The 12-Year Reich
1933-1945
Session 2
Prelude to War
1936-1939
The 12-Year Reich
1933-1945
Session 2
Prelude to War
1936-1939

                    Munich
The triumph of 1936, which had given Hitler’s own
 self-confidence such a huge boost, proved in a
       way not an end but...
Stanley Baldwin,
Prime Minister
1923-24, 1924-29 &
June, 1935-May, 1937
“With two lunatics like
Mussolini and Hitler you c...
“...the reluctance of many Europeans to
contemplate the need to fight yet another war
against Germany, until forced to do s...
The road to Munich
and beyond
George Grosz, “The
Hero” 1924
pacifism and
appeasement were the
consequences of the
incredibl...
This session will examine how Hitler’s singleminded
 determination to push and his opponents inability
 to resist effectiv...
Weltanschauung
                   world view

     Hitler’s foreign policy followed logically from
 his irrational world v...
HIS SENSE OF URGENCY

In October, 1937 he told a group “that both his
parents had died young, and that he probably did not...
The Fascist March of Aggression
The Fascist March of Aggression
 Mussolini’s Abyssinian Crisis, October 1935-1936
 Hitler's remilitarization of the Rhinel...
German policy created a vicious circle
 (1) rapid rearmament in
 order to acquire territory




 (3) makes acquisition of
...
Mussolini first speaks of a Rome-Berlin Axis
1 November 1936 as both begin their aid to
Franco’s side in the Spanish Civil ...
Anti-Comintern Pact
25 November 1936

 Japan would have several
 military clashes with the USSR
 over their puppet Manchuk...
Civil War in Spain, 1936-1939




                        JUST BACK FROM
                             Spain
              ...
Civil War in Spain, 1936-1939
 as the hammer & sickle + river
 of blood indicate, Germany
 turned the events in Spain into...
HANS BEIMLER 1895-1936
HERO OF THE ANTI-FASCIST FREEDOM STRUGGLE
German communist emigre, killed in Spain
“They shall not pass!”
--persistent slogan of defiance--
 used originally in 1916
 by the French at
 Verdun
 a WW I poster,...
The International Brigades
some of the battalions are listed below
The International Brigades
some of the battalions are listed below

  Abraham Lincoln &
  George Washington
  le Commune d...
The text reads All the peoples of the
world are in the International Brigades
supporting the Spanish people.
Republican poster from
Mexican sympathizers
many leftist exiles,
most famous, Leon
Trotsky, sought refuge
in Mexico
the La...
German and Italian
“volunteers” get live fire training
             the regular armed forces of the
             European d...
Aerial bombardment of civilians
Aerial bombardment of civilians
 German and Italian flyers
 soon won air superiority over
 the Russian fighters
 the interna...
Picasso’s “Guernica”
28 German & Italian bombers leveled this town on 26 April
1937. The painting was displayed in the 193...
three “useful idiots” and their user
Langston Hughes, Mikhail Koltsov, Ernest
Hemingway, and Nicolas Guillen, Madrid, 1937
Bell, p. 219
“Spain made war respectable again.”

“Heroism and even heroics were back in fashion again.”

“The spell cast by the war ha...
Franco’s
Nationalists
win, 1939
this Republican
poster shows the
Nationalists as an
odd lot
Anschluß, March 1938
(Link-up or Annexation)
Anschluß, March 1938
(Link-up or Annexation)
Volk outside the Reich
Volk outside the Reich

Note error
   3&4
 reversed
Austrian civil war; Feb 1934
                          Socialist fighter arrested
                              as governme...
Engelbert Dollfuß, 1892-1934
Clerical Fascism
Engelbert Dollfuß, 1892-1934
Clerical Fascism
 RC seminarian, then law at U of
 Vienna, economcs at Berlin U
 Austrian offi...
The modified Austrian Flag
The Jerusalem Cross in a circle looks
suspiciously like their neighbor’s Hakenkreuz
Your instructor in 1972
demonstrates “trial by combat” as King James
with crusader Jerusalem cross
Both Wehrmacht and economic leaders convince
Hitler to move on expanding Germany’s resource base
We help with the Four Year
Both Wehrmacht and economic leaders convince
Hitler to move on expanding Germany’s resource base
Meeting of 5 November 1937
Meeting of 5 November 1937



                                                                             Foreign Ministe...
Two sex scandals
the Blomberg-Fritsch crisis
Two sex scandals
the Blomberg-Fritsch crisis
Removing von Blomberg,
January, 1938
Removing von Blomberg,
January, 1938
not popular with the generals, too
much “Hitler’s man”--> “HJ Quex”

widower with 5 c...
Removing von Fritsch,
January-February, 1938
Removing von Fritsch,
January-February, 1938
as Hitler considered making him
Blomberg’s replacement an old
scandal surface...
“In order to put a smoke screen around the
whole business, a big reshuffle will take
place.” --Goebbels, 4.ii.38
“In order to put a smoke screen around the
whole business, a big reshuffle will take
place.” --Goebbels, 4.ii.38
 no new Wa...
Hitler addresses the generals
5.ii.38
Hitler addresses the generals
5.ii.38
 emotional, “I’ve been betrayed” “I need your support”
 their reaction--shocked sile...
The outcome of the Blomberg-Fritsch affair
 amounted to the third stepping-stone--after the
Reichstag fire and the ‘Röhm Pu...
Chief of Staff
Alfred Janska


                                        Nazi-
                                    sympathiz...
Chief of Staff
Alfred Janska


                                        Nazi-
                                    sympathiz...
12.ii.1938




         Hitler’s Berghof (mountain farm)
“Perhaps I’ll appear some time overnight in Vienna;
             ...
Hitler’s February demands
Hitler’s February demands

