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Neo freudians


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Neo-freudians, a ppt prepared with help of my colleague residents at gauhati medical college, may be useful...

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Neo freudians

  1. 1. “NEO-FREUDIANS” “sexuality can’t explain everything” CHAIRPERSON: Dr. S.K Talukdar Professor Department of Psychiatry PRESENTED BY: Dr. Sachin Arora 3rd year pg student Department of Psychiatry Discussant: Dr. Rahul Mathur
  2. 2. “Emergence” “HISTORICAL BACKGROUND” As the psychoanalytic theories of personality formed by Freud were nurtured by a positivistic climate, that shaped the course of 19th century. At the same time intellectuals trends that were at variance with purely biophysical conception of human were beginning to take shape. During the later part of 19th century, sociology and and anthropolgy began to emerge as independent disciplines .
  3. 3. We are “NEO- freudians” A number of followers of Freud who became dissatisfied with his myopia regarding the social conditioners of personality withdrew their allegiance from classical psychoanalytical theories along lines dictated by new orientation developed by social science. We don’t agree with freud completely… (sexuality cant explain everything)
  4. 4. Freud Post Freudian Neo Freudian Jung ?Adler Adler Horney Fromm Sullivan Who are the Neo – Freudians??
  5. 5. Neo-Freudian • Definition– “Neo-Freudian referring to modifications, extensions, or revisions of Freud’s original psychoanalytic theory, most commonly to those that emphasize social, cultural, and interpersonal elements rather than innate biological instincts such as sexuality and aggression.” (Campbell's Dictionary) • Major theorists described as neo-Freudian are Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Erich Fromm(1900-1980) Karen Horney (1885-1952) Harry Stack-Sullivan (1892-1949)
  6. 6. Major disagreements with Freud : - • Socio cultural factors determine conflicts, not instincts. • Infantile sexuality is of little importance compared to socio- cultural factors. Conflicts can be or are predominately non- sexual. • Societal factors cause anxiety, not a defense. • Dreams have no latent content: could be metaphorical expressions of the patient’s real concern or reflect struggles to achieve self-awareness and responsibility. • Oedipal complex has no sexual component, is due to interpersonal/ social factors. • Technique of treatment: normally emphasize ‘here and now’, de-emphasis on past, gaining insight etc.
  7. 7. “We are united” Although differing in details ,they are united in the following conceptual beliefs: 1. The social and cultural, rather than biological factors are basic to the understanding of human nature. 2. The oedipus complex, the formation of superego and alleged inferiorities are cultural though there may be a biological foundation for oral and anal stage , it can be modified by cultural factors. 3. Emphasis is placed on “interpersonal relationships” in the formation of character and the production of anxiety. 4. It is not the sexual behavior that determines character but
  8. 8. Alfred Adler • Adler’s Personality Theory. Few basic concepts sustain the whole theoretical structure.  Social interest.  Creative self.  Fictional finalism.  Striving for superiority.  Inferiority feelings and compensations.  Style of life.
  9. 9. Alfred Adler Social interest: - “humans are primarily social not sexual creature” • Motivated by social urges • Inherently social beings, place social welfare above selfish interest, and acquire a style of life that is predominantly social in orientation. • Social interest is in born, but the specific types of relationships with people and social institutions that develop are determined by the nature of the society into which a person is born. • The person is embedded in a social context from the first day of life. “Society interest is the true and inevitable compensation for all the natural weakness of individual human beings”
  10. 10. Concept of creative self: -  It asserts that humans make their own personality. “Heredity only endows him with certain abilities. Environment only gives him certain impression. These abilities and impression and the manner in which he experience them, that is to say, the interpretation he makes of life experiences” Adler • Adler’s self is a highly personalized, subjective system that interprets and makes meaningful the experiences of the organism. • Searches for experiences that will aid in fulfilling the person’s unique style of life; if these experiences are not found in the world, the self tries to create them.
