• Nazism, commonly known as National Socialism refers primarily to the
ideology and practices of the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler; and the policies
adopted by the government of Nazi Germany, a period also known as the
• The official name of the party was (NSDAP) — “National Socialist German
• It sparked by anger at the Treaty of Versailles and what was considered to have
been a Jewish/Communist conspiracy to humiliate Germany at the end of the
First World War.
THE NAZI PARTY’S RISE TO POWER: 1928-1933
• In 1928 Hitler’s Nazi Party were a small, insignificant
party. They enjoyed little success in elections and were
viewed as little more than thugs by the political elite. By
1933 however Hitler was the chancellor of Germany. The
Nazi’s had risen from obscurity to power, total power.
BUT WHAT HELPED NAZIS????????
• Economic instability
• Failure of the Weimar Government to cope with problems
• Weakness of the constitution
• Effective use of Propaganda
• Force used against opponents
• The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World
War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in
about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s. It was the longest, most widespread, and
deepest depression of the 20th century.
• The depression originated in the U.S., starting with the fall in stock prices that began around
September 4, 1929 and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929
(known as Black Tuesday). From there, it quickly spread to almost every country in the world.This
inturn led to economic instability in Germany
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
• Germany's Weimar Republic was hit hard by the depression, as
American loans to help rebuild the German economy now stopped.
Unemployment soared, especially in larger cities, The unemployment
rate reached nearly 30% in 1932, Repayment of the war reparations due
by Germany were suspended in 1932 following the Lausanne Conference
of 1932. By that time, Germany had repaid one eighth of the reparations.
FAILURE OF WEIMAR REPUBLIC
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of
World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the
Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years
after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other
Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt
with in separate treaties.
TREATY OF VERSAILLES AND IMPOSITIONS ON GERMANY
• Occupation of the Rhineland-As a guarantee of compliance by Germany, Part XIV of the Treaty provided that the Rhineland would
be occupied by Allied troops for a period of 15 years.
• Military restrictions-
• German naval forces will be limited to 15,000 men, six battleships , six cruisers , 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats . No submarines
are to be included
• The import and export of weapons is prohibited.
• Poison gas, armed aircraft, tanks and armoured cars are prohibited.
• Blockades on ships are prohibited.
• Restrictions on the manufacture of machine guns and rifles .
IMPOSITIONS ON GERMANY
• Public demanded improvements
• Nazi Party were largest party in Reichstag
• Hindendburg and von Papen thought Hitler could be controlled
• Hitler was a national figure after the 1932 Presidential campaign (he came second
to Hindendburg but had a large proportion of the vote)
WHY WAS HITLER MADE CHANCELLOR?
• Germany, aiming to provide extra space for the growth of the German population, for a Greater Germany.
In Hitler's book Mein Kampf, he detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum ("living
space", i.e. land and raw materials), and that it should be found in the East. It was the stated policy of the
Nazis to kill, deport, or enslave the Polish, Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered
inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be
exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their
replacement by a German upper class.
THE NAZIS AND THE JEWS
The nazis hated the jews because of the
following main reasons.They were-
• Christ Killlers
• Defeat of Germany in World War I
• Inferior race
• Great depression of 1929
• Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps throughout the territories it controlled. The first Nazi concentration
camps set up in Germany were greatly expanded after the Reichstag fire of 1933, and were intended to hold political
prisoners and opponents of the regime. The term was borrowed from the British concentration camps of the Second
• The number of camps quadrupled between 1939 and 1942 to 300+, as slave-laborers from across Europe, Jews,
political prisoners, criminals,gypsies, the mentally ill and others were incarcerated, generally without judicial process.
Holocaust scholars draw a distinction between concentration camps and extermination camps, which were
established by the Nazis for the industrial-scale mass murder of the predominantly Jewish ghetto and concentration