1. Lift the ban on the Austrian Nazis

2. Release all Nazi political prisoners

3. Add Nazis to...
Schuschnigg in Austrian
Parliament
tries to rally nationalists
appeals to former
enemies on left
on 9 Mar calls for
plebis...
Anschluß began with a
propaganda barrage




                  Men, now’s the
                      time!
Anschluß began with a
propaganda barrage
 “Rot, Weiß, Rot,
Bis Wir Tot!”
Red, White, Red;
Till we’re dead!
-- Austrian nat...
Schuschnigg steps down
Schuschnigg steps down
in a series of improvised
ultimata, Hitler applies pressure
the army is told to prepare for a
peace...
13 March 1938

                                  Viennese police
                                       fight to
          ...
Heimkehr
Crossing at Braunau, then Linz, finally Wien. 15.iii
Addressing the crowds at the Heldenplatz.
Adoring Austrians
The shot is taken from the balcony of the Hofburg in
Vienna (where Hitler addressed the multitudes). It'...
The announcement in the Reichstag
 Hitler describes the “fulfillment of the supreme
historical commission.” -- 18.iii.38
Viennese Jews humiliated
Made to scrub the sidewalk
Poster for the plebiscite
                    1806 end of the old Reich
                    1848 the all German
          ...
Never overly subtle, the Nazis!
the size of the circle makes clear what the
correct choice is
Plebiscite and Greatergerman Assembly
                             Ballot
         Will you support the deed of 13 March 1...
HITLER’S
                           HOMETOWN
                           LINZ, AUSTRIA, 1908-1945




       Jim Powers
Eva...
Tschechei(Czechia)
April-Sept, 1938
Tschechei(Czechia)
April-Sept, 1938

                   Sudeten-
                   deutsch
                     pin
Therefore, the Romans, foreseeing
    troubles, dealt with them at once,
    and, even to avoid a war, would not
    let t...
In 1919 the Treaty of St Germain had stripped
off the northern tier of Austria-Hungary to make
                 Czechoslov...
Sudetenland
the mountainous border surrounding Bohemia
and Moravia
Hitler and Henlein at the Berghof
summer, 1938
 Konrad Henlein, 1898-1945,
 head of the Sudeten German
 movement
 WW I Aus...
the half-year crisis
After Anschluß, a new kind of crisis emerges. This crisis:
the half-year crisis
After Anschluß, a new kind of crisis emerges. This crisis:


  not “in line with...expectations of......
Fall Grün          (Case Green) 1937

army staff had planned in 1937 a pre-emptive strike
against the Czechs, if the Frenc...
Ludwig Beck
1880-20 Juli 1944
Ludwig Beck
1880-20 Juli 1944
 entered the Prussian Army, 1898

 served on the General Staff,
 1914-1918

 served under We...
Der Westwall,
1936-1945
begun by army as a response to
the Maginot line

1938, unhappy with the pace,
Hitler gives it to O...
Göring’s role
like his army counterparts, quite
reluctant to start a war

feelers to London over the summer
through inform...
Ribbentrop’s role
 replaced v Neurath as
 Foreign Minister, Feb,
 1938 as part of the
 “big reshuffle”
 resentful of Britis...
the international constellation
the international constellation
 both of the Czech treaty allies, France and USSR, had
 serious problems limiting their re...
French
pacifists are
clear
See what will happen
to us next, if the
Popular Front
disarms France!
The problem of Soviet
    military aid to the Czechs

               Poland


                                          US...
Arthur Neville Chamberlain
(1869-9 November 1940)
 Rugby School, “red brick
 university”
 several Birmingham
 businesses, ...
On 30 August , in an emergency meeting, the British
 cabinet declined to offer a formal warning to Hitler of
    likely Br...
12 September




 ...Hitler delivered his long-
 awaited and much feared
 tirade against the Czechs
   at the final assembl...
12 September




 ...Hitler delivered his long-
 awaited and much feared
 tirade against the Czechs
   at the final assembl...
enter Neville Chamberlain
15 September
enter Neville Chamberlain
15 September

his first airplane flight at age 69
landing at Munich he takes a
special train to th...
Hitler’s study
                                         from a contemporary
                                              ...
22 September
               Bad Godesberg
22 September
                              Bad Godesberg



     the meeting begins with a shock for Chamberlain
     he e...
26 September
• his tolerance toward Beneš was at
an end
• praised Chamberlain’s efforts for
peace
• no further territorial...
27 September



 “Chamberlain [speaks this] evening on the radio
 of the absurdity of war on account of ‘a quarrel
  in a ...
28 Sept 1938
28 Sept 1938




  “Göring and Ribbentrop had a fierce row, though not
 in Hitler’s presence....He knew what war was, shout...
enter Il Duce
28 September
enter Il Duce
28 September
 11:15 a.m.,as the French
ambassador was playing for more
time...

 Italian ambassador asks for...
Braun Haus, München
site of the conference, 29. ix. 1938
to the historic meeting 29 Sept 1938 in
Chamberlain, Daladier, Mussolini, Hitler
conspicuously absent, Czech President Ben...
discussion on map specifics
beginning the afternoon of 29 September the four
powers carved up Czecho-Slovakia without the
o...
after 13 hours, the agreement
0230 30.ix.1938
the winners the next day
the dictators receive applause for saving the
peace
“I have here, signed by Herr Hitler himself...”
the sad, ill chosen words--
”peace with honor” and “peace for our time”
Was Britain prepared to threaten Germany with war
on behalf of a state which it certainly could not
save...but with the ab...
Was Britain prepared to threaten Germany with war
on behalf of a state which it certainly could not
save...but with the ab...
Postcard showing formidable Czech defenses
Postcard showing formidable Czech defenses




...still stronger was the
        Führer’s will!




