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Urban Planning theories and models

Describes theories of how Urban towns came to be,how were they planned and what informs their planning design

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SES 874
ISSUES IN URBAN DESIGN PLANNING AND
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTER: Geofrey Yator
QUESTION:
Spatial and Local Theories of urban
Development
Introduction
Spatial is relating to space
Urbanization is the movement of population from rural to
urban areas
A theory is an organized system of accepted knowledge
that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a
specific set of phenomena.
Urbanization is a relatively new global issue
In 1950 only 30% of the world’s population was urbanized
and 50% in 2009 lived in urban centres
The big question is how do towns come about to be?
Theories explaining the emergence of
towns
Central place theory
Examples. Polders of the Netherlands, the Fens of
East Anglia in the UK
Developed by the German geographer Walter
Christaller in 1933
It explains the reasons behind the distribution
patterns, size, and number of cities and towns.
Tested in Southern Germany and came to the
conclusion that people gather together in cities to
share goods and ideas and that they
Central place theory
Assumptions
humans will always purchase goods from the
closest place
unbounded isotropic (all flat), homogeneous,
limitless surface
evenly distributed population
all settlements are equidistant and exist in a
triangular lattice pattern
evenly distributed resources
Central place theory
Public choice theory
Advanced by Paul Peterson in his 1981 book, City
Limits
States that urban politicians and governing
regimes are subordinate to the overall economic
principles that force cities to compete to capture
new investment and capital.
The competitive nature of cities encourages the
business elite and politicians to favour new
development
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Urban Planning theories and models

