“Nature is cruel, so we may be cruel, too… I
have the right to remove millions of an
inferior race that breeds like vermin”
The Second World War was the largest and
the most violent armed conflict happened
between 1939 and 1945.
The War became reason for over 60 million
World bore loss of $1.075 trillion (1945).
Surrendered to Germany in
1940 after 6 weeks
Franklin D. Roosevelt
• W WI and the Treaty of Versailles
•R ise of Totalitarianism
Political belief that says the individual is less important
than the nation.
Glorifies violence, believes it is needed to “prove”
strength of people.
Uses nationalism and racism.
Italy and then Germany became fascist.
Dictionary says “To Satisfy Someone”
Policy of appeasement: adopted by Britain and France where
they preferred diplomatic policy with the aim of avoiding war
by making concessions to Germany e.g. allowed Germany to
re-arm, allowed Germany to invade the Rhineland etc.
Appeasement assumed Hitler would keep his side of the
Chamberlain and Hitler at Munich Agreement
Despite the assurances
given by Hitler in the
Treaty of Munich (Sept 1938)
he occupied Czechoslovakia.
The War tactic used by Germans.
In German “Blitzkrieg” means “lightning war”.
Blitzkrieg included surprise attacks, rapid advances into
enemy territory, and massive air attacks that struck and
shocked the enemy.
Germany achieved most of its victories in World War II
through this tactic.
It was genocide of Jews.
Genocide: Purposely trying to exterminate an entire
group of people (ethnic, religious, racial).
Nazi planned to kill all Jews.
Why? Hitler called it as “Final Solution” to Germany’s
6 million Jews murdered in Europe.
5 million others (gypsies, mentally ill, homosexuals)
Total of 11 million exterminated
As more and more men were 'called up' to
serve in the forces
Women were encourged to take over the jobs
traditionally done by men.
This gave us a look of “Hunting and
gathering society” in modern times, where
men were out of their home to hunt the “Social
Animals” to secure their families and women
were gathering food for their children and
parents in the absence of their Men.
This gave high wages, freedom & personal
pride to the westren women.“Rosie the Riveter”
The home front covers the activities of the civilians in a nation
during the war there was 45% shortage of workers in
of the war)
Dec 7 –
Major Events 1939-1945
Treaty of Versailles
Rise of Totalitarian Regimes
Isolationism of Major Powers
1. Treaty of Versailles
a) The main points of TOV
b) Germany had to accept the
Blame for starting the war
c) Germany paid Reparations for
the damage done during the
war and it was $57 trillion
d) Germany was forbidden to
have submarines or an air
force. She could have a navy
of only six battleships, and an
Army of just 100,000 men.
e) Germany lost Territory (land)
in Europe . Germany’s
colonies were given to Britain
Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and
during negotiations for the TOV
2. World-wide Depression
The Great Depression was a severe
world wide depression in the decade
preceding World War II. The timing of
the Great Depression varied across
nations, but in most countries it started in
about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s
or early 1940s. It was the longest, most
widespread, and deepest depression of
the 20th century, and is used in the 21st
century as an example of how far the
world's economy can decline. The
depression originated in the United
States, starting with the stock market
crash of October 29, 1929 (known as
Black Tuesday), but quickly spread to
almost every country in the world.
This led to the
1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks
Germany & Italy:
3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes
a) A system in which the state and its leader have
nearly TOTAL control.
b) Individual rights are not viewed as important as
the needs of the nation.
c) No right to vote
d) No free speech
e) Government controlled economy Often a police
is a political philosophy in which total power is
given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied and
nationalism and, often racism are emphasized
4. Isolationism of Major Powers
1. Great Depression (problems at home for USA)
2. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving
3. This led to policy of “Appeasement”
a) Appeasement: give dictators what they want
and hope that they won’t want anything else.
b) Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria,
Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with
Hitler . . .
Hitler and Stalin (the Russian
leader) signed a ‘non-
They promised that neither
country would attack the other
in the event of war.
As part of the deal, Hitler
promised Stalin eastern part of
Poland, which he planned to
Hitler wanted to avoid a two
front war when he invaded
Stalin wanted to buy time for
the inevitable war against
Signing the pact cleared the
way for Hitler to invade
September 1st 1939 Hitler
invades Poland and WWII
begins …and the war begins
August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression
This photo shows the Russian foreign minister signing the pact,
whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background
The Non Aggression
pact allowed Germany
to march into Poland
without fear of an
attack from Russia.
