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The Rise of Fascism in Italy 
Mr. Rakochy 
IBDP History 
http://img.rtve.es/v/2332596/
Italy – The Birthplace of Fascism 
• Reaction to liberalism and humanism 
(enlightenment ideals) 
• Extreme Nationalism 
•...
The Risorgimento 
• Name given to period of time when Italy unified 
1815-1871 commonly accepted 
• Focused mainly on the ...
Reaction to 
Enlightenment 
Fascism 
Anxiety over 
industrialism 
and 
modernization 
Extreme 
Nationalism 
Disappointed 
...
Impact of World War One 
• 1915 Italy joins Triple Entente (Treaty of 
London) 
• War goes poorly for Italy 
– Loans from ...
Paris Peace Treaties 
• Italians received much of land promised 
– Asked for more 
– Did not get Northern Dalmatia or Germ...
http://www.jugoslavologija.eu/wp-content/ 
uploads/2014/05/London-Treaty-1915-Articolo- 
1.jpg
Treaty of Versailles “mutilated victory” 
Italy promised at 1915 Treaty of London (which convinced Italy to join Allies): ...
Liberalism destabilized 
• Liberal Orlando Government blamed for 
problems 
• Growing dissatisfaction among nationalists 
...
Socialist Threat 
• PSI (Italian Socialist Party) – considered major 
threat 
• Strikes, Protests, Land Occupations from 1...
Strikes, protest and appeasement 
• August-September 1920 over 300 factories occupied by 
unions and workers organizations...
Benito Mussolini 
and the “Third Way” 
• Started off as a socialist newspaper editor – Avanti 
• Advocated violence agains...
Benito Mussolini 
and the “Third Way” 
• July 1918 Mussolini renounces socialism 
• Calls for a 3rd way between the two (S...
Gabriele D’Annunzio 
• Seizes control of Fiume from March 1919- 
January 1921 (with a group of 2,000 men – 
many former ar...
Election bid fails in 1919 
• Mussolini turns to action squads controlled by 
various ras leaders 
– Benefited and finance...
Socialist political victories 
• Lead to more support of Mussolini and action 
squads by fearful middle-class, elite and 
...
Election Results 
• National 
– 1913 PSI (Socialists) 52 Seats (out of 479) – relatively 
liberal state 
– No fascist part...
Mussolini wants to consolidate power of fascists in 
himself and gain seat in Parliament 1921 elections 
• How to gain sup...
Election of 1921 
• Making the Fasci a national movement 
– Fascist violence a necessary part against 
communist threat 
•...
Problems 
• Fascists still fragmented and ras maintain 
significant control 
– Some ras lead violence made elite nervous
Solutions? 
• Mussolini signs a “pact of pacification” in 
summer of 1921 with socialist and union 
groups as a strategic ...
PNF 
• Mussolini forms PNF (National Fascist Party) 9 
Nov 1921 
– elected head in return for ending pact with socialists ...
Spreading Fascism 
• Mussolini’s dual policy (violence and law) 
• Local Ras still controlled masses 
– Two ras leaders: R...
Response 
• General strike called by socialists for July 31, 
1922 
– Strike put down by fascists within one day and 
tota...
March on Rome – October 1922 
• Ras leaders pressure Mussolini to move on 
Rome 
• Go ahead given (Mussolini hides in Mila...
Consolidation of Power 1922-1925 
• Goal is to create a one-party fascist state 
– Speech Nov 16, 1922 
• Mussolini intimi...
Fascist Grand Council 
• Established December 1922 by Mussolini 
– Decides on all government actions 
– All members appoin...
The Catholic Church 
• PPI (Italian Popular Party) – conservatives and 
Catholics 
• Gained support from Catholic Church 
...
The Acerbo Law – Nov 1923 
• Reform of electoral process 
– Winners get 2/3 of positions as long as they had 25% 
of vote ...
The Corfu Incident 
• Murder of Italian General on Greek soil 
– Mussolini sends in Italian troops to island of Corfu 
– L...
April 1924 Election 
• Mussolini sets up Ceka (group of thugs) to 
harass, terrorize and intimidate anti-fascists 
before ...
