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WWII Ch 31


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WWII Ch 31

  1. 1. World War II and Its Aftermath (1931–1949)
  2. 2. Chapter 20: World War II and Its Aftermath (1931–1949) Section 1: The Path to War Section 2: War in Europe Section 3: A Global Conflict Section 4: Turning Points Section 5: Allied Victories
  3. 3. Aggression, Appeasement, and War <ul><li>How did dictators and the Spanish Civil War challenge world peace? </li></ul><ul><li>How did continuing German aggression lead Europe toward war? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors encouraged the coming of war? </li></ul>1
  4. 4. Hitler’s Rise to Power <ul><li>War Ends with German Defeat - November 11, 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler Joins German Workers' Party - 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi Party is Formed - 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler Named Leader of Nazi Party - July 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>The Beer Hall Putsch - November 9, 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler on Trial for Treason - February 26, 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler's Book &quot;Mein Kampf&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>A New Beginning - February 26, 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Germans Elect Nazis - September 14, 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Success and a Suicide - 1931 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler Runs for President - 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>The Republic Collapses </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler Named Chancellor of Germany - January 30, 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>The Reichstag Burns - February 27, 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler Becomes Dictator of Germany - March 23, 1933 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chamberlain & Hitler <ul><li>In 1938 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940), Conservative PM from 1937-40, made his gloomy trip to Munich to meet Chancellor Hitler in a last ditch effort to avoid war which resulted in the ill-fated 'Munich Agreement‘, an attempt at appeasement. </li></ul><ul><li>During that fateful trip Hitler invited him to his newly completed retreat in Berchtesgaden, Bavaria. </li></ul><ul><li>While there the Prime Minister explored the hill top lair of the Führer and found a reproduction of Matania's famous Marcoing painting depicting allied troops, puzzled by the choice of art Hitler explained, &quot;that man came so near to killing me that I thought I should never see Germany again, providence saved me from such devilishly accurate fire as those English boys were aiming at us&quot;. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Did Dictators Challenge World Peace? <ul><li>Throughout the 1930s, dictators took aggressive action but met only verbal protests and pleas for peace from the democracies. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini and Hitler viewed that desire for peace as weakness and responded with new acts of aggression. </li></ul>In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia. The League of Nations voted sanctions, or penalties, but had no power to enforce the sanctions. Hitler built up the German military in defiance of the Versailles treaty. Then, in 1936, he sent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland bordering France — another treaty violation. 1
  7. 7. <ul><li>  &quot;The AAU shouts against the cruelties of the other nations and the brutalities in foreign climates, but conveniently forgets the things that sit on its own doorstep.&quot; The Philadelphia Tribune , December 19, 1935   The Chicago Defender , December 14, 1935, reported that African American track stars Jesse Owens, Eulace Peacock, and Ralph Metcalfe favored participating in the upcoming Olympics because they felt that their victories would serve to repudiate Nazi racial theories. Peacock was injured in trials held in July 1936 and was never able to compete in the Olympics. In 1935 The Defender's circulation was larger than that of any other African American newspaper. June 1936. AP/Wide World Photos     </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Jesse Owens, &quot;the fastest human being,&quot; captured four gold medals and became the hero of the Olympics. In the long jump he leaped 26 feet 5-1/2 inches, an Olympic record. Immediately after the Games, Owens hoped to capitalize on his fame and quit the AAU's European tour of post-Olympic meets; for this action, the AAU suspended him from amateur competition. August 4, 1936. Bundesarchiv Koblenz, Germany </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hitler Olympics <ul><li>The American press reported widely on the friendship that developed between Owens and his German competitor in the long jump, Carl Ludwig (&quot;Luz&quot;) Long. </li></ul><ul><li>Long was killed in action during World War II. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Baltimore Afro-American (August 8, 1936) and other newspapers spread the story that Hitler refused to shake Jesse Owens's hand or congratulate other Black medalists. In fact, during the very first day of Olympic competition, when Owens did not compete, Olympic protocol officers implored Hitler to receive either all the medal winners or none, and the Fuhrer chose the latter. Whether he did this </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; is unclear. Privately, Minister of Propaganda Goebbels called the victories by Blacks &quot;a disgrace.