                      ...
Marks of a Genocidal Mentality
vom Rath’s assassin,
7 November 1938, Paris
  Herschel Grynszpan
stores smashed and
looted, synagogues
 torched nationwide
thousands of shops, nationwide
the scope made it clear that this was no
spontaneous popular outburst
One of the at least ninety-one murdered

                           She was shot when she refused to
                     ...
roll call at Buchenwald
some of the 30,000 Jews rounded up
   nationwide after Krystallnacht
Israel’s Secret Plan for Destroying the Völk
           Unknown Secrets of the Bible

     pamphlet published in Munich, 1...
results of Reichskrystallnacht
results of Reichskrystallnacht
 international condemnation
 criticism within Germany of the wanton destruction of
 propert...
Hitler’s prophesy to the Reichstag
          30.January.1939
IF•INTERNATIONAL•
                FINANCE•JEWRY•SUC/
                CEDS•AGAIN•IN•PLUN/
                GING•MANKIND•INTO...
Vernichtung
a frame from the film clip of Hitler’s speech to the
Reichstag -- words have meaning
Miscalculation
Miscalculation



                 Protectorate of Bohemia and
                           Moravia
Coat of Arms
First Slovak Republic
   (Nazi satellite)
      1939-1945

                        POLAND
Modern Slovakia--not WW II borders
Msgr. Jozef Tiso
1887-1947
RC priest, politician, head of Slovak Peoples
Party

entered Czechoslovak parliament 1925, govt...
Emil Hacha
1872-26 June 1945
Emil Hacha
1872-26 June 1945

 Czech lawyer, 3rd President, only
 State President of the Protectorate
 of Bohemia and Mora...
Nazi troops enter Prag
midday 15.iii.39
Nazi troops enter Prag
midday 15.iii.39
  troops were poised on the
 border
  orders were to enter at 0600
 15 March, resi...
this famous picture
published worldwide as a symbol of the misery
which this occupation brought to most Czechs
and once again the ultimate victims
Zhid (Jew, cf. “Yid”), you’re not our neighbor!
Memelgebiet (Memel
district)
Historic Memel, 1252
Teutonic Knights’ castle (Ordensburg) guards the
port. Symbol of the Drive East (Drang nach Osten)
Memel
  district
 1920-23 allied
  occupation
1923 Lithuania
   annexed
     1924
“Autonomous”
Heim ins
Reich
Pres. Smetona Street
becomes Adolf Hitler
Street, 23.iii.39 ...
after an ultimatum
“In the event of any action which clearly
threatened Polish independence, and which
the Polish Government accordingly
cons...
launch of battleship
                                Tirpitz
                                 1.iv.39
                    ...
Franz Halder
1884-1972
Franz Halder
1884-1972
before Munich, part of the Beck
circle considering a putsch,
Hitler’s assassination
as Chief of the...
Freie Stadt Danzig
Freie Stadt Danzig
                      City
                     Coat of
                      Arms
Col Jozef Beck, 1894-1944
 quot;Peace is a precious and a desirable thing. Our generation, bloodied in wars, certainly des...
...from Polish courage and self-confidence
there arose a crucial element in the
European situation in 1939. Under pressure
...
Bombshell!
the secret protocol dividing the spoils




         23/24 August 1939
Göring’s role
 felt excluded from foreign policy since his row
 with Ribbentrop over Czech policy

 thought his arch rival...
Hitler meets with the army leadership
at the Berghof, 22 August




                         the famous picture window in
...
Hitler meets with the army leadership
at the Berghof, 22 August
 around 50 officers dressed in civilian
 clothes assembled ...
“We can only hold out for a few more years. Göring can confirm this.
We must act.”

The Polish situation had become intoler...
after a lunch break he continued with operational
details and a pep talk

 “iron determination” “life and death struggle” ...
Remember this poster from 1933?
   Emphasizing Germany’s weakness under the
             Versailles restrictions?



Wer b...
Albert
Forster
leader of the Danzig
NSDAP, here seen in
1941 as Gauleiter
Gleiwitz/Gliwice radio station   Alfred Naujocks



Operation Himmler
most famous of 21 such staged “provocations”
which H...
Old battleship fires the first shots
          of World War II
The Schleswig Holstein was a training ship sent
to disguise i...
The scum
  of the     The bloody
 earth, I    assassin of
 believe?   the workers,
             I presume?
“The wagon had begun in the spring to roll towards
 the abyss. In the last days of August, Hitler ‘could
   hardly have tu...
Review and Preview--an animated map from
an Internet site showing the stages of
German expansion from 12 March 1938 to
the...
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
12-Year Reich; Prelude to War
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12-Year Reich; Prelude to War

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12-Year Reich; Prelude to War