  11. 11. Consciousness: - • Consciousness to be the center of personality. • Conscious beings; Ordinarily aware of the reasons for their behavior Their inferiorities Goal for which they strive. • Humans are self-conscious individuals capable of planning and guiding their actions with full awareness of heir meaning for their own self-realization.
  12. 12. Fictional Finalism: - • Motivated more by their expectations of the futures than by experiences of the past. • These fictional goals were the subjective causation of psychological events. • His final goal may be a fiction, that is, an ideal that is impossible to realize but that nonetheless is a very real spur to human striving and the ultimate explanations of conduct. • Normal person could free him- or herself from the influence of these fictions and face reality when necessity demanded.
  13. 13. Striving for superiority It is a striving for perfect completion.  Adler had three stages in his thinking regarding the final goals of human-  The striving for superiority carries him to the higher stages of development.
  14. 14. Striving for Superiority Aggression was important than sexuality. “Will to power”- identified power with muscularity & weakness with femininity. “Masculine protest” - a form of overcompensation that both men and women indulge in when they feel inadequate and inferior. “Striving for superiority”- striving for perfect completion • It is innate. • Becomes socialized; the ideal of a perfect society takes the place of personal ambition and selfish gain. Human compensate for their individual weaknesses. • Prepotent dynamic principal – from birth to death, carries the person from one stage of development to the next higher stage.
  15. 15. Inferiority feelings and compensation: - • Arise from a sense of incompleteness or imperfection in any sphere of life, arise from subjectively felt psychological or social disabilities as well as actual bodily weakness or impairment. • Not a sign of abnormality; they are the cause of all improvement in the human lot. • Under normal circumstances, is the great driving force of mankind. • Inferiority feelings were painful, relief of these feelings was not necessarily pleasurable. • Perfection, not pleasure, was for him the goal of life.
  16. 16. • Inferiority feelings and compensation. Psychological /social disabilities/body weakness. Feeling of inferiority -unmanliness/feminity. compensatory-masculine protest. inferiority feelings-exaggerated: pampering/rejection. Abnormal manifestations-inferiority complex. compensatory superiority complex.
  17. 17. Style of life: - • The system principle by which the individual personality functions; it is the whole that commands the part. • Explain the uniqueness • Every person has the same goal, that of superiority, but there are innumerable ways of strivings for this goal. • Determines how a person confronts the three “life problems” of adulthood: social relation, occupation, and love and marriage. • Formed very early in childhood & from then on experiences are assimilated and utilized according to the this unique style of life. • Attitudes, feelings, and apperceptions become fixed and mechanized at an early age.
  18. 18. Style of life: - • May acquire new ways of expressing his or her unique style of life, but these are merely concrete and particular instances of the same basic style found at an early age. • 4 different style of life • Determines of style of life – specific inferiorities, either fancied or real, that the person has. The style of life is a compensation for a particular inferiority. Styles Social interest Social activity Ruling Low High Getting Low Low Avoiding Low Low Socially useful High High
  19. 19. Order of birth: - personalities of the oldest, middle, and youngest child in a family were likely to be quite different. these differences to the distinctive experiences that each child has as a members of a social group. Early memory: - important key to understanding one’s basic style of life. Childhood experiences: - predispose to a faulty style of life. • Three important factors: – Children with inferiorities (organic inferiority) – Spoiled children (pampering) – Neglected children (rejection) • Conditions produce erroneous conceptions of the world and result in a pathological style of life.