&quot; Ignoring censors' orders to avoid offending foreign guests with racist commentaries, the radical Nazi newspaper Der Angriff (The Attack) wrote on August 6: &quot;If the American team had not brought along Black auxiliaries . . . </li></ul><ul><li>one would have regarded the </li></ul><ul><li>Yankees as the biggest </li></ul><ul><li>disappointment of the Games.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>JESSE OWENS -- With Adolf Hitler looking on, Jesse Owens' record-breaking performance at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, at the time the international symbol of racism and fascism, shattered the German dictator's theory of Aryan supremacy. He won gold medals in the 100- and 200-meter runs, broad jump (now called long jump) and the 400-meter relay. By the time Owens reached the victors' stand to receive his medals, Hitler and his entourage had left the stadium. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Jesse Owens
  12. 12. <ul><li>Professional boxing was among the few integrated sports in the United States, and prize fighter Joe Louis was a hero to American Blacks. On June 19, 1936, after rain postponed the fight a day, the undefeated Louis was knocked out by Germany's Max Schmeling. </li></ul><ul><li>German Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels proclaimed Schmeling's victory a triumph for Germany and Hitlerism. The Nazi weekly journal Das Schwarze Korps (The Black Corps) commented: &quot;Schmeling's victory was not only sport. It was a question of prestige for our race.&quot; In a 1938 rematch, Louis </li></ul><ul><li>defeated Schmeling in one round. </li></ul>
  13. 13. World War II <ul><li>The Road to Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1930s Isolationism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions to a Troubled World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Breaks Out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Arsenal of Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America in the Second World War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wartime Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Homefront </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D-Day and the German Surrender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War in the Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese-American Internment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Manhattan Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Decision to Drop the Bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Postwar Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cold War Erupts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containment and the Marshall Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Berlin Airlift and NATO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Korean War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Challenges </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Spanish Civil War <ul><li>Although the Spanish Civil War was a local struggle, it drew other European powers into the fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler and Mussolini sent arms and forces to help Franco. </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteers from Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and the western democracies joined the International Brigade and fought alongside the Loyalists against fascism. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1939, Franco had triumphed. </li></ul><ul><li>Once in power, he created a fascist dictatorship like those of Hitler and Mussolini. </li></ul>1
  15. 15. The Spanish Civil War 1936-37 Picasso, Guernica 8th - 23rd November 1936 <ul><li>In 1931 the Spanish king, King Alfonso XII, was forced to stand down and retreat into exile, and a republic was established. The next five years saw the balance of power swing between the conservative reactionaries of the Spanish establishment and the progressive working class movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The rulers of Spain could see their power (and property) slipping away and on the 17th July 1936, a group of extreme right-wing Nationalist generals made their move, starting with a military rising in Morocco, led by Franco, a fascist, which spread immediately to the mainland. Working class militants armed themselves and the military coup was smashed in Barcelona and Madrid, although the generals' troops did seize large areas. </li></ul><ul><li>General Francisco Franco called upon Hitler and Mussolini to help him gain military supremacy in Spain. This included the infamous destruction of Guernica in April '37 by German planes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Republican army unconditionally surrendered to Franco's fascist forces on 1st April 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone seemed happy that the communists had not won, and so Franco remained in power until his death in 1975. Prince Juan Carlos became king upon Franco’s death. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Francisco Franco <ul><li>Francisco Franco (1892-1975), was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in1975. He came to power at the end of the Spanish Civil War. In that war, he led the rebel Nationalist Army to victory over the Republican forces. After the war ended in 1939, Franco held complete control of Spain. His regime was similar to a Fascist dictatorship. He carried out the functions of chief of state, prime minister, commander in chief, and leader of the Falange Espanola, the only political party permitted. He adopted the title of El Caudillo (The Leader). In the early years of his regime, Franco tried to eliminate all opposition. He later eased restrictions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Franco <ul><li>As dictator, Franco kept Spain officially neutral during World War II. But he sent &quot;volunteers&quot; to help Germany fight the Soviet Union. After the war, the victorious Allies would have little to do with Spain because of Franco's pro-Fascist policies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Western powers became more friendly toward Franco during the Cold War with the Soviet Union, because he was against Communism. In 1953, Franco signed an agreement with the United States. He permitted the United States to build air and naval bases in Spain in exchange for economic and military aid. This aid helped bring about industrial expansion. Spain's living standard rose dramatically during the 1960's. By the mid-1970's, Spain had become a relatively modern, industrialized country. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1960's, opposition to Franco became more outspoken. Miners and other workers went on strike, though strikes were illegal. Opposition groups organized in secret. Franco relaxed police controls and economic restriction somewhat. In 1966, strict press censorship was relaxed. </li></ul><ul><li>Franco declared, in 1947, that Spain would be ruled by a king after he left office. In 1969, Franco named Prince Juan Carlos to be king and head of state after Franco's death or retirement. Juan Carlos is the grandson of King Alfonso XIII, who left Spain in 1931. Franco died on Nov. 20,1975, and Juan Carlos became king. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade <ul><li>The Abraham Lincoln Brigade were a group of volunteers who went to Spain to fight in the Spanish Civil War. It was not their war, but it was their fight—to save the world from fascism and communism. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;No man ever entered the earth more honorably than those who died in Spain.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Ernest Hemingway </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                       
  19. 19. German Aggression In 1938, Hitler used force to unite Austria and Germany in the Anschluss. The western democracies took no action. Hitler annexed the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia. At the Munich Conference, British and French leaders again chose appeasement. In 1939, Hitler claimed the rest of Czechoslovakia. The democracies realized that appeasement had failed. They promised to protect Poland, most likely Hitler’s next target. Hitler formed a Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact with Stalin. German forces invaded Poland. Britain and France immediately declared war on Germany. 1
  20. 20. Hitler/Soviet Pact
  21. 21. Hitler's Filmmaker Dies at 101 <ul><li>BERLIN (Sept. 9, 2003) - Leni Riefenstahl, whose hypnotic depiction of Hitler's Nuremberg rally, &quot;Triumph of the Will,'' was renowned and despised as the best propaganda film ever made, has died, a German magazine reported Tuesday, quoting a long-time friend. She was 101. A tireless innovator of film and photographic techniques, Riefenstahl's career centered on a quest for adventure and for portraying physical beauty. Even as she turned 100 last year she was strapping on scuba gear to photograph sharks in turquoise waters, although she had begun to complain that injuries sustained in accidents over the years, including a helicopter crash in Sudan in 2000, had taken their toll and caused her constant pain. Speaking to The Associated Press just before her 100th birthday on Aug. 22, 2002, Riefenstahl dramatically said she has ``apologized for ever being born'' but that she should not be criticized for her masterful films. ``I don't know what I should apologize for,'' she said. ``I cannot apologize, for example, for having made the film ``Triumph of the Will'' - it won the top prize. All my films won prizes.'' </li></ul>Although she said she knew nothing of Hitler's ``Final Solution'' and learned of concentration camps only after the war, Riefenstahl also said she openly confronted the Fuehrer about his anti-Semitism, one of many apparent contradictions in her claims of total ignorance of the Nazi mission. Likewise, she defended ``Triumph of the Will'' as a documentary that contained ``not one single anti-Semitic word,'' while avoiding any talk about filming Nazi official Julius Streicher haranguing the crowd about ``racial purity'' laws. Many suspected Riefenstahl of being Hitler's lover, which she also denied. Nonetheless, as his filmmaker, Riefenstahl was the only woman to help shape the rise of the Third Reich. She made four films for Hitler, the best known of which were ``Triumph of the Will'' and ``Olympia,'' a meditation on muscle and movement at the 1936 Berlin Olympic games.