  1. 1. The 12-Year Reich 1933-1945 Session 2 Prelude to War 1936-1939
  2. 2. The 12-Year Reich 1933-1945 Session 2 Prelude to War 1936-1939 Munich
  3. 3. The triumph of 1936, which had given Hitler’s own self-confidence such a huge boost, proved in a way not an end but a beginning....the remilitarization of the Rhineland was merely an important stepping-stone. Kershaw, vol. ii, p. xlvi
  4. 4. Stanley Baldwin, Prime Minister 1923-24, 1924-29 & June, 1935-May, 1937 “With two lunatics like Mussolini and Hitler you can never be sure of anything. But I am determined to keep the country out of war” *** “...the bomber will always get through” (1934)
  5. 5. “...the reluctance of many Europeans to contemplate the need to fight yet another war against Germany, until forced to do so by the Nazis.” Jay Winter, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning. p. 95
  6. 6. The road to Munich and beyond George Grosz, “The Hero” 1924 pacifism and appeasement were the consequences of the incredible horror and real living memory of 1914-1918
  7. 7. This session will examine how Hitler’s singleminded determination to push and his opponents inability to resist effectively led to the re-ignition of global war on a scale that surpassed the Great War.
  8. 8. Weltanschauung world view Hitler’s foreign policy followed logically from his irrational world view. All the measures leading to war and his downfall grew out of the two beliefs which had been visible since Mein Kampf. (1) the inevitable conflict with Bolshevism over Lebensraum (living space) (2) the necessity of removing the Jews (a) from Germany (b) from their international power positions, both capitalist and Bolshevik!
  9. 9. HIS SENSE OF URGENCY In October, 1937 he told a group “that both his parents had died young, and that he probably did not have long to live. ‘It was necessary, therefore, to solve the problems that had to be solved (living space) as soon as possible, so that this could still take place in his lifetime. Later generations would no longer be able to accomplish it. Only his person was in the position to bring it about’ “ Kershaw, v. ii, p. 37
  10. 10. The Fascist March of Aggression
  11. 11. The Fascist March of Aggression Mussolini’s Abyssinian Crisis, October 1935-1936 Hitler's remilitarization of the Rhineland, February, 1936 Franco’s Spanish Civil War, July, 1936-1939 Hitler’s Austrian Anschluß, March, 1938 Munich & Sudetenland, late spring-fall, 1938 Hitler digests the rest of Czechoslovakia, March, 1939 German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, August, 1939 Poland, 1 September 1939
  12. 12. German policy created a vicious circle (1) rapid rearmament in order to acquire territory (3) makes acquisition of (2) crisis of raw materials territory necessary to keep & foreign exchange rearmament going PMH Bell, Origins of the Second World War in Europe, p. 159
  13. 13. Mussolini first speaks of a Rome-Berlin Axis 1 November 1936 as both begin their aid to Franco’s side in the Spanish Civil War
  14. 14. Anti-Comintern Pact 25 November 1936 Japan would have several military clashes with the USSR over their puppet Manchukuo’s border their military attache sought out von Ribbentrop he persuaded Hitler that this symbolic agreement would be a good move against Soviet expansionism
  15. 15. Civil War in Spain, 1936-1939 JUST BACK FROM Spain Roland Strunk REPORTER FOR THE V.B. speaks about his experiences at the Spanish front
  16. 16. Civil War in Spain, 1936-1939 as the hammer & sickle + river of blood indicate, Germany turned the events in Spain into a melodrama, Good vs Evil this complex Spanish event became the international focus of the Right vs Left both sides drew volunteers from as far away as the JUST BACK FROM Americas Spain Roland Strunk REPORTER FOR THE V.B. speaks about his experiences at the Spanish front
  17. 17. HANS BEIMLER 1895-1936 HERO OF THE ANTI-FASCIST FREEDOM STRUGGLE German communist emigre, killed in Spain
  18. 18. “They shall not pass!” --persistent slogan of defiance-- used originally in 1916 by the French at Verdun a WW I poster, right in 1936 in Spain in the battle of Madrid-”No pasaran!”
  19. 19. The International Brigades some of the battalions are listed below
  20. 20. The International Brigades some of the battalions are listed below Abraham Lincoln & George Washington le Commune de Paris & Henri Barbusse Deba Blagoiev Hans Beimler & Ernst Thälmann Garibaldi
  21. 21. The text reads All the peoples of the world are in the International Brigades supporting the Spanish people.
  22. 22. Republican poster from Mexican sympathizers many leftist exiles, most famous, Leon Trotsky, sought refuge in Mexico the Latin American left and right took sides in the Spanish conflict
  23. 23. German and Italian “volunteers” get live fire training the regular armed forces of the European democracies observed neutrality no such scruples restrained the Soviets or the emerging “Axis” countries their “military advisors” played active roles in the grim war Spain was a testing ground for new weapons and tactics
  24. 24. Aerial bombardment of civilians
  25. 25. Aerial bombardment of civilians German and Italian flyers soon won air superiority over the Russian fighters the international press was horrified as modern bombing proved much more effective than its WW I counterpart this triggered an aviation arms race and reinvigorated the pacifists
  26. 26. Picasso’s “Guernica” 28 German & Italian bombers leveled this town on 26 April 1937. The painting was displayed in the 1937 World’s Fair in Paris
  27. 27. three “useful idiots” and their user Langston Hughes, Mikhail Koltsov, Ernest Hemingway, and Nicolas Guillen, Madrid, 1937
  28. 28. Bell, p. 219
  29. 29. “Spain made war respectable again.” “Heroism and even heroics were back in fashion again.” “The spell cast by the war has not yet lost its power; there have been no anti-war novels or films about the Spanish Civil War.” Bell, p. 219
