different? The most common definition of a morpheme is ‘‘a minimal meaning carrying unit’’ ‘‘the grouping of similar meanings about similar sound’’ (Bolinger, 1965). Åsa Abelin, 1999, used the term phonestheme to mean bound submorphemic3 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/2/2011
  4. 4. MORPHEMES PHONESTHEMES PHONEMESTHE HIERARCHY BETWEEN PHONEMES AND MORPHEMES Åsa Abelin, 1999,Studies in Sound Symbolism 4 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/2/2011
  5. 5. •Phonesthemes are sounds that in themselvesexpress, elicit, or suggest meaning. Example: the meaning of two Chinese words ching = heavy chung = light•The vowels in these words elicit the meaning.• These vowels are called phonesthemes.5 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/2/2011
  6. 6. In English, the most common phonesthemes arethe pair of high front vowels /i/ and /Ι/, suggestingsmallness : peep, squeak, ping, bit Phonesthemes Suggestive Examples Meaning /i/ smallness wee /Ι/ smallness bit ǝ/ /ǝ/ undesirable dung /gl-/ light glow /fl-/ moving light flame /sp-/ point spot /sl-/ movement slide 6 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  7. 7. Example: Phonesthemes: sl in slip, slide, slick, slime, sled sl- words have overwhelmingly pejorative (negative) connotations slick insincere slide slip along, slither slight insult slime thick slippery mud or similar goo slimy disgustingly dishonest or flattering sling throw quickly and carelessly slink sneak slip slide unintentionally slit cut or tear lengthwise slither slide with an irregular motion 7 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  8. 8. phonesthemes It is important to note that phonesthemes do not meet all the conditions that qualify a morpheme. Thus, they are considered a different linguistic feature or as Åsa Abelin, 1999, considered “bound submorphemic” .8 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/2/2011
  9. 9. 9 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10/2/2011