Institute Of Management StudiesIndorePresentation On:- Impression Formation From:- Aparna Bakre Jayshree Pateriya
What is Impression? An idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone, esp. one formed without conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence. An effect produced on someone.
impression formation A social psychological term referring to the way in which strangers develop perceptions of each other. A long tradition of (largely experimental) studies have investigated the impact of initial impressions. These have identified phenomena such as primacy effects and halo effects.
This breaks down into six influences on how we perceive other people: Self-fulfilling prophecy Implicit personality theory Perceptual accentuation Primacy-Recency Consistency Attribution of controllability
Six Basic Principles1. On the basis of minimal information2. Special attention to salient features than to every thing3. We use the context of a person’s behavior rather than interpreting the behavior in isolation
4.We organize our perceptions by categorizing or grouping stimuli5. We use our enduring cognitive structures to make sense of people’s behavior6. Perceivers own needs and personal goals influence how he or she perceives others
Asch conducted manyexperiments in which he askedparticipants to form animpression of a hypotheticalperson based on severalcharacteristics said to belong tothem.
Experiment 1-variation in central quality Group A: intelligent-skillful-industrious- warm-determined-practical-cautious Group B: intelligent-skillful-industrious- cold-determined-practical-cautious
result Series A ("warm") A person who believes certain things to be right, wants others to see his point, would be sincere in an argument and would like to see his point won. Series B ("cold") A very ambitious and talented person who would not let anyone or anything stand in the way of achieving his goal. Wants his own way, he is determined not to give in, no matter what happens.
Experiment 2- Omission of a Central Quality Group A: intelligent-skillful-industrious- determined-practical-cautious Group B: intelligent-skillful-industrious- determined-practical-cautious
result Appears that a more neutral impression has formed.
Experiment 3-Variation of aPeripheral Quality A. intelligent—skillful—industrious—polite—determined—practical cautious B. intelligent—skillful—industrious—blunt—determined—practical—cautious
Experiment 4-reversing the order of series A. intelligent—skillful—industrious— determined— practical—cautious—evasive B. evasive—cautious—practical— determined—industrious—skillful— intelligent
result Series A He seems to be a man of very excellent character, though it is not unusual for one person to have all of those good qualities. Series B This is a man who has had to work for everything he wanted—therefore he is evasive, cautious and practical. He is naturally intelligent, but his struggles have made him hard.
Impression formation-acognitive perspective We pay attention to information abut their traits and values rather than information about their competence
Additional research Indicates that impression of others consist of examples of both:1. Behaviour relating to specific trait2. Mental abstractions based on observations of many instances of behavior
ask yourself? Why do we immediately form impressions of other people on first meeting them? What factors influence whether we like or dislike someone immediately? Can we tell when someone is lying or telling the truth?
What information do weuse? Roles Physical Cues Salience From behavior to traits Central traits Categorization Context effects
RolesPeople tend to think of others within arole context first and only thenaccording to personality traits
Physical Cues Appearance and behavior are key determinants of our first impressions
SaliencePeople pay attention to the figure ratherthan to the ground or setting
•Effects of Salience 1. Draws attention 2. Influences perceptions of causality 3. Produces evaluatively extreme judgments 4. Produce more consistency of judgment
FROM BEHAVIOR TO TRAITSWe move very quickly from observable information (appearance & behavior) to personality trait inferences Traits are more economical to remember Trait inferences occur automatically
Central TraitsSome traits may be more central thanothers, that is, highly associated withmany other characteristics “Warm-Cold” appears to be such a trait (Kelley, 1950)
CategorizationWe automatically perceive stimuli as part of agroup or category
Consequences of Categorization leads to category-based social judgments (stereotyping) speeds processing time can lead to errors
The Continuum Model of Impression FormationImpressions range from stereotypic, category-based impressions to individuated impressions(dual processing)
Dual ProcessingWe generally tend to use category-basedinference because it is easy and quickWe use individuated information when we aremotivated to be accurate the person doesn’t fitour categories we have other reasons for wantingto know the person better
Context EffectsContrast biases judgments away from thecontext (sees them as different)Assimilation biases judgments in the samedirection as the context (sees them as similar)Assimilation occurs more when people are usingcategory-based processingContrast occurs more when people are usingindividuated information
Integrating ImpressionsHow do we combine all of theseseparate inferences about aperson into an over all impression?