Matteotti Crisis – June 1924 
• Socialist leader Matteotti killed after providing 
evidence of fascist corruption during e...
Censorship 
• Censorship of the press resulted in the 
shutting of anti-fascist newspapers starting in 
July 1925 (support...
Government 
• August 1925 - Muss fired all elected officials and 
replaced them with podesta (appointed fascist 
officials...
The Dictatorship Established 
• Dictatorship officially claimed in Jan 1925 
• January 1926 – increased powers so that he ...
OVRA 
• Survives 6 Assassination attempts in 1926 
• As a result of assassination attempts new state 
controlled security ...
The Rise of Fascism in italy
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The Rise of Fascism in italy

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The Rise of Fascism in italy

  1. 1. The Rise of Fascism in Italy Mr. Rakochy IBDP History http://img.rtve.es/v/2332596/
  2. 2. Italy – The Birthplace of Fascism • Reaction to liberalism and humanism (enlightenment ideals) • Extreme Nationalism • Broken promises after WWI • Anxiety over industrialization and modernization • Slide an adaptation from Richard Thurlow’s Fascism p. 13
  3. 3. The Risorgimento • Name given to period of time when Italy unified 1815-1871 commonly accepted • Focused mainly on the North • Poor “backward South” not as Nationalistic – No real understanding of “Italy” • Most Italians’ lives did not improve • Most expelling of foreign troops by foreigners – French and Prussians expelled Austrians • Austria kept South Tyrol in the North
  4. 4. Reaction to Enlightenment Fascism Anxiety over industrialism and modernization Extreme Nationalism Disappointed Aspirations
  5. 5. Impact of World War One • 1915 Italy joins Triple Entente (Treaty of London) • War goes poorly for Italy – Loans from U.S. and Britain – Inflation – Government spending cuts after war – WWI performance propaganda nightmare
  6. 6. Paris Peace Treaties • Italians received much of land promised – Asked for more – Did not get Northern Dalmatia or German Colonies – Called a “Mutilated Victory” by Gabriele D’Annunzio http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5 /5a/Big_four.jpg
  7. 7. http://www.jugoslavologija.eu/wp-content/ uploads/2014/05/London-Treaty-1915-Articolo- 1.jpg
  8. 8. Treaty of Versailles “mutilated victory” Italy promised at 1915 Treaty of London (which convinced Italy to join Allies): 1. South Tyrol 2. Trentino 3. Istria 4. Dalmatia 5. Some Colonies Italy received: 1. South Tyrol 2. Trentino 3. Istria Resentment over 1. Dalmatia 2. Colonies 3. Fiume (largely Italian although not promised by 1915 Treaty of London –taken briefly by Gabriele d’Annunzio 1919-1921 later put under LON supervision by Italian government before Muss took over in Dec 1923 . . .now known as Rijeka, Croatia)
  9. 9. Liberalism destabilized • Liberal Orlando Government blamed for problems • Growing dissatisfaction among nationalists • 5 Prime Ministers Oct 1917-1922 – Orlando, Nitti, Giolitti, Bonomi, Facta
  10. 10. Socialist Threat • PSI (Italian Socialist Party) – considered major threat • Strikes, Protests, Land Occupations from 1919- 1920 (Biennio Rosso) – Create fear of communist revolution – Socialist/communist party ranks grow from 250,000 in early 1919 to 2 million by years end. • Giolitti lead government tries to appease workers and unions frustrating wealthy and middle class
  11. 11. Strikes, protest and appeasement • August-September 1920 over 300 factories occupied by unions and workers organizations • 1919-1920 soldiers returning from war occupied uncultivated lands and privately owned lands. – Occupation of land legalized by government. – 1918-1921 over 1 million hectares of land transferred to peasants. – Emilia-Romagna (just north of Bologna) powerful agricultural union formed (Federterra). Chamber of Labour also developed. • Large number of agricultural strikes in 1919-1920 forces better working conditions. – 1919 alone over 500,000 agricultural workers involved in strikes
  12. 12. Benito Mussolini and the “Third Way” • Started off as a socialist newspaper editor – Avanti • Advocated violence against State until outbreak of WWI • Fired from Avanti for being pro-war and a nationalist • Conscripted in 1915 – Medically discharged 1917 • Set up Il popolo d’Italia a newspaper financed by industrialists i.e. Fiat – Advocated war to benefit country and businesses he represented
  13. 13. Benito Mussolini and the “Third Way” • July 1918 Mussolini renounces socialism • Calls for a 3rd way between the two (Socialism and Capitalism) • Much support by conservatives and military veterans – Black Shirts formed to physically attack socialists and unions and use newspapers to spread propaganda (based on the arditi or daring ones of WWI) – March 23, 1919 Fascio di Comattimento formed from a coalition of nationalist and socialists to express hatred of liberal state • Why is this a good example of Mussolini’s flexible ideology?