  • 1. SES 874 ISSUES IN URBAN DESIGN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PRESENTER: Geofrey Yator QUESTION: Spatial and Local Theories of urban Development
  • 2. Introduction Spatial is relating to space Urbanization is the movement of population from rural to urban areas A theory is an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena. Urbanization is a relatively new global issue In 1950 only 30% of the world’s population was urbanized and 50% in 2009 lived in urban centres The big question is how do towns come about to be?
  • 3. Theories explaining the emergence of towns Central place theory Examples. Polders of the Netherlands, the Fens of East Anglia in the UK Developed by the German geographer Walter Christaller in 1933 It explains the reasons behind the distribution patterns, size, and number of cities and towns. Tested in Southern Germany and came to the conclusion that people gather together in cities to share goods and ideas and that they
  • 4. Central place theory Assumptions humans will always purchase goods from the closest place unbounded isotropic (all flat), homogeneous, limitless surface evenly distributed population all settlements are equidistant and exist in a triangular lattice pattern evenly distributed resources
  • 6. Public choice theory Advanced by Paul Peterson in his 1981 book, City Limits States that urban politicians and governing regimes are subordinate to the overall economic principles that force cities to compete to capture new investment and capital. The competitive nature of cities encourages the business elite and politicians to favour new development
  • 7. Theories explaining how towns are arranged Grid model/Hippodamian plan Examples; The city of Priene Proposed by Hippodamus of Miletus who is considered the father of rational city planning The center of the city contains the agora (Market place), theaters, and temples. Private rooms surround the city’s public arenas. The plan can be laid out uniformly over any kind of terrain since it’s based on angles and measurements.
  • 8. Grid model/Hippodamian plan Hippodamian plan /Grid Model used in Priene city
  • 9. Concentric Zone model Also known as The Burgess Model, The Bull's Eye Model Developed in the 1920's by the urban sociologist Ernest Burgess. The model portrays how cities social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings. The size of the rings may vary, but the order always remains the same.
  • 11. Concentric Zone model 1. Central Business District (CBD) - This area of the city is a non-residential area and it’s where businesses are. This area s called downtown ,a lot of sky scrapers houses government institutions, businesses, stadiums, and restaurants 2. Zone of Transition- the zone of transition contains industry and has poorer-quality housing available.Created by subdividing larger houses into apartments
  • 12. Concentric Zone model 3. Zone of the working class- This area contains modest older houses occupied by stable, working class families. A large percentage of the people in this area rent. 4. Zone of better residence- This zone contains newer and more spacious houses. Mostly families in the middle-class live in this zone. 5.Commuter’s Zone/Suburbs- This area is located beyond the build-up area of the city. Mostly upper class residents live in this area. ....DesktopModelsBurgess circle model.htm
  • 13. Concentric Zone model Shortcomings It assumes an isotropic plain land may restrict growth of certain sectors The model does not fit polycentric cities It describes the peculiar American geography, where the inner city is poor while suburbs are wealthy; the converse is the norm elsewhere.
  • 14. Sector model. Chicago and Newcastle upon Tyne/Newcastle Developed in 1939 by land economist Homer Hoyt It is a model of the internal structure of cities. Social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges radiating out from the central business district (CBD) and centred on major transportation lines low-income households to be near railroad lines, and commercial establishments to be along business thoroughfares
  • 15. Stresses the importance of transportation corridors. Sees growth of various urban activities as expanding along roads, rivers, or train routes. Modeling Cities: Hoyt
  • 16. Sector model. Shortcomings Applies well to some towns only Low cost housing is near industry and transportation proving Hoyt’s model Theory based on 20th century and does not take into account cars which make commerce easier With cars, people can live anywhere and further from the city
  • 17. Multiple Nuclei method The Multiple Nuclei Model is an ecological model created by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in the 1945 City grows from several independent points rather than from one central business district. As these expand, they merge to form a single urban area. Ports, universities, airports and parks also act as nodes Based on the idea that people have greater movement due to increased car ownership.
  • 18. Multiple nuclei model The model has four geographic principles – Certain activities require highly specialised facilities • Accessible transportation for a factory • Large areas of open land for a housing tract – Certain activities cluster because they profit from mutual association – Certain activities repel each other and will not be found in the same area – Certain activities could not make a profit if they paid the high rent of the most desirable locations
  • 19. Stresses the importance of multiple nodes of activity, not a single CBD. Ports, airports, universities attract certain uses while repelling others. Modeling Cities: Harris-Ullman
  • 20. Multiple nuclei model Assumptions Land is Flat Even Distribution of Resources Even Distribution of people in Residential areas Even Transportation Costs Criticisms Each zone displays a significant degree of internal heterogeneity and not homogeneity No consideration of influence of physical relief and government policy. Not applicable to oriental cities with different cultural, economic and political backgrounds
  • 21. Urban Realms Model Francisco Bay area Developed by James E. Vance Jr. in the 1960’s Each realm is a separate economic, social and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metro framework suburbs are within the sphere of influence of the central city and its metropolitan CBD Now urban realms have become, so large they even have exurbs, not just suburbs
  • 22. Urban realm depends on Overall size of the metropolitan region Amount of economic activity in each urban realm Topography and major land features Internal accessibility of each realm
  • 23. Core frame model The Core frame model is a model showing the urban structure of the Central Business District of a town or city. The model includes an inner core where land is expensive and used intensively The outer core and frame have lower land values and are less intensively developed. T various land uses are linked to the bid rent theory
  • 25. Bid rent theory geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) This is based upon the idea that retail establishments wish to maximize their profitability, so they are much more willing to pay more for land close to the CBD and less for land further away from this area. The amount they are willing to pay is called "bid rent".
  • 27. Irregular pattern model Arrangement of Public space that characterizes the stage of "Transition from village to city" especially in Third World. This urban model is due to lack of planning or construction and illegal without a specific order. Includes blocks with no fixed order, or permanent and temporary structures. S structures are not related to an urban centres near the place
  • 28. Howard gardens Letchworth Garden City, Welwyn Garden city Developed by Sir Ebenezer Howard (1898) Inspired by the idea of ideal/Utopian cities Inspired works on Model villages by Robert Owen and Model industrial towns by Buckingham. Comprised of Town, Country and Town-country interactions