  20. 20. Neurosis: - • Develops symptoms as protection from the sense of inferiority that is trying so desperately to avoid. • Rigidly overcompensates for the perceived inferiorities. • Inability to deal with life’s problems leads to develop “safeguards.” they serve to protect the neurotic from the low self-esteem. – Excuses – attempts to avoid blame for failures in life – Aggression – blaming self or others for failures – Distancing – procrastination, claims of helplessness, or attempts to avoid problems
  21. 21. Contrast to Freud Freud Adler Human behavior is motivated by inborn instincts (exclusive role of sexual instinct in dynamics of behavior) Humans are primarily motivated by social urges A group of psychological processes serving the ends of inborn instincts Concept of creative self - subjective system that interprets and makes meaningful the experiences of the organism Consciousness is a nonentity – a mere froth floating on the great sea of unconsciousness Consciousness is the center of personality
  22. 22. Freud Adler Unconscious mind Conscious mind. Pleasure principle Strive for superiority. Psychoanalysis Individual psychology. Determined by id, ego, superego Birth order, organ inferiority. Directed towards past. Governed by what he wants in future. By: Bernard Handbauer
  23. 23. • Personality theory Two central facts dominate human behaviour. -the inevitability of seperatedness. -historical and social moment into which the person is born Baby is born Recognise itself as a separate being Erich Fromm
  24. 24. Struggling-desperate anxiety of loneliness against the urge to fully express and actualize oneself. Facing aloneness and choosing individualization adds to freedom and productive life. True freedom terrifying Construct series of illusions that generate a feeling of safety and Security Create a pseudoself, think pseudothought. and experience Pseudofeeling
  25. 25. Erich Fromm • Person feels lonely and isolated because he or she has become separated from nature & form other people. • Humans have gained more freedom throughout the ages they have also felt more alone. Freedom then becomes a negative condition from which they try to escape. • The healthy strategy is for the person to unite with other people in the spirit of love and shared work. • The unhealthy option is for the person to attempt to “escape from freedom”.
  26. 26. Escape from freedom • One can attempt to escape through three means. Authoritarianism – either via masochistic submission or a sadistic attempt. (trying to live through someone, something external) Destructiveness – escape from powerlessness by destroying the social agents and institutions that produce a sense of helplessness and isolation Automaton conformity – one renounces selfhood by adopting a “pseudo self” based on the expectations of others. • Healthy case - humans use their freedom to develop a better society. In the unhealthy cases, they acquire a new bondage.
  27. 27. Fromm said four basic human needs to be met for existence and to free from pseudoillusions. Relatedness The need to feel connected to other human Transcendence Rising above basic instincts. Identity The need to feel accepted yet unique. Frame of orientation Is a stable and conscious way of perceiving and comprehending the world.
  28. 28. Needs Six specific needs rise from the conditions of human existence: 1. The need for relatedness – humans, in becoming human, have been torn from the animal’s primary union with nature. In place of those instinctive ties with nature that animals posses humans have to create their own relationships, the most satisfying are based upon productive love. 2. The need for transcendence- a person’s need to rise above his or her animal nature, to become a creative person instead of remaining a creature 3. The need for rootedness- human desire natural roots; they want to be an integral part of the world, to feel that they belong. A person finds the most satisfying and healthiest roots in a feeling of kinship with other men and women.
  29. 29. 4. The need for identity- have a sense of personal identity, to be a unique individual. May obtain a certain mark of distinction by identifying with another person or group. In this case, identity arises from belonging to someone and not from being some one. 5. The need for a frame of orientation- have a frame of reference, a stable and consistent way of perceiving and comprehending the world. 6. The need for excitation and stimulation – – Simple stimuli produce an automatic, almost reflex, response, and they are best thought of in terms of drives – Activating stimuli – entail striving for goals.
  30. 30. • These needs are Purely human and purely objective Not derived from observing what humans say they want Nor are these strivings created by society Have become embedded in human nature through evolution • Specific manifestations of these needs, are determined by “the social arrangements under which he lives”. • One’s personality develops in accordance with the opportunities that a particular society offers one.
  31. 31. Character types • Five social character types Receptive : cooperative and open. Exploitive: filling up from outside Hoarding: collect and close in on themselves. Marketing: treat themselves as plastic commodity, manipulative Productive – considered healthy • For the proper functioning of a particular society - the child’s character be shaped to fit the needs of society. • The task of the parents and of education is to make the child want to act, as it has to act if a given economic, political, and social system is to be maintained.