  30. 30. Franco’s Nationalists win, 1939 this Republican poster shows the Nationalists as an odd lot
  31. 31. Anschluß, March 1938 (Link-up or Annexation)
  32. 32. Anschluß, March 1938 (Link-up or Annexation)
  33. 33. Volk outside the Reich
  34. 34. Volk outside the Reich Note error 3&4 reversed
  35. 35. Austrian civil war; Feb 1934 Socialist fighter arrested as government crushes the rebellion Red workers take to the streets in their WW I uniforms
  36. 36. Engelbert Dollfuß, 1892-1934 Clerical Fascism
  37. 37. Engelbert Dollfuß, 1892-1934 Clerical Fascism RC seminarian, then law at U of Vienna, economcs at Berlin U Austrian officer & POW in WW I Christian Social Party, in government, 1930 chancellor in coalition, 1932 dictator, 1933, allies with Mussolini assassinated by Austrian Nazis, 25 july 1934
  38. 38. The modified Austrian Flag The Jerusalem Cross in a circle looks suspiciously like their neighbor’s Hakenkreuz
  39. 39. Your instructor in 1972 demonstrates “trial by combat” as King James with crusader Jerusalem cross
  40. 40. Both Wehrmacht and economic leaders convince Hitler to move on expanding Germany’s resource base
  41. 41. We help with the Four Year Both Wehrmacht and economic leaders convince Hitler to move on expanding Germany’s resource base
  42. 42. Meeting of 5 November 1937
  43. 43. Meeting of 5 November 1937 Foreign Minister Four Year Plan “Czar” & von Neurath Luftwaffe, Göring Hoßbach Hitler’s army adjutant War Minister von Blomberg Army Chief of Staff von Fritsch Navy Chief Raeder
  44. 44. Two sex scandals the Blomberg-Fritsch crisis
  45. 45. Two sex scandals the Blomberg-Fritsch crisis
  46. 46. Removing von Blomberg, January, 1938
  47. 47. Removing von Blomberg, January, 1938 not popular with the generals, too much “Hitler’s man”--> “HJ Quex” widower with 5 children 12.i.38 secret wedding Hitler & Göring witness Berlin prostitutes “out” his new wife Gestapo alerts Hitler, 21 Jan Goebbels--”Blomberg can’t be saved ... only the pistol remains for a man of honor. The worst crisis... since the Röhm affair....”
  48. 48. Removing von Fritsch, January-February, 1938
  49. 49. Removing von Fritsch, January-February, 1938 as Hitler considered making him Blomberg’s replacement an old scandal surfaced Otto Schmidt file from 1936 reviewed v Fritsch indignantly denies his accuser brought to confront him Gestapo interrogation Hitler doubts him he also retires “for health reasons”
  50. 50. “In order to put a smoke screen around the whole business, a big reshuffle will take place.” --Goebbels, 4.ii.38
  51. 51. “In order to put a smoke screen around the whole business, a big reshuffle will take place.” --Goebbels, 4.ii.38 no new War Minister, Hitler will head Wehrmacht a new office, the OKW, headed by Gen’l Keitel will advise the Führer service branches will be like ministries: Army- von Brauchitsch Navy- Raeder Luftwaffe- Marshall Göring von Ribbentrop replaces von Neurath at Foreign Office
  52. 52. Hitler addresses the generals 5.ii.38
  53. 53. Hitler addresses the generals 5.ii.38 emotional, “I’ve been betrayed” “I need your support” their reaction--shocked silence, no objections no doubt about Blomberg & Fritsch’s guilt the army, not the navy, Luftwaffe or Party, “had suffered a devastating blow” weakened the authority of the military leadership
  54. 54. The outcome of the Blomberg-Fritsch affair amounted to the third stepping-stone--after the Reichstag fire and the ‘Röhm Putsch’--cementing Hitler’s absolute power and, quite especially, his dominance over the army. Kershaw, vol ii, p.60
  55. 55. Chief of Staff Alfred Janska Nazi- sympathizer Nazi Chancellor Artur Seyss- Edmund v Kurt Schuschnigg Inquart Glaise- Horstenau
  56. 56. Chief of Staff Alfred Janska Nazi- sympathizer Nazi Chancellor Artur Seyss- Edmund v Kurt Schuschnigg Inquart Glaise- Horstenau
  57. 57. 12.ii.1938 Hitler’s Berghof (mountain farm) “Perhaps I’ll appear some time overnight in Vienna; like a spring storm” -- Hitler
  58. 58. Hitler’s February demands
  59. 59. Hitler’s February demands 1. Lift the ban on the Austrian Nazis 2. Release all Nazi political prisoners 3. Add Nazis to his government 4. Otherwise, military action
  60. 60. Schuschnigg in Austrian Parliament tries to rally nationalists appeals to former enemies on left on 9 Mar calls for plebiscite on 13 Mar Berlin caught off guard
  61. 61. Anschluß began with a propaganda barrage Men, now’s the time!
  62. 62. Anschluß began with a propaganda barrage “Rot, Weiß, Rot, Bis Wir Tot!” Red, White, Red; Till we’re dead! -- Austrian nationalist slogan Austrian nationalists, communists, and Jews (one clutching a cash box) flee the impending Nazi take- over Hitler considered the time right in early 1938 Men, now’s the time!
  63. 63. Schuschnigg steps down
  64. 64. Schuschnigg steps down in a series of improvised ultimata, Hitler applies pressure the army is told to prepare for a peaceful entry Austrian Nazis riot Mussolini says he won’t object Britain won’t help Austria Seyss-Inquart replaces Schuschnigg as Chancellor
  65. 65. 13 March 1938 Viennese police fight to restrain crowds Austrian border guards joyfully lift the barrier ( Blumenkrieg )
  66. 66. Heimkehr Crossing at Braunau, then Linz, finally Wien. 15.iii Addressing the crowds at the Heldenplatz.
  67. 67. Adoring Austrians The shot is taken from the balcony of the Hofburg in Vienna (where Hitler addressed the multitudes). It's taken to the left, overlooking the Heldentor (Heroesʼ Gate) on the Ringstrasse.
  68. 68. The announcement in the Reichstag Hitler describes the “fulfillment of the supreme historical commission.” -- 18.iii.38
  69. 69. Viennese Jews humiliated Made to scrub the sidewalk
  70. 70. Poster for the plebiscite 1806 end of the old Reich 1848 the all German Revolution 1918 Versailles und St Germain 1938 Ger-Austro Homecoming On 10 April each of you tell the whole world Yes it is the wish and will of the German One Volk-one Reich-one Leader!
