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World war II


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World War 2

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World war II

  1. 1. Tabassum Naveed
  2. 2.  Introduction  Causes  Summarized Details  Costs of
  3. 3. “Nature is cruel, so we may be cruel, too… I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin” -Hitler
  4. 4. The Second World War was the largest and the most violent armed conflict happened between 1939 and 1945. The War became reason for over 60 million Causalities. World bore loss of $1.075 trillion (1945).
  5. 5. Axis Powers  Germany  Italy  Japan Allied Powers  Great Britain  Soviet Union  United States  France  Surrendered to Germany in 1940 after 6 weeks
  6. 6. Adolf Hitler Germany Hideki Tojo Japan Benito Mussolini Italy The AXIS
  7. 7. Winston Churchill Great Britain Franklin D. Roosevelt UNITED STATES Josef Stalin USSR
  8. 8. • W WI and the Treaty of Versailles •A ppeasement •R ise of Totalitarianism
  9. 9.  Political belief that says the individual is less important than the nation.  Glorifies violence, believes it is needed to “prove” strength of people.  Uses nationalism and racism.  Dictatorships.  Italy and then Germany became fascist.
  10. 10.  Dictionary says “To Satisfy Someone”  Policy of appeasement: adopted by Britain and France where they preferred diplomatic policy with the aim of avoiding war by making concessions to Germany e.g. allowed Germany to re-arm, allowed Germany to invade the Rhineland etc. Appeasement assumed Hitler would keep his side of the bargain. Chamberlain and Hitler at Munich Agreement  Despite the assurances given by Hitler in the Treaty of Munich (Sept 1938) he occupied Czechoslovakia.
  11. 11.  The War tactic used by Germans.  In German “Blitzkrieg” means “lightning war”.  Blitzkrieg included surprise attacks, rapid advances into enemy territory, and massive air attacks that struck and shocked the enemy.  Germany achieved most of its victories in World War II through this tactic.
  12. 12.  It was genocide of Jews.  Genocide: Purposely trying to exterminate an entire group of people (ethnic, religious, racial).  Nazi planned to kill all Jews.  Why? Hitler called it as “Final Solution” to Germany’s problems  6 million Jews murdered in Europe.  5 million others (gypsies, mentally ill, homosexuals)  Total of 11 million exterminated
  13. 13.  As more and more men were 'called up' to serve in the forces  Women were encourged to take over the jobs traditionally done by men.  This gave us a look of “Hunting and gathering society” in modern times, where men were out of their home to hunt the “Social Animals” to secure their families and women were gathering food for their children and parents in the absence of their Men.  This gave high wages, freedom & personal pride to the westren women.“Rosie the Riveter”  The home front covers the activities of the civilians in a nation at war  during the war there was 45% shortage of workers in shipbuilding Industry
  14. 14. 18 1939 Sept - Germany invades Poland (official start of the war) Sept - France captured by Germany Dec 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War 1941 May - Germans Surrender 1945 Major Events 1939-1945 1940 Aug. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japan Surrender
  15. 15.  Treaty of Versailles  World-wide Depression  Rise of Totalitarian Regimes  Isolationism of Major Powers Ibtesam
  16. 16. 20 1. Treaty of Versailles a) The main points of TOV (BRAT) b) Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war c) Germany paid Reparations for the damage done during the war and it was $57 trillion (modern equivalent) d) Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men. e) Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe . Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France. Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson during negotiations for the TOV
  17. 17. 21 2. World-wide Depression The Great Depression was a severe world wide depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century, and is used in the 21st century as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, starting with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday), but quickly spread to almost every country in the world. This led to the Massive Unemployment High Inflation 1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks
  18. 18. Totalitarianism USSR: Communist Dictatorship Germany & Italy: Fascist Dictatorship Japan: Military Dictatorship 3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes
  19. 19. Totalitarianism 23 a) A system in which the state and its leader have nearly TOTAL control. b) Individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation. c) No right to vote d) No free speech e) Government controlled economy Often a police state Fascism: is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied and nationalism and, often racism are emphasized
  20. 20. 4. Isolationism of Major Powers 24 1. Great Depression (problems at home for USA) 2. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts 3. This led to policy of “Appeasement” a) Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else. b) Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler . . .
  21. 21. Hitler and Stalin (the Russian leader) signed a ‘non- aggression pact’. They promised that neither country would attack the other in the event of war. As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin eastern part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon. Hitler wanted to avoid a two front war when he invaded Poland Stalin wanted to buy time for the inevitable war against Germany Signing the pact cleared the way for Hitler to invade Poland September 1st 1939 Hitler invades Poland and WWII begins …and the war begins August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact This photo shows the Russian foreign minister signing the pact, whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background
  22. 22. The Non Aggression pact allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia. On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started War with Britain and France. September 1939: Germany invaded Poland German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
  23. 23.  Britain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitler’s Germany in Western Europe.  German army invaded France and captured Paris in just 6 weeks.  It was a sudden and humiliating defeat that left Great Britain standing alone to face Hitler and his allies. Aftab
  24. 24.  In September 1940 , Germany turned its sights on Great Britain and bombed the city of London.  The aim was to destroy Royal Air Force and control over British air space.  Bold daylight bombing raids over the city of London resulted in the deaths of thousands of civilians.  In the long run, the Royal Air Force maintained its strength over the Germans, and resulting British victory.
  25. 25.  was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II  Over four million soldiers of the Axis Powers invaded the USSR  Fast move towards the Moscow in Summer.  Over 600,000 Russian soldiers were captured.  The red army sustained heavy losses but managed to recover and eventually got the upper hand by March 1942 June 1941: Operation Barbarossa German troops marching for Operation Barbarossa.
  26. 26.  The US gave Great Britain war supplies  Great Britain gave the US access to military bases in Caribbean and Bermuda US-Britain War Supplies
  27. 27.  Dec, 1941, Surprise attack by the Japanese on American Navy at Pearl Harbor. • Two hours = Destroyed 08 battleships, 10 smaller warships, and 230 aircrafts. • 2,400 American soldiers were killed.  US declared war against Japan.
  28. 28. 33
  29. 29.  Pearl Harbor attack devastated nation  FDR: “A date which will live in infamy”  December 8, 1941- FDR receives war declaration from Congress against Japan  Germany & Italy declared war on United States FDR addresses Congress after Pearl Harbor attack
  30. 30.  Midway was attacked for the first time on December 7, 1941.  Japanese force was successfully repulsed .  on June 4, 1942, a naval battle near Midway decided the defeat of Japan  It was the beginning of the end of the Japanese Navy's control of the Pacific Ocean.
  31. 31.  The Soviet Union defeated Germany at the Battle of Stalingrad in Feb 1943  The Axis suffered from 500,000 to 850,000 casualties  This was the turning point of the WW2 in Eastern Europe for AxisSadia
  32. 32.  American and Allied troops land in Normandy, to liberate France.  By the July, 1944 Allied Forces conquered the Normandy and Ohama Beach and pushed away Axis.  This begins the liberation of Western Europe
  33. 33.  August 6, 1945: Atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima (at least 150,000 killed)  August 9, 1945: Atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki (at least 80,000 killed)  This forced Japan to Surrender
  34. 34.  Allied invasion of France. Also called D-Day.  Within a month 1 million Allied troops were stationed in Europe.  Germany is surrounded by the USSR to the east  Japan surrendered in 1945 after atomic attack  Germany surrenders in 1945 after Hitler commits suicide.  Allies divide Germany up between them.  Trials are held in Germany (and Japan) to trail the people responsible for the war.  Many are executed and jailed for war crimes.Japanese Foreign Minister signing the Instrument of Surrender Instrument of SurrenderGeneral Alfred Jodl signs the document of unconditional German surrender
  35. 35.  World suffered at least 60 million causalities  U.S. lost over 300,000 soldiers  Over 25 million Russians alone died  10 million deaths in death camps  Almost 9 million Nazis died in WW2  Italy suffered from 0.5 million deaths  Financial Cost of World War II  Approx. $1.075 trillion in 1945
  36. 36.  Before the Second World War broke out, a large proportion of the world population was living under the sovereignty of a colonial power, for the most part European. European domination in Africa was particularly impressive.  Myths such as the invulnerability of colonial powers and white supremacy were seriously challenged by the outbreak of the Second World War.  Following the Second World War, the colonial system was subject to growing unrest and many countries quickly acquired their independence.  Clement Attlee, the Labor Prime Minister who replaced Winston Churchill in July 1945, soon realized that independence for India was inevitable.
  37. 37.  Besides that independence of Burma, Malaysia, Indochina, Italy’s African colonies, United Kingdom’s territories in Africa, North Africa by France, French black Africa, Belgium’s African colonies, Portugal’s African colonies, Spain’s African territories also got independence.  So in this way the whole colonialism started to go towards de-colonialisation.
  38. 38.  Nuclear Arms Race Started  World became bi-polar  New fears arise after the war– fight to contain the Communism. The Beginning of
  39. 39. (Voltaire-1744) Judge a man by his rather than by his