  32. 32. Contrast to Freud – For Freud, both life and death instincts are inherent in the biology of humans, whereas for Fromm, life is the only primary potentially. Death is merely secondary and only enters the picture when the life forces are frustrated. v/s
  33. 33. v/s Freud Erich Fromm Based on pleasure principle Based on inevitability of separatedness. Determinants of personality- id,fixation,unconsciousness. Determinants-Freedom, type of family, society. Never typified personality. Described 5 types of personality.
  34. 34. Karen Horney Contribution to personality theory: • Basic anxiety: - children naturally experience anxiety, helplessness, and vulnerability. Without loving guidance to help children learn to cope with threats imposed by nature and society, they may develop the basic anxiety. • Basic evil – Domination, indifference, erratic behavior, lack of respect for the child’s individual needs, lack of real guidance & reliable warmth, disparaging attitudes, too much admiration or the absence of it, parental disagreements, too much or too little responsibility, overprotection, isolation, injustice, discrimination, unkept promises, hostile atmosphere
  35. 35. • The basic evil experienced by the child naturally provoked resentment, or basic hostility. • It produces a dilemma or conflict for the child, because expressing the hostility would risk punishment and would jeopardize his or her receipt of parental love. • Children deal with their hostility by repressing it. • Regardless of cause, the repression exacerbates the conflicts, leading to a vicious cycle: the anxiety produces an excessive need for affection. When theses needs are not met, the child feels rejected and the anxiety and hostility intensify. Basic hostility
  36. 36. • The insecure, anxious child develops various strategies to cope with its feelings of isolation and helplessness. Hostile Submissive Develop an unrealistic, idealized picture of itself Bribe others into loving it Use threats to force people to like it Seek to obtain power over others. Highly competitive attitude, winning is far more important than the achievement • Any one of these strategies may become a more or less permanent fixture in the personality. Basic hostility
  37. 37. Neurotic needs • A particular strategy may assume the character of a drive or need in the personality dynamics. • Needs are “neurotic” because they are irrational solutions to the problem. • Horney presented list of 10 needs that are acquired as a consequence of trying to find solutions for the problem of disturbed human relationships. • All of the foregoing needs are unrealistic
  38. 38. • Theses needs are Affection and approval “Partner” who will take over one’s life Restrict one’s life within narrow borders Power & Prestige Exploit others Personal admiration Ambition for personal achievement Self-sufficiency and independence Perfection and unassailability • These 10 needs are the sources from which inner conflicts develop Neurotic needs
  39. 39. Three solutions Every one has these conflicts. While the normal person can resolve these conflicts by integrating the three orientations, the neurotic person because of greater basic anxiety utilize irrational and artificial solutions. Solutions Needs Elements of basic anxiety Moving toward people - Compliance or the self-effacing solution love helplessness Moving away from people -withdrawal or the resignation solution independence isolation Moving against people - aggression or the expansive solution power hostility
  40. 40. • Alienation : -An alternative coping strategy on the part of the neurotic. Neurotic may defensively turn away from the real self toward some idealized alternative. • Consequence of the child’s attempt to cope with basic anxiety. • Series of auxiliary approached to the neurotic conflicts. “rationalization”, “cynicism” or “excessive self-control”. All of these unconscious devices serve as pseudosolutions to the neurotic’s basic conflict. • As a final strategy, the neurotic may attempt to deal with inner conflicts by externalizing them. Neurotics may resort to “the tendency to experience internal processes as if they occurred outside oneself and, as a rule, to hold these external factors responsible for one’s difficulties”.
  41. 41. Contrast to Freud - • Objected strongly to concept of “penis envy” as the determining factor in the feminine psychology. – Lack of confidence and an overemphasis of the love relationship – Very little to do with the anatomy of sex organs. • Oedipus complex - not a sexual-aggressive conflict but an anxiety growing out of basic disturbances in the child’s relationships with mother and father.