  14. 14. Gabriele D’Annunzio • Seizes control of Fiume from March 1919- January 1921 (with a group of 2,000 men – many former arditi) – Source of concern and inspiration for Mussolini • Concerned with fragmented nature of fascist groups • Even so - Mussolini admired style of D’Annunzio – Uniformity, discipline, drama http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/common s/4/40/Fiume_cheering_D%27Annunzio.jpg
  15. 15. Election bid fails in 1919 • Mussolini turns to action squads controlled by various ras leaders – Benefited and financed by rich landowners and industrialists – Campaign of terror and violence against socialists and unions – Supported by middle class who feared socialism – Squads made up of former military http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe dia/en/archive/6/67/201203222008 03!Mussolini_biografia.jpg http://www.roads.co/upl oads/blog/Benito- Mussolini.jpg
  16. 16. Socialist political victories • Lead to more support of Mussolini and action squads by fearful middle-class, elite and nationalists • Leads to more violence by ras leaders of other fascist factions • Rebellions and strikes decline – violence and terror increase • 1919-1922 violent clashes between socialists and fascists result in 2000 deaths
  17. 17. Election Results • National – 1913 PSI (Socialists) 52 Seats (out of 479) – relatively liberal state – No fascist party – 1919 PSI 156 seats (out of 508) – No fascist party on ticket – 1921 PSI 123 seats (out of 535) “other socialists” 24 seats – Fascists 35 seats approx 7% • Local – 1920 PSI won control in 2162 of 8059 communes and 25 of 69 provinces in Northern and Central Italy.
  18. 18. Mussolini wants to consolidate power of fascists in himself and gain seat in Parliament 1921 elections • How to gain support? 1. Exploit fears – socialism, fear of land/property loss, etc. 2. Offer a solution I. Fascists will not seek revolution II. Fascists will work within the system but maintain violence against socialists III. Promise to work with liberals and forms coalition
  19. 19. Election of 1921 • Making the Fasci a national movement – Fascist violence a necessary part against communist threat • Giolitti and liberals create coalition for upcoming election with fascists who claim to have a common enemy • Fascist take 7 percent of the vote – Won 35 seats – Mussolini wins a seat on parliament – Mussolini rescinds offer to work with liberals
  20. 20. Problems • Fascists still fragmented and ras maintain significant control – Some ras lead violence made elite nervous
  21. 21. Solutions? • Mussolini signs a “pact of pacification” in summer of 1921 with socialist and union groups as a strategic move • As expected – angers ras and Mussolini resigns as head of Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (not yet a “party”) • Loss of Mussolini as head problematic for ras
  22. 22. PNF • Mussolini forms PNF (National Fascist Party) 9 Nov 1921 – elected head in return for ending pact with socialists – Strategically consolidated more power in himself – Able to streamline control over many action squads (although many were still in different ras hands) – Ras leaders retained major power -had to accept Mussolini as symbolic face of fascism – Mussolini was the undisputed head of the PNF and fascism in Italy
  23. 23. Spreading Fascism • Mussolini’s dual policy (violence and law) • Local Ras still controlled masses – Two ras leaders: Roberto Farinacci and Italo Balbo continued to spread control of fascism through armed struggle • Took over several provinces in Italy through violence and terror • Forced public works programs • Broke strikes • Fought in streets with socialists
  24. 24. Response • General strike called by socialists for July 31, 1922 – Strike put down by fascists within one day and totally snuffed out by August 3rd • Put Mussolini and fascist movement into a position of power • Former liberal leaders scrambled to gain Mussolini into a coalition government – Mussolini seemed willing when he recognized the monarchy
  25. 25. March on Rome – October 1922 • Ras leaders pressure Mussolini to move on Rome • Go ahead given (Mussolini hides in Milan in case of failure) • Number of tactical maneuvers results in King Emmanuel III declaring Mussolini P.M. – Kings motivations? • Anti-communism? Self-preservation? Mother’s influence?
