Treaty of VersaillesTerritorialThe following land was taken away from Germany :Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia)West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of theLeague of Nations and the people of these regions would beallowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a futurereferendum.The League of Nations also took control of Germanys overseascolonies.Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty ofBrest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into new states :Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland alsoreceived some of this land
Treaty of VersaillesMilitaryGermany s army was reduced to 100,000 men; thearmy was not allowed tanksGermany was not allowed an airforceGermany was allowed only 6 capital naval ships andno submarinesThe west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of theRiver Rhine was made into a demilitarized zone(DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowedinto this zone. The Allies were to keep an army ofoccupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15years.
Treaty of VersaillesFinancialThe loss of vital industrial territory would bea severe blow to Germany s economy. Coalfrom the Saar and Upper Silesia in particularwas a vital economic loss.Combined with the financial penalties linkedto reparations($33 billion), it seemed clear toGermany that the Allies wanted nothing elsebut to bankrupt them.Germany was also forbidden to unite withAustria to form one superstate.
Treaty of VersaillesGeneral1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war.This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause".2. Germany, as it was responsible for starting the war as statedin clause 231, was therefore responsible for all the war damagecaused by the First World War. Therefore, they had to payreparations, the bulk of which would go to France and Belgiumto pay for the damage done to both countries by the war. Thefigure was eventually put at $33 billion .3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace.
The German reaction to the Treaty of VersaillesThere was anger throughout Germanywhen the terms were made public.The Treaty became known as a Diktat -as it was being forced on them and theGermans had no choice but to sign it.Many in Germany did not want the TreatysignedGerman representatives there knew thatthey had no choice as Germany wasincapable of restarting the war again.
The Allies Reaction to Treaty of VersaillesAt first, the treaty seemed to satisfy the Big Three(US, GB,France)Allies believed it was a just peace as it kept Germany weak yetstrong enough to stop the spread of communismkept the French border with Germany safe from anotherGerman attack and created the League of Nations that wouldend warfare throughout the worldWhen Wilson brought treaty back to the US Senate forratification, the Senate refused to sign it. Why?Most countries ultimately were unhappy with the treaty and theresults of WWI. Why?
Mein Kampf My Struggle Excerpts If, with the help of his Marxist creed, the Jew is victorious over the otherpeoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and thisplanet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid ofmen. Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of theAlmighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for thework of the Lord. Here he stops at nothing, and in his vileness he becomes so gigantic that noone need be surprised if among our people the personification of the devil asthe symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew. With satanic joy in his face, the black-haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for theunsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from herpeople. With every means he tries to destroy the racial foundations of thepeople he has set out to subjugate. Just as he himself systematically ruinswomen and girls, he does not shrink back from pulling down the blood barriersfor others, even on a large scale. It was and it is Jews who bring the Negroesinto the Rhineland, always with the same secret thought and clear aim ofruining the hated white race by the necessarily resulting bastardization,throwing it down from its cultural and political height, and himself rising to beits master.
Nazi Propaganda"All propaganda must be so popular and on suchan intellectual level, that even the most stupid ofthose toward whom it is directed will understandit... Through clever and constant application ofpropaganda, people can be made to seeparadise as hell, and also the other way around,to consider the most wretched sort of life asparadise."-- Adolf Hitler
The HolocaustThe genocide of approximately six million EuropeanJews during World War IIA program of systematic state-sponsored exterminationby Nazi Germany throughout Nazi-occupied territoryApproximately two-thirds of the population of nine millionJews who had resided in Europe before the HolocaustdiedSome maintain that the definition of the Holocaustshould also include the Nazis genocide of millions ofpeople in other groups from Germany and otheroccupied territoryBy this definition, the total number of Holocaust victimswould be between 11 million and 17 million people
Who was inferior according to Hitler?1. Jews(6 million dead)2. Gypsies(500,000 to 1.5 million)3. mentally/physically handicapped people(75,000 to 250,000)4. Soviet Slavs/POW s/Troops-(16.5 million)The Russian Academy of Science in 1995 reported civilian victims in the USSR, including Jews, at German hands totaled 13.7 million dead including 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide, 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. German captors killed an estimated 2.8 million Soviet POWs through starvation, exposure, and execution5. Poles(2.5 million dead)6. Homosexuals(5-15 thousand dead)7. communists/socialists(many but number not confirmed)8. dark skinned people(death and forced sterilization)9. mixed races-"The mulatto children came about through rape or the white mother was a whore," Adolf Hitler10. Jehovah s Witnesses(2,500-5,000)
What is the Aryan Race?misused by the Nazis to mean a so-calledmaster race that originated aroundGermanyperfect Aryan was blonde, blue-eyed, talland muscular.The original term refers to a peoplespeaking a Indo-European dialect.
