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Impression formation


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Impression formation

  1. 1. Institute Of Management StudiesIndorePresentation On:- Impression Formation From:- Aparna Bakre Jayshree Pateriya
  2. 2. What is Impression? An idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone, esp. one formed without conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence. An effect produced on someone.
  3. 3. impression formation A social psychological term referring to the way in which strangers develop perceptions of each other. A long tradition of (largely experimental) studies have investigated the impact of initial impressions. These have identified phenomena such as primacy effects and halo effects.
  4. 4. This breaks down into six influences on how we perceive other people: Self-fulfilling prophecy Implicit personality theory Perceptual accentuation Primacy-Recency Consistency Attribution of controllability
  5. 5. Six Basic Principles1. On the basis of minimal information2. Special attention to salient features than to every thing3. We use the context of a person’s behavior rather than interpreting the behavior in isolation
  6. 6. 4.We organize our perceptions by categorizing or grouping stimuli5. We use our enduring cognitive structures to make sense of people’s behavior6. Perceivers own needs and personal goals influence how he or she perceives others
  7. 7. Solomon Asch
  8. 8. “We look at a person and immediately a certain impression of his characterforms itself in us a glance , a few spoken words are sufficient to tell us a story about a highly complex matter.....”
  9. 9. Asch’s reseArch oncentral and peripheraltraits
  10. 10. Asch conducted manyexperiments in which he askedparticipants to form animpression of a hypotheticalperson based on severalcharacteristics said to belong tothem.
  11. 11. Experiment 1-variation in central quality Group A: intelligent-skillful-industrious- warm-determined-practical-cautious Group B: intelligent-skillful-industrious- cold-determined-practical-cautious
  12. 12. result Series A ("warm") A person who believes certain things to be right, wants others to see his point, would be sincere in an argument and would like to see his point won. Series B ("cold") A very ambitious and talented person who would not let anyone or anything stand in the way of achieving his goal. Wants his own way, he is determined not to give in, no matter what happens.
  13. 13. Experiment 2- Omission of a Central Quality Group A: intelligent-skillful-industrious- determined-practical-cautious Group B: intelligent-skillful-industrious- determined-practical-cautious
  14. 14. result Appears that a more neutral impression has formed.
  15. 15. Experiment 3-Variation of aPeripheral Quality A. intelligent—skillful—industrious—polite—determined—practical cautious B. intelligent—skillful—industrious—blunt—determined—practical—cautious
  16. 16. Experiment 4-reversing the order of series A. intelligent—skillful—industrious— determined— practical—cautious—evasive B. evasive—cautious—practical— determined—industrious—skillful— intelligent
  17. 17. result Series A He seems to be a man of very excellent character, though it is not unusual for one person to have all of those good qualities. Series B This is a man who has had to work for everything he wanted—therefore he is evasive, cautious and practical. He is naturally intelligent, but his struggles have made him hard.
  18. 18. Impression formation-acognitive perspective We pay attention to information abut their traits and values rather than information about their competence
  19. 19. Additional research Indicates that impression of others consist of examples of both:1. Behaviour relating to specific trait2. Mental abstractions based on observations of many instances of behavior
  20. 20. ask yourself? Why do we immediately form impressions of other people on first meeting them? What factors influence whether we like or dislike someone immediately? Can we tell when someone is lying or telling the truth?
  21. 21. What information do weuse? Roles Physical Cues Salience From behavior to traits Central traits Categorization Context effects
  22. 22. RolesPeople tend to think of others within arole context first and only thenaccording to personality traits
  23. 23. Physical Cues Appearance and behavior are key determinants of our first impressions
  24. 24. SaliencePeople pay attention to the figure ratherthan to the ground or setting
  25. 25. •Effects of Salience 1. Draws attention 2. Influences perceptions of causality 3. Produces evaluatively extreme judgments 4. Produce more consistency of judgment
  26. 26. FROM BEHAVIOR TO TRAITSWe move very quickly from observable information (appearance & behavior) to personality trait inferences  Traits are more economical to remember  Trait inferences occur automatically
  27. 27. Central TraitsSome traits may be more central thanothers, that is, highly associated withmany other characteristics “Warm-Cold” appears to be such a trait (Kelley, 1950)
  28. 28. CategorizationWe automatically perceive stimuli as part of agroup or category
  29. 29. Consequences of Categorization  leads to category-based social judgments (stereotyping)  speeds processing time  can lead to errors
  30. 30. The Continuum Model of Impression FormationImpressions range from stereotypic, category-based impressions to individuated impressions(dual processing)
  31. 31. Dual ProcessingWe generally tend to use category-basedinference because it is easy and quickWe use individuated information when we aremotivated to be accurate the person doesn’t fitour categories we have other reasons for wantingto know the person better
  32. 32. Context EffectsContrast biases judgments away from thecontext (sees them as different)Assimilation biases judgments in the samedirection as the context (sees them as similar)Assimilation occurs more when people are usingcategory-based processingContrast occurs more when people are usingindividuated information
  33. 33. Integrating ImpressionsHow do we combine all of theseseparate inferences about aperson into an over all impression?
  34. 34.  Evaluation Negativity effect Positivity bias
  35. 35.  Emotional information The averaging principle Imputing meaning
  36. 36.  Imputing consistency Schemas Prototypes Exemplars
  37. 37. Thank you