  26. 26. Consolidation of Power 1922-1925 • Goal is to create a one-party fascist state – Speech Nov 16, 1922 • Mussolini intimidates government to give him “emergency powers” for one year – Threats of violence openly used – although could be presumed he was using threats toward left • Cuts taxes on industrialists and corporations (tax evasion encouraged) – Gains support from industrialist groups and nationalist party
  27. 27. Fascist Grand Council • Established December 1922 by Mussolini – Decides on all government actions – All members appointed by Mussolini – Fascist action squads turned into national militia (MVSN) • Their loyalty is to Mussolini not king • Reduces power of ras greatly • Group of 30,000 federally funded fascists
  28. 28. The Catholic Church • PPI (Italian Popular Party) – conservatives and Catholics • Gained support from Catholic Church – Banned contraception, swearing and with anti atheistic rhetoric – Pope conspires with Mussolini to do away with PPI leadership
  29. 29. The Acerbo Law – Nov 1923 • Reform of electoral process – Winners get 2/3 of positions as long as they had 25% of vote losers share remaining seats proportionally – FOR EXAMPLE IF: – Gives Fascists Legal control – Mussolini uses intimidation and coercion to get his way again. Fascists Other Party 1 Other Party 2 Other Party 3 Other Party 4 Other Party 5
  30. 30. The Corfu Incident • Murder of Italian General on Greek soil – Mussolini sends in Italian troops to island of Corfu – L.O.N. forces Mussolini to withdraw • Still a huge propaganda victory for Mussolini • Greeks pay 50 million lire
  31. 31. April 1924 Election • Mussolini sets up Ceka (group of thugs) to harass, terrorize and intimidate anti-fascists before the election – Over 100 people killed – Fascists cheated, stuffed ballot boxes and won 65% of votes (socialists and communists still won 2.5 million votes) – Acerbo Law not really needed as 2/3 achieved anyway
  32. 32. Matteotti Crisis – June 1924 • Socialist leader Matteotti killed after providing evidence of fascist corruption during election – Dumini (local ras leader) jailed by Mussolini • scapegoat – More evidence comes out implicating Mussolini, but ignored by king • Socialist leaders boycott parliament (Aventine Secession) • Pope Pius XI again sides with Mussolini in hopes of gaining some influence in his administration • Mussolini declares: "I declare….in front of the Italian people……that I alone assume the political, moral and historic responsibility for everything that has happened. Italy wants peace and quiet, work and calm. I will give these things with love if possible and with force if necessary.“ – Dictatorship established January 1925
  33. 33. Censorship • Censorship of the press resulted in the shutting of anti-fascist newspapers starting in July 1925 (supported by church) • December 1925 all journalists must be registered with the fascist party. • Violence from the left increases • Angered Ras demand a harder line by Mussolini or his exit from government
  34. 34. Government • August 1925 - Muss fired all elected officials and replaced them with podesta (appointed fascist officials) – Podesta were mainly wealthy landowning conservative fascist party members • This move insured more militant fascists who might threaten Muss were not in real power positions • August 1925 - All opposition party meetings were banned • 24 December – Muss assigned himself to “head of government”
  35. 35. The Dictatorship Established • Dictatorship officially claimed in Jan 1925 • January 1926 – increased powers so that he could issue decisions by decree without parliamentary approval (only answerable to King). – Law also required King to consult with Muss on any minister appointments – Effectively forms a dictatorship
  36. 36. OVRA • Survives 6 Assassination attempts in 1926 • As a result of assassination attempts new state controlled security force created 1926

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