Aggression in general terms may be defined as the act of
beginning a quarrel, accidentally injuring someone ,criticising
or insulting someone or attempting and committing suicide.
According to Baron and Byrne Behavior directed towards the goal of harming another living
being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.
Atkinson and Smith et al
Behavior intended to injury someone physically or verbally or
Factors affecting aggression
What made you blow your cool? Why do people become aggressive?
To answer this question there are several factors that leads to or in same affects
our behaviour .they are as followsPERSONAL FACTORS
Direct provocation (when aggression breeds
Exposure to media (affects of witnessing
Heightened arousal (emotion, cognition and
Type A and B behaviour pattern
Hostile attributional bias
Narcissism, ego- threat,and aggression
SITUATIONAL FACTORS Alcohol consumption
Cultural beliefs and values
STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AGGRESSION
PUNISHMENT : an effective deterrent to aggression
Catharsis : does getting it out of your system really help
Cognitive interventions :apologies and overcoming cognitive
EXPOSURE TO NON-AGGRESSIVE MODELS
TRAINING IN SOCIAL SKILLS
Punishment is a procedure in which aversive
consequences are delivered to individuals when they engage
in specific actions – a technique to reduce aggression. But
sometimes it often fails to deter violent crimes.Four are
most important ways are:
It must be prompt.(must follow aggressive actions as
quickly as possible).
It must be certain.(probability that it will follow aggressive
actions will be very high).
It must be strong.(strong enough to be highly unpleasant to
It must be perceived by recipients as justified or deserved.
It is an opportunity provided to an angry person to express their
aggressive impulses in relatively safe ways will reduce their tendencies
to engage in more harmful forms of aggression.
But a mixed picture is offered by evidences
which suggest that , participation in activities that are not harmful
( vigourous sports, shouting obscenities in an empty room) can reduce
emotional arousal .such effects appears to be temporary stemming
from frustration and provocation because it may reappear as soon as
the individuals bring the incident that made them angry to mind
.Thus, participating in safe forms ,energy draining activities may
produce temporary reductions in arousal but feeling of anger may
quickly return when individuals meet ,or merely think about about the
one who annoyed them of aggression Cognitive factors may ensure
that cathartic effects if reappear , are short lived and less effective.
Aggression can be reduced by apologies- DO YOU FIND IT EASY OR
DIFFICULT TO APOLOGISE TO OTHERS? If your answer is “yes” then
start working on this very social skill.
Similarly ,god excuses can also be effective in reducing overt
aggression by persons who have been provoked by some manner.
Admissions of wrong doing that include a request of forgiveness and
by engaging in activities that distract away from the source of anger.
Training of social skills
One reason of aggression may be that they are lacking in social
skills for instance they don't know how to soothe others when
they become angry , and they don’t know how to refuse requests
that does not anger the requester . So teaching such people in
social skills may help to reduce aggression a long way.
Procedures for teaching individuals such skills exists and are not
very complex. For example both adults and children can improve
from watching other persons( social models) demonstrate both
effective and ineffective behaviors.
INCOMPATIBLE RESPONSES : IT’S
DIFFICULT TO STAY ANGRY IF YOU SMILE
It is a technique for reducing aggression in which individuals are
exposed to events or stimuli that cause them to experience affective
states incompatible with anger and aggression.
Suppose you feel that you are growing angry and then someone told
you a joke and that made you laugh . Would you remain angry?
Probably not. The changes are good , you would feel less angry
because laughter and positive effect it generates are incompatible
with feeling angry and actually aggressive.
Thus , humor, mild sexual arousal ,and feeling of empathy are all
effective toward the victim in this respect
Implications of legal sanctions (Berkovits)
Crime prevention approach
Aggressive behaviour is subdued , criminals are prevented from
reaching the goal.