On 3rd September
invaded Poland and
started War with
Britain and France.
September 1939: Germany invaded Poland
German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
Britain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitler’s
Germany in Western Europe.
German army invaded France and captured Paris in just 6 weeks.
It was a sudden and humiliating defeat that left Great Britain
standing alone to face Hitler and his allies.
In September 1940 , Germany turned its sights on Great Britain and
bombed the city of London.
The aim was to destroy Royal Air Force and control over British air
Bold daylight bombing raids over the city of London resulted in the
deaths of thousands of civilians.
In the long run, the Royal Air Force maintained its strength over the
Germans, and resulting British victory.
was the code name
for Germany's invasion of
the Soviet Union
during World War II
Over four million soldiers
of the Axis Powers invaded
Fast move towards the
Moscow in Summer.
Over 600,000 Russian
soldiers were captured.
The red army sustained
heavy losses but managed to
recover and eventually got
the upper hand by March
June 1941: Operation Barbarossa
German troops marching for Operation Barbarossa.
The US gave Great Britain war supplies
Great Britain gave the US access to military bases in
Caribbean and Bermuda
US-Britain War Supplies
Dec, 1941, Surprise attack by the Japanese on American Navy at
• Two hours = Destroyed 08 battleships, 10 smaller warships, and 230 aircrafts.
• 2,400 American soldiers were killed.
US declared war against Japan.
Pearl Harbor attack devastated
FDR: “A date which will live in
December 8, 1941- FDR receives
war declaration from Congress
Germany & Italy declared war on
United States FDR addresses Congress after Pearl Harbor
Midway was attacked for the first
time on December 7, 1941.
Japanese force was successfully
on June 4, 1942, a naval battle
near Midway decided the defeat of
It was the beginning of the end of
the Japanese Navy's control of the
The Soviet Union defeated Germany at the Battle of Stalingrad in Feb
The Axis suffered from 500,000 to 850,000 casualties
This was the turning point of the WW2 in Eastern Europe for AxisSadia
American and Allied troops land in Normandy, to liberate
By the July, 1944 Allied Forces conquered the Normandy and
Ohama Beach and pushed away Axis.
This begins the liberation of Western Europe
August 6, 1945: Atomic bomb was
dropped on Hiroshima (at least
August 9, 1945: Atomic bomb was
dropped on Nagasaki (at least 80,000
This forced Japan to Surrender
Allied invasion of France. Also called D-Day.
Within a month 1 million Allied troops were stationed
Germany is surrounded by the USSR to the east
Japan surrendered in 1945 after atomic attack
Germany surrenders in 1945 after Hitler commits
Allies divide Germany up between them.
Trials are held in Germany (and Japan) to trail the
people responsible for the war.
Many are executed and jailed for war crimes.Japanese Foreign Minister
signing the Instrument of Surrender
Instrument of SurrenderGeneral Alfred Jodl
signs the document of unconditional German surrender
World suffered at least 60 million causalities
U.S. lost over 300,000 soldiers
Over 25 million Russians alone died
10 million deaths in death camps
Almost 9 million Nazis died in WW2
Italy suffered from 0.5 million deaths
Financial Cost of World War II
Approx. $1.075 trillion in 1945
Before the Second World War broke out, a large proportion of the
world population was living under the sovereignty of a colonial
power, for the most part European. European domination in Africa
was particularly impressive.
Myths such as the invulnerability of colonial powers and white
supremacy were seriously challenged by the outbreak of the Second
Following the Second World War, the colonial system was subject to
growing unrest and many countries quickly acquired their
Clement Attlee, the Labor Prime Minister who replaced Winston
Churchill in July 1945, soon realized that independence for India was
Besides that independence of Burma, Malaysia, Indochina, Italy’s
African colonies, United Kingdom’s territories in Africa, North
Africa by France, French black Africa, Belgium’s African colonies,
Portugal’s African colonies, Spain’s African territories also got
So in this way the whole colonialism started to go towards
Nuclear Arms Race Started
World became bi-polar
New fears arise after the war– fight to contain the
The Beginning of
Judge a man by his
rather than by his