Lebensborn-Fount of LifeThe program aimed to promote the growth of"superior" Aryan populations by providingexcellent health care and living conditions towomen and by restricting access to thosedeemed fitHouses were set up throughout Germany andmany occupied territoriesMany Lebensborn children were born to unwedmothers which helped lead to many rumors ofrape.Contrary to widespread rumors, women werenot forced to have relations with Aryan Germans
Hitler s Jewish Question 1933Nazis "temporarily" suspend civil liberties for allcitizens in 1933-Never restored.The Nazis set up the first concentration camp atDachau in 1933. The first inmates are 200Communists.Jews are prohibited from working as civilservants, doctors in the National Health Service,and teachers in public high schools. All but fewJewish students are banned from public highschools and colleges.
Nuremburg Laws 19351. Took away German citizenship from Jews thus making Jews second class citizens by removing their basic civil rights.2. established membership in the Jewish race as being anyone who either considered themselves Jewish or had three or four Jewish grandparents. People with one or two Jewish grandparents were considered to be mixed race. - eventually anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent was at risk in Nazi Germany3. Jews could only marry Jews4. No sexual relations between non-Jewish Germans and Jews
Kristallnacht-1938 Night of the Broken GlassOn the nights of November 9 and 10, 1938,gangs of Nazi youth roamed through Jewishneighborhoods breaking windows of Jewishbusinesses and homes, burning synagoguesand looting.In all, 101 synagogues were destroyed andalmost 7,500 Jewish businesses weredestroyed. 26,000 Jews were arrested and sentto concentration camps.Jews were physically attacked and beaten and91 died in the attack.
1938-Cont.All Jewish children are expelled frompublic schools in Germany and Austria.Nazis take control of Jewish-ownedbusinesses.
1939Hitler orders thesystematic murder ofthe mentally andphysically disabled inGermany and AustriaJews are required towear armbands oryellow stars
1940Nazis begin deportingGerman Jews toPolandJews are forced intoghettosNazis begin the firstmass murder of Jewsin Poland
1941Jews throughout Eastern Europe areforced into ghettosIn two days, German units shoot 33,771Ukrainian Jews at BabiYar- the largestsingle massacre of the HolocaustThe death camp at Chelmno in Polandbegins murdering Jews
1942Nazi officials announce "Final Solution"- theirplan to kill all European JewsFive death camps begin operation in Poland:Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka, Belzec, andAuschwitz-BirkenauGhettos of Eastern Europe are being emptied asthousands of Jews are shipped to death camps.The United States, Great Britian, and the SovietUnion acknowledge that Germans areexterminating the Jews of Europe.
1943Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto resist as theNazis begin new rounds of deportations.These Jews hold out for nearly a monthbefore the Nazis put down the uprising.
1944Hitler takes over Hungary and beginsdeporting 12,000 Hungarian Jews eachday to Auschwitz where they are murdered
1945Hitler is defeated and World War II ends inEurope.The Holocaust is over and the deathcamps are emptied.Many survivors are placed in displacedpersons camps until they find a countrywilling to accept them.
1947The United Nations establishes a Jewishhomeland in British- controlled Palestine,which becomes the State of Israel in 1948.
Japanese Invasion of ManchuriaWhat did this affair prove ?1.The League could not enforce its authority.2.A major power could get away with using force3.An issue so far from Europe was not likely toattract the whole-hearted support of the majorEuropean powers in the League - Britain andFrance.4. Great Britain was more concerned with it sterritories in the Far East than in themaintenance of law and order.5. Other powers would see this as a sign thatthey too could get away with the use of force6. The League also lost its most powerfulmember in the Far East and ultimately Japanwas to unite with the two other nations thatbroke League rules - Germany and Italy.
Ethiopia invaded by Mussolini 1936 Italy lost its Ethiopia colony in Africa at the 1896 Battle of Adua one of the worst colonial disasters of modern history Feb. 23, 1935, Italy sends large forces into Ethiopia Oct. 7, 1935, League declared Italy the aggressor
Italy/Ethiopia InvasionNov. 18 , 1935, Leagues sanctions begin -arms embargo, financial embargo, non-importation of Italian goodsFeb. 1936 - League could not agree on critical oil sanctions mainlybecause FDR refused - U.S. controlled 50% world oil tradeFeb. 29, 1936, FDR signed the 1936 Neutrality Act 1. mandatory arms embargo with warring nations 2. mandatory ban on loans to warring nationsMay 5 - Italy occupied Addis Ababa - annexed all Ethiopia May 9
Generalisimo Francisco Franco and the Spanish Civil War
Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact German ambassador von Ribbentrop and Soviet dictator Stalin laugh as Molotov signs the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact on August 23, 1939.
Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression PactRussia gave raw materials to Germany inexchange for money and weaponsBoth agreed to stay neutral if the otherentered the warSecretly agreed to invade and splitPoland. Germany would get the westernhalf and USSR the eastern halfRussia would get Finland, Estonia andLatvia and Germany would get Lithuania
How did the world react to this pact?ShockPoland was scaredHitler thought it would force Great Britainand France to back out of their promise tohelp Poland if attacked
William LuksenburgDescribes the first night of the German invasion of Poland Things began to change right the first night. The first night there were blackouts all over town. They would have a curfew. After dark, nobodys supposed to leave the house. The first memorable night is, was, when I...when some of our neighbors tried to...a young man tried to cross the street and he didnt realize just crossing the street, uh, would...would break, breach the curfew and a German soldier said, "Halt," and he kept on running. And he got machine-gunned all the way across, and he fell right in front of our house. So the Germans started yelling, all the men "Raus" [Get out], all the men out to help carry the body in and made me carry the body with four other persons. And because, the way he was machine-gunned, he was completely like cut in half. When I got home I was completely covered with blood, and I remember when I got into the house, my mother looked at me completely covered.There was something...such an awful thing to see first time. I was just absolutely covered with blood, and I always remember my mothers, uh, expression and my mothers fear and my mothers cry out when she saw me completely covered with blood and that was the first night, the first expression what was...We didnt know whats coming and it was a horrible thing, that first night.
Blitzkrieg-Lightning War The Concept of Blitzkrieg.1. Airforce attacks enemy front-line and rear positions, main roads, airfields and communication centers. At the same time, infantry attacks on the entire frontline and engages enemy.2. Tank(panzer) units breakthrough main lines of defense and advance deeper into enemy territory. While following, mechanized units pursue and engage defenders preventing them from establishing defensive positions. Infantry continues to engage enemy for the same reason.3. Infantry attacks enemy flanks in order to link up with other groups to complete the attack and eventually encircle the enemy and/or capture strategic position.4. Mechanized groups go deeper into the enemy territory outflanking the enemy positions and preventing withdrawing troops and defenders from establishing effective defensive positions.5. Main force links up with other units encircling and cutting off the enemy.6. Goal was to achieve victory as quickly as possible
Winston Churchill"What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect thatthe Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends thesurvival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life andthe long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury andmight of the enemy must very soon be turned on us now. Hitler knowsthat he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can standup to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may moveforward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world,including the United States, including all that we have known and caredfor, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age, made more sinister, andperhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let ustherefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if theBritish Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men willsay, "This was their finest hour."
Nazi Goals1. Destroy the Royal Air Force(before invasion was possible-hopefully by 9-15)2. Attack and destroy the British Navy3. Attack British troops**Germany never succeeded in achieving #1**German bombers did so poorly against the RAF that they started bombing at night only**Great Britain was aided heavily by the radar and Ultra
Stages1. Preliminary raids on GB ships2. Stage 1: Attack the Royal Air Force3. Stage 2: Intensified raids on RAF4. Stage 3: Started attacking London and other cities
Bases for DestroyersGreat Britain gave us 99 yearleases on the following bases: US gave GreatAntigua - Naval Air Station, Sea PlaneBase Britain oldBritish Guiana - Naval Air Station, destroyers:Sea Plane BaseJamaica - Naval Air Station, SeaPlane BaseSt. Lucia - Naval Air Station, SeaPlane BaseBermuda - Naval Air Station, SeaPlane BaseNewfoundland - Three Army AirForce Bases (Pepperell, Goose Bayand Stephenville), Naval OperatingBase Argentia and numerous Marineand Army Bases and Detachments,88 in totalTrinidad - Naval Operating Base,Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base,Lighter Than Air (Blimp) Base andRadio Station
THE ATLANTIC CHARTER-FDR/ChurchillSpring 1941No territorial gainNo territorial changes without the peoplessupport form those countriesSelf-determinationFree tradeDestruction of the Nazis and then setting upa peaceful governmet in GermanyFreedom of the seasAbandon the use of force, disarmament anda stronger League of Nation
German Invasion of USSRFinal Plan forOperationBarbarossa
Scorched Earth PolicyStalin demanded thisof the Soviet troopsas they retreatedWhat is this?
Operation Typhoon:Battle of MoscowSeptember 30 - December 5, 1941
The Soviet Winter CounteroffensiveDecember 6, 1941 - April 30, 1942