  42. 42. Contrast to Freud – • Aggression is not inborn, but is a means by which humans try to protect their security. • Did not feel that conflict is built into the nature of humans and is therefore inevitable, arise out of social conditions. • Narcissism is not really self-love but self-inflation and overevaluation owing to feelings of insecurity.
  43. 43. Harry Stack-Sullivan Interpersonal theory of psychiatry Personality is “ the relatively enduring pattern of recurrent interpersonal situations which characterize a human life”. • Hypothetical entity that cannot be isolated from interpersonal situations, & interpersonal behavior is all that can be observed as personality. • The unit of study is the interpersonal situation and not the person.
  44. 44. • Perceiving, remembering, thinking, imagining, and all of the other psychological processes are interpersonal in character. • Even nocturnal dreams are interpersonal, usually reflect the dreamer’s relationships with other people. • Did not deny the importance of heredity and maturation in forming and shaping the organism; which is distinctly human is the product of social interactions. • The organization consists of interpersonal events rather than intrapsychic ones. Personality only manifests itself when the person is behaving in relation to one or more other individuals.
  45. 45. Theory of personality • Dynamic center of various processes that occur in a series of interpersonal fields. The principal processes are Dynamism Personifications Cognitive processes Dynamism: - • The relatively enduring pattern of energy transformations, which recurrently characterize the organism in its duration as a living organism. • An energy transformation is any form of behavior. It may be overt and public, or covert and private.
  46. 46. • Distinctively human in character are those that characterize one’s interpersonal relations. • Any habitual reaction towards one or more persons, whether it be in the form of a feeling, an attitude, or an overt action, constitutes a dynamism. • Same basic dynamism, mode of expression of dynamism varies in accordance with the situation and the life experience • Usually employs a particular zone of the body such as the mouth, by means of which it interacts with the environment. • Most dynamisms serve the purpose of satisfying the basic needs of the organism. Receptor apparatus for receiving stimuli Educators in CNS Effector apparatus for performing action
  47. 47. The self-system • Dynamism that develops as a result of anxiety • Anxiety is a product of interpersonal relations, being transmitted originally from the mother to the infant and later in life by threats to one security. • To avoid or minimize actual or potential anxiety, people adopt various types of protective measures • These security measures form the self-system that Good-me self = sanctions certain forms of behavior Bad-me self = forbids other forms Not-me self = excludes from consciousness still other forms that are too alien and disgusting to even be considered
  48. 48. • Though these processes the self-system acts as filter for awareness. • Selective attention - unconscious refusal to attend to anxiety-generating events and feelings. • The self-system as the guardian of one’s security tends to become isolated from the rest of personality: it excludes information that is incongruous with its present organization and fails thereby to profit from experience. • In general, the more experiences people have with anxiety, the more inflated their self systems becomes and the more it becomes dissociated from the rest of the personality. • Although the self-system serves the useful purpose of reducing anxiety, it interferes with one’s ability to live constructively with others.
  49. 49. Personifications • An image, an individual has of him- or herself or of another person. • A complex of feelings, attitudes, and conceptions that grow out of experiences with need satisfaction and anxiety. – The good-me = rewarding in character, – The bad-me = anxiety-arousing situations • Formed in the first place, but once formed, they usually persist and influence our attitudes towards other people. • Serves an anxiety-reducing function in early life may interfere with one’s interpersonal relation later in life. • Stereotypes – Personifications, shared by a number of people. Consensually validated conceptions, ideas that have wide acceptance among members of society and are handed down from generation to generation
  50. 50. Cognitive processes • Place of cognition in the affairs of personality in classification of experience. • Experience occurs in three modes Prototaxic – discrete series of momentary states of the sensitive organism. • Experience is the raw sensations, images, and feelings that flow through the mind of a sensate being. • No necessary connections among themselves and possess no meaning for the experiencing person. • During the early months of life and is necessary precondition for the appearance of the other two modes.