  71. 71. Never overly subtle, the Nazis! the size of the circle makes clear what the correct choice is
  72. 72. Plebiscite and Greatergerman Assembly Ballot Will you support the deed of 13 March 1938 the Reuniting of Austria with the German State and do you support the action of our Leader Adolf Hitler? Never overly subtle, the Nazis! the size of the circle makes clear what the correct choice is
  73. 73. HITLER’S HOMETOWN LINZ, AUSTRIA, 1908-1945 Jim Powers Evan Bukey, Achim Weber 1961
  74. 74. Tschechei(Czechia) April-Sept, 1938
  75. 75. Tschechei(Czechia) April-Sept, 1938 Sudeten- deutsch pin
  76. 76. Therefore, the Romans, foreseeing troubles, dealt with them at once, and, even to avoid a war, would not let them come to a head, for they knew that war is not to be avoided, but is only put off to the advantage of others... Machiavelli, The Prince, iii
  77. 77. In 1919 the Treaty of St Germain had stripped off the northern tier of Austria-Hungary to make Czechoslovakia pink=Germans; blue=Czechs; brown=Poles olive=Ukrainians; dark green=Slovaks light green=Magyars
  78. 78. Sudetenland the mountainous border surrounding Bohemia and Moravia
  79. 79. Hitler and Henlein at the Berghof summer, 1938 Konrad Henlein, 1898-1945, head of the Sudeten German movement WW I Austrian Army POW on the Italian Front gymnastics teacher, active in politics after 1928 made ties with the NSDAP in 1935
  80. 80. the half-year crisis After Anschluß, a new kind of crisis emerges. This crisis:
  81. 81. the half-year crisis After Anschluß, a new kind of crisis emerges. This crisis: not “in line with...expectations of...powerful [Ger.] interests..., especially the army” not “of brief duration” provoked the “first tentative emergence of significant... opposition” “until 1938, Hitler’s moves...had been bold but not reckless”
  82. 82. Fall Grün (Case Green) 1937 army staff had planned in 1937 a pre-emptive strike against the Czechs, if the French attacked the Reich amended after the “Hoßbach meeting” (5.xi.37) to fit an unprovoked aggression to gain Lebensraum the Czechs had resources, a developed armaments industry, a good military with hardened mountain defenses the German High Command was not eager to attack
  83. 83. Ludwig Beck 1880-20 Juli 1944
  84. 84. Ludwig Beck 1880-20 Juli 1944 entered the Prussian Army, 1898 served on the General Staff, 1914-1918 served under Weimar government became Army Chief of Staff, 1935 wrote memos critical of the Case Green plans, May-July, 1938 resigned in protest (but quietly), on 18 August
  85. 85. Der Westwall, 1936-1945 begun by army as a response to the Maginot line 1938, unhappy with the pace, Hitler gives it to Organization Todt and RAD as the Czech crisis escalates, so does the pressure for its completion end Aug, 140,000 civilians & 50,000 army workers all work on the Autobahn and housing suspended!
  86. 86. Göring’s role like his army counterparts, quite reluctant to start a war feelers to London over the summer through informal contacts as matters heat up at summer’s end, he suggests through the British ambassador an international conference to defuse the Sudeten issue
  87. 87. Ribbentrop’s role replaced v Neurath as Foreign Minister, Feb, 1938 as part of the “big reshuffle” resentful of British treatment of him as ambassador, 1936-38 most eager, after Hitler, for war over Czechia
  88. 88. the international constellation
  89. 89. the international constellation both of the Czech treaty allies, France and USSR, had serious problems limiting their readiness to aid Poland and Hungary both had territorial claims and looked to profit from the dismemberment Italy had no interest in bucking her axis partner Britain was concerned over imperial unrest, especially Ireland, India and Palestine, and aware of her military weakness. She had no treaty obligations to aid the Czechs
  90. 90. French pacifists are clear See what will happen to us next, if the Popular Front disarms France!
  91. 91. The problem of Soviet military aid to the Czechs Poland USSR Czechs Hungary Rumania Poland or Rumania would have to grant the Red military passage rights, both highly unlikely
  92. 92. Arthur Neville Chamberlain (1869-9 November 1940) Rugby School, “red brick university” several Birmingham businesses, then mayor in government, 1917 on Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1931-37 PM, 1937-10 May 1940
  93. 93. On 30 August , in an emergency meeting, the British cabinet declined to offer a formal warning to Hitler of likely British intervention in the event of German aggression. Instead it was decided to apply further pressure on the Czechs...accept Henlein’s programme [of] virtual autonomy for the Sudeten Germans...or be doomed. Kershaw, ii, p. 108
  94. 94. 12 September ...Hitler delivered his long- awaited and much feared tirade against the Czechs at the final assembly of the Party Congress....” Ibid.
  95. 95. 12 September ...Hitler delivered his long- awaited and much feared tirade against the Czechs at the final assembly of the Party Congress....” Ibid.
  96. 96. enter Neville Chamberlain 15 September
  97. 97. enter Neville Chamberlain 15 September his first airplane flight at age 69 landing at Munich he takes a special train to the Berghof Hitler greets him on the steps after small talk they retreat to the study a three hour talk ensues
  98. 98. Hitler’s study from a contemporary postcard • Hitler begins with the German grievances • Chamberlain offers to consider, as long as force is ruled out • when Hitler blames Beneš for using force, Chamberlain shows guts, offers to walk out • Hitler-”If you recognize the principle of self- determination...then we can discuss....”
  99. 99. 22 September Bad Godesberg
  100. 100. 22 September Bad Godesberg the meeting begins with a shock for Chamberlain he explains how he had lined up his and the French government Hitler replies “that’s not good enough, events have changed our position” Does a rant. Demands immediate occupation of Sudetenland Chamberlain returns to his hotel the next day, they exchange letters Chamberlain agrees to take the new demands to the Czechs if Hitler would draw them up “That’s an ultimatum” “With great disappointment and deep regret, I must register, Herr Reich Chancellor, that you have not supported in the slightest my efforts to maintain peace.”
  101. 101. 26 September • his tolerance toward Beneš was at an end • praised Chamberlain’s efforts for peace • no further territorial demands in Europe once the Sudeten problem was solved • “We don’t want any Czechs at all” • the decision for war or peace rested with Beneš • “We are determined. Herr Beneš radio broadcast may now choose” Berlin Sportpalast
  102. 102. 27 September “Chamberlain [speaks this] evening on the radio of the absurdity of war on account of ‘a quarrel in a faraway country between people of whom we know nothing’.” Kershaw, ii, p. 119 In a letter to Hitler and Mussolini he proposes a four power conference
  103. 103. 28 Sept 1938
  104. 104. 28 Sept 1938 “Göring and Ribbentrop had a fierce row, though not in Hitler’s presence....He knew what war was, shouted Göring. If the Führer ordered it, he would be in the first aeroplane. But he would insist upon Ribbentrop being in the seat next to him.” Kershaw, ii, p. 120
  105. 105. enter Il Duce 28 September
  106. 106. enter Il Duce 28 September 11:15 a.m.,as the French ambassador was playing for more time... Italian ambassador asks for an urgent meeting with Hitler the Duce supports Germany but believes the English request for a conference would be advantageous Hitler suspends the planned mobilization “Tell the Duce I accept his proposal”
  107. 107. Braun Haus, München site of the conference, 29. ix. 1938
  108. 108. to the historic meeting 29 Sept 1938 in Chamberlain, Daladier, Mussolini, Hitler conspicuously absent, Czech President Beneš
  109. 109. discussion on map specifics beginning the afternoon of 29 September the four powers carved up Czecho-Slovakia without the object of their deliberations being represented
  110. 110. after 13 hours, the agreement 0230 30.ix.1938
  111. 111. the winners the next day the dictators receive applause for saving the peace
  112. 112. “I have here, signed by Herr Hitler himself...” the sad, ill chosen words-- ”peace with honor” and “peace for our time”
  113. 113. Was Britain prepared to threaten Germany with war on behalf of a state which it certainly could not save...but with the absolute certainty that to do so would from Robert Self, “Neville Chamberlain’s Reputation--Time for Reassessment”
  114. 114. Was Britain prepared to threaten Germany with war on behalf of a state which it certainly could not save...but with the absolute certainty that to do so would provoke a ruinous and probably unwinnable war slaughter millions bring in Japan and Italy destroy the British Empire squander its wealth undermine its position as a great power from Robert Self, “Neville Chamberlain’s Reputation--Time for Reassessment”
  115. 115. Postcard showing formidable Czech defenses
  116. 116. Postcard showing formidable Czech defenses ...still stronger was the Führer’s will! Hitler in Eger von Leeb’s troops enter unopposed
  117. 117. Marks of a Genocidal Mentality
  118. 118. vom Rath’s assassin, 7 November 1938, Paris Herschel Grynszpan
  119. 119. stores smashed and looted, synagogues torched nationwide
  120. 120. thousands of shops, nationwide the scope made it clear that this was no spontaneous popular outburst
  121. 121. One of the at least ninety-one murdered She was shot when she refused to tell where her husband was. The death certificate says she was “found dead” ‘Sarah’ Selma Zwieniki Hamburg
  122. 122. roll call at Buchenwald some of the 30,000 Jews rounded up nationwide after Krystallnacht
  123. 123. Israel’s Secret Plan for Destroying the Völk Unknown Secrets of the Bible pamphlet published in Munich, 1938
  124. 124. results of Reichskrystallnacht
  125. 125. results of Reichskrystallnacht international condemnation criticism within Germany of the wanton destruction of property while the four year plan demanded conservation never again would the pogrom approach be used the “Jewish Question” was turned over to the SS for a more “orderly” solution Jews were further demonized and dehumanized as “Germany’s misfortune” -- the internal enemy efforts to emigrate became more desperate
  126. 126. Hitler’s prophesy to the Reichstag 30.January.1939
  127. 127. IF•INTERNATIONAL• FINANCE•JEWRY•SUC/ CEDS•AGAIN•IN•PLUN/ GING•MANKIND•INTO• A•WORLD•WAR•THIS• WILL•NOT•BE•THE• VICTORY•OF•JEWRY• RATHER•THE•ANNIHIL/ ATION•OF•THE•JEWISH •RACE•IN•EUROPE Hitler’s prophesy to the Reichstag 30.January.1939
  128. 128. Vernichtung a frame from the film clip of Hitler’s speech to the Reichstag -- words have meaning
  129. 129. Miscalculation
  130. 130. Miscalculation Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
  131. 131. Coat of Arms First Slovak Republic (Nazi satellite) 1939-1945 POLAND
  132. 132. Modern Slovakia--not WW II borders
  133. 133. Msgr. Jozef Tiso 1887-1947 RC priest, politician, head of Slovak Peoples Party entered Czechoslovak parliament 1925, govt minister, 1927-29 & 1938 with Nazi encouragement, agitated for Slovak independence, hence “Czecho- Slovakia” Czech “oppression” of Slovaks used by Hitler as a pretext for March occupation Tiso’s reward was to head the Nazi satellite hanged by the Czech government, 1947
  134. 134. Emil Hacha 1872-26 June 1945
  135. 135. Emil Hacha 1872-26 June 1945 Czech lawyer, 3rd President, only State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia succeeded Beneš when he left after Munich, 30 November 1938 elderly, sickly, summoned to Berlin, evening of 14 March 1939, kept waiting until 11 p.m. threatened by Göring with the bombing of Prague, he fainted signed capitulation, 4 a.m. 15.iii.39
  136. 136. Nazi troops enter Prag midday 15.iii.39