  51. 51. Parataxic - consists of seeing causal relationship between events that occur at about the same time but are not logically related. • Much of ours thinking does not advance beyond this level; see causal connections between experiences that have nothing to do with one another. e.g. superstitions. Syntaxic – highest mode of thinking, consists of consensually validated symbol activity, especially of a verbal nature. • Symbol - has been agreed upon by a group of people as having a standard meaning. e.g. words and numbers. • Produces logical order among experiences and enables people to communicate with one another.
  52. 52. The dynamics of Personality • Personality as an energy system whose chief work consists of activities what will reduce tension. Tension: - theoretically can vary between the limits of absolute relaxation, or euphoria, and absolute tension as exemplified by extreme terror. Two type of tension – 1. Arise from the needs of organism –connected with physiological requirement of life. • One result of need reduction is an experience of satisfaction: tension can be regarded as needs for particular energy transformations that will dissipate the tension, often with an accompanying change of ‘mental’ state, a change of awareness
  53. 53. 2. Result from an anxiety – anxiety is experience of tension that results from real or imaginary threats to one’s security. In large amounts, it reduces the efficiency of the individuals in satisfying their needs, disturbs interpersonal relations, and produce confusion in thinking. Energy transformations: - energy is transformed by performing work (overt action or mental). • These activities have as their goal the relief of tension. They are to a great extent conditioned by the society in which the person raised
  54. 54. Contrast to Freud • Not believe that instincts are important sources of human motivation, and not accept the libido theory of Freud. An individual learns to behave in a particular way as a result of interactions with people. • In contrast to Freud’s view that development is largely an unfolding of the sex instinct, Sullivan argued persuasively for a more social psychological view of personality growth, one in which the unique contributions of human relationships would be accorded their proper due.
  55. 55. Critics of Neo-Freudians • Just enlarged the scope of Freudian psychology by providing room for the social determinants of personality. • Elaborate one aspect of classical psychoanalysis, namely the ego and its defenses. The needs, trends, styles, orientations, personifications, dynamisms, and so forth, are accommodated in Freudian theory under the heading of ego-defenses. • Humans evolved by these, is too sugar coated and idealistic. These theories blamed society for deplorable state of affairs.
  56. 56. • Person presented by these is less a product of research and more a result of their normative preconceptions. They are moralists and not scientist. • All these oppose Freud’s instinct doctrine and the fixity of human nature, none of them adopts the radical environmentalist position that an individual’s personality is created solely by the conditions of society into which he or she is born • Failure of these theories to specify the precise means by which a society molds its members. How does a person acquire social character: How does one learn to be a members of society? Critics of Neo-Freudians
  57. 57. Conclusions • The Neo-Freudian psychologists were those followers of Sigmund Freud who accepted the basic tenets of his theory of psychoanalysis but altered it in some way • They emphasize the influence of social, cultural, and interpersonal variables in shaping personality. • They Just enlarged the scope of Freudian psychology by providing room for the social determinants of personality
  58. 58. All the theorist emphasized the influence of social variables in shaping personality, yet each of the theorist acknowledge their indebtness to the seminal thinking of Freud they have invested personality with a social imension equally if not superior in importance to the biological dimensions provided by Freud.
  59. 59. Bibliography • Comprehensive text book of Psychiatry, vol 1,(2nd edition.) • Comprehensive text book of Psychiatry vol 1,(9th edition.) • Synopsis of Psychiatry, Kaplan and Saddock,(10th edition.) • Theories of Personality, Hall, Linbzey, Campbell(Wiley’s publication 4th edition.) • Text book of PG Psychiatry,J.Nvyas ,Niraj Ahuja(2nd edition.) • Internet : • Morgan and king: Introduction to Psychology Thank