  137. 137. Nazi troops enter Prag midday 15.iii.39 troops were poised on the border orders were to enter at 0600 15 March, resistance or no Hacha ordered the Czech army to stay in their barracks “another bloodless victory for vulgar gangsterism”-- WLSC
  138. 138. this famous picture published worldwide as a symbol of the misery which this occupation brought to most Czechs
  139. 139. and once again the ultimate victims Zhid (Jew, cf. “Yid”), you’re not our neighbor!
  140. 140. Memelgebiet (Memel district)
  141. 141. Historic Memel, 1252 Teutonic Knights’ castle (Ordensburg) guards the port. Symbol of the Drive East (Drang nach Osten)
  142. 142. Memel district 1920-23 allied occupation 1923 Lithuania annexed 1924 “Autonomous”
  143. 143. Heim ins Reich Pres. Smetona Street becomes Adolf Hitler Street, 23.iii.39 ... after an ultimatum
  144. 144. “In the event of any action which clearly threatened Polish independence, and which the Polish Government accordingly considered it vital to resist with their national forces, His Majesty’s Government would feel themselves bound at once to lend the Polish Government all support in their power.” Neville Chamberlain in the House of Commons 31 March 1939
  145. 145. launch of battleship Tirpitz 1.iv.39 Wilhelmshaven Hitler’s speech: “He who does not possess power loses the right to life”
  146. 146. Franz Halder 1884-1972
  147. 147. Franz Halder 1884-1972 before Munich, part of the Beck circle considering a putsch, Hitler’s assassination as Chief of the General Staff, prepares the plan for Poland, Fall Weiß (Case White) “now evidently relished the prospect of easy and rapid victory over the Poles and subsequent conflict with the Soviet Union or the western powers” (op. cit., 179)
  148. 148. Freie Stadt Danzig
  149. 149. Freie Stadt Danzig City Coat of Arms
  150. 150. Col Jozef Beck, 1894-1944 quot;Peace is a precious and a desirable thing. Our generation, bloodied in wars, certainly deserves peace. But peace, like almost all things of this world, has its price, a high but a measurable one. We in Poland do not know the concept of peace at any price. There is only one thing in the lives of men, nations and countries that is without price. That thing is honor.quot;-- 5 May 1939
  151. 151. ...from Polish courage and self-confidence there arose a crucial element in the European situation in 1939. Under pressure from Germany, Poland would fight rather than yield. Bell, p. 251
  152. 152. Bombshell!
  153. 153. the secret protocol dividing the spoils 23/24 August 1939
  154. 154. Göring’s role felt excluded from foreign policy since his row with Ribbentrop over Czech policy thought his arch rival, Ribbentrop, was way too confident that the British and French wouldn’t come to Poland’s aid continued to work through “back channels” for a settlement of the Polish crisis that would limit the participants late August, sent Swedish contact Birger Dahlerus to England several times with offers to keep Britain out of the coming war but Chamberlain’s government had lost all trust in Hitler after the March seizure of the rest of Czechia
  155. 155. Hitler meets with the army leadership at the Berghof, 22 August the famous picture window in the Great Hall with its mountain view
  156. 156. Hitler meets with the army leadership at the Berghof, 22 August around 50 officers dressed in civilian clothes assembled in the Great Hall “It was clear to me that a conflict with Poland had to come sooner or later. “Essentially all depends on me, on my existence, because of my political talents. “...probably no one will ever again have the confidence of the whole German people as I have. There will probably never again in the future be a man with more authority the famous picture window in than I have. the Great Hall with its mountain view Germany’s economic difficulties were a further argument for not delaying action
  157. 157. “We can only hold out for a few more years. Göring can confirm this. We must act.” The Polish situation had become intolerable. ...danger of losing prestige. The high probability was that the West would not intervene. He had always been proven right. “We are faced with the harsh alternatives of striking or of certain annihilation sooner or later.” Britain was in no position to help Poland “Our enemies are kleine Würmchen (little baby worms). I saw them in Munich.” His only fear was “that at the last moment some swine or other will yet submit to me a plan for mediation.”
  158. 158. after a lunch break he continued with operational details and a pep talk “iron determination” “life and death struggle” not to reach some line, but Kesselschlacht (cauldron battle) to annihilate the enemy forces he would provide a propaganda pretext for beginning the war, however implausible “The victor will not be asked afterwards whether he told the truth or not. When starting and waging a war it is not right that matters, but victory.”
  159. 159. Remember this poster from 1933? Emphasizing Germany’s weakness under the Versailles restrictions? Wer braucht Sicherheit im Osten? Who needs security in the East?
  160. 160. Albert Forster leader of the Danzig NSDAP, here seen in 1941 as Gauleiter
  161. 161. Gleiwitz/Gliwice radio station Alfred Naujocks Operation Himmler most famous of 21 such staged “provocations” which Hitler used to justify his invasion
  162. 162. Old battleship fires the first shots of World War II The Schleswig Holstein was a training ship sent to disguise its intent as a combat vessel
  163. 163. The scum of the The bloody earth, I assassin of believe? the workers, I presume?
  164. 164. “The wagon had begun in the spring to roll towards the abyss. In the last days of August, Hitler ‘could hardly have turned the carriage around without being thrown off himself.’ “ Kershaw, quoting Weizsäcker, p 228
  165. 165. Review and Preview--an animated map from an Internet site showing the stages of German expansion from 12 March 1938 to the end of September, 1939

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