  22. 22. Triumph of the Will <ul><li>Triumph of the Will was released in 1935 and rapidly became one of the best-known examples of propaganda in film history. Riefenstahl's techniques, such as moving cameras, the use of telephoto lenses to create a distorted perspective, aerial photography, and revolutionary approach to the use of music and cinematography, have earned Triumph recognition as one of the greatest films in history. Riefenstahl won several awards, not only in Germany but also in the United States, France, Sweden, and other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The film was popular in the Third Reich and elsewhere, and has continued to influence movies, documentaries, and commercials to this day. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Aggression in Europe to 1939 1
  24. 24. Why War Came <ul><li>Historians see the war as an effort to revise the 1919 peace settlement. The Versailles treaty had divided the world into two camps. </li></ul><ul><li>The western democracies might have been able to stop Hitler. Unwilling to risk war, however, they adopted a policy of appeasement, giving in to the demands of an aggressor in hope of keeping the peace. </li></ul>1
  25. 25. Section 1 Assessment <ul><li>Who made up the International Brigade? a) volunteers fighting against the republic in Spain b) volunteers aiding injured soldiers in Spain c) volunteers fighting against fascism in Spain d) volunteer peacekeepers during the Spanish Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following immediately led to Britain and France declaring war on Germany? a) Germany taking over the Sudetenland b) Germany annexing all of Czechoslovakia c) Germany annexing Austria d) Germany invading Poland </li></ul>1
  26. 26. Kristallnacht <ul><li>Kristallnacht literally &quot;Crystal Night&quot; or the Night of Broken Glass was an anti-Jewish pogrom in Nazi Germany and Austria on 9 to 10 November 1938. </li></ul><ul><li>Kristallnacht was triggered by the assassination in Paris of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a German-born Polish Jew. In a coordinated attack on Jewish people and their property, 91 Jews were murdered and 25,000 to 30,000 were arrested and placed in concentration camps. 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked. This was done by the Hitler Youth, the Gestapo and the SS. Kristallnacht also served as a pretext and a means for the wholesale confiscation of firearms from German Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>While the assassination of Rath served as a pretext for the attacks, Kristallnacht was part of a broader Nazi policy of antisemitism and persecution of the Jews. Kristallnacht was followed by further economic and political persecutions. It is viewed by many historians as the beginning of the Final Solution, leading towards the genocide of the Holocaust. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>This pogrom damaged, and in many cases destroyed, about 200 synagogues (constituting nearly all Germany had), many Jewish cemeteries, more than 7,000 Jewish shops, and 29 department stores. Some Jews were beaten to death while others were forced to watch. More than 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and taken to concentration camps; primarily Dachau, Buchenwald, and Sachsenhausen. The treatment of prisoners in the camps was brutal, but most were released during the following three months on condition that they leave Germany. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Events in only recently annexed Austria were no less horrendous. Of the entire Kristallnacht only the pogrom in Vienna was completely successful. Most of Vienna's 94 synagogues and prayer-houses were partially or totally destroyed. People were subjected to all manner of humiliations, including being forced to scrub the pavements whilst being tormented by their fellow Austrians, some of whom had been their friends and neighbors. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Nuremberg Laws <ul><li>The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were anti-Semitic laws in Nazi Germany which were introduced at the annual Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg. The laws classified people as German if all four of their grandparents were of &quot;German or kindred blood&quot;, while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents. A person with one or two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling , a crossbreed, of &quot;mixed blood.“ </li></ul><ul><li>The Nuremberg Laws deprived Jews of citizenship and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Laws <ul><li>The Laws for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor (September 15, 1935) Entirely convinced that the purity of German blood is essential to the further existence of the German people, and inspired by the uncompromising determination to safeguard the future of the German nation, the Reichstag has unanimously resolved upon the following law, which is promulgated herewith: </li></ul><ul><li>Section 1 Marriages </li></ul><ul><li>between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Proceedings for annulment may be initiated only by the Public Prosecutor. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Extramarital sexual intercourse between Jews and subjects of the state of Germany or related blood is forbidden. (Supplementary decrees set Nazi definitions of racial Germans, Jews, and half-breeds or Mischlinge --- see the latter entry for details and citations and Mischling Test for how such decrees were applied. Jews could not vote or hold public office under the parallel &quot;citizenship&quot; law.) </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Section 3 Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens under the age of 45, of German or kindred blood, as domestic workers. Section 4 Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colors. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colors. The exercise of this right is protected by the State. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5 A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 1 will be punished with hard labor. </li></ul><ul><li>A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 2 will be punished with imprisonment or with hard labor. </li></ul><ul><li>A person who acts contrary to the provisions of Sections 3 or 4 will be punished with imprisonment up to a year and with a fine, or with one of these penalties. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6 The Reich Minister of the Interior in agreement with the Deputy Führer and the Reich Minister of Justice will issue the legal and administrative regulations required for the enforcement and supplementing of this law. Section 7 The law will become effective on the day after its promulgation; Section 3, however, not until January 1, 1936. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Section 1 Assessment <ul><li>Who made up the International Brigade? a) volunteers fighting against the republic in Spain b) volunteers aiding injured soldiers in Spain c) volunteers fighting against fascism in Spain d) volunteer peacekeepers during the Spanish Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following immediately led to Britain and France declaring war on Germany? a) Germany taking over the Sudetenland b) Germany annexing all of Czechoslovakia c) Germany annexing Austria d) Germany invading Poland </li></ul>1
  33. 33. Josef Stalin, aka Papa Joe <ul><li>Stalin translates to 'Man of Steel'. </li></ul><ul><li>Country: Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR - Soviet Union). </li></ul><ul><li>Kill tally: Approximately 20 million, including up to 14.5 million needlessly starved to death. At least one million executed for political &quot;offences&quot;. At least 9.5 million more deported, exiled or imprisoned in work camps, with many of the estimated five million sent to the 'Gulag Archipelago' never returning alive. Other estimates place the number of deported at 28 million, including 18 million sent to the 'Gulag'. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Ukrainian Republic up to five million peasants starve to death in the &quot;famine&quot; of 1932-33 when the state refuses to divert food supplies allocated to industrial and military needs. About one million starve to death in the North Caucasus. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1937, the social upheaval caused by the &quot;revolution from above&quot; has resulted in the deaths of up to 14.5 million Soviet peasants. </li></ul>                                                                                          Click here to read the cover story from 1939
  34. 34. <ul><li>1939 - On 23 August Stalin signs a nonaggression pact with Germany's Nazi dictator, Adolf Hitler, carving up Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence, with the USSR claiming Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, part of the Balkans and half of Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin quickly acts to secure the annexation of the Polish territory with mass arrests of soldiers and others who might resist. By 1945, about 550,000 have been imprisoned or deported. More than 20,000 Polish officers, soldiers, border guards, police, and other officials are executed, including 4,500 military personnel who are buried in mass graves in the Katyn Forest near the Russian city of Smolensk. </li></ul><ul><li>German troops invade Poland on 1 September. Britain and France declare war on Germany two days later. The Second World War has begun. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin acts to secure the USSR's western frontier without antagonizing Hitler. Soviet forces seize eastern Poland in September and enter Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in October. War is declared on Finland at the end of November. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin is named 'Time' magazine's man of the year for 1939 for switching the balance of power in Europe by signing the nonaggression pact with Hitler, a decision that is described as &quot;world-shattering&quot;. &quot;Without the Russian pact,&quot; the magazine says, &quot;German generals would certainly have been loath to go into military action. With it, World War II began.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>In December 1939, to celebrate his 60th birthday, he is awarded the Order of Lenin and given the title 'Hero of Socialist Labor'. </li></ul><ul><li>1940 - The war with Finland ends on 8 March. Finland looses some territory but retains its independence. In the south, the Soviets occupy part of Romania in June. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>1941 - Sensing that Germany will soon attack the USSR, Stalin appoints himself as head of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan and the Soviet Union sign the Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact on 13 April, removing the threat to the Soviets of invasion by Japan and allowing the Soviet military to concentrate on the German forces mounting in the west. </li></ul><ul><li>When Germany invades on 22 June, Stalin takes command of the Soviet forces, appointing himself commissar of defense and supreme commander of the Soviet Armed Forces in what comes to be know in the USSR as the 'Great Patriotic War'. </li></ul><ul><li>On 3 July, Stalin makes a radio address to the nation. &quot;Comrades, citizens, brothers, and sisters, fighters of our army and navy,&quot; he says, &quot;We must immediately put our whole production to war footing. In all occupied territories partisan units must be formed.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>He also announces that a &quot;scorched earth&quot; policy will be employed to deny the Germans &quot;a single engine, or a single railway truck, and not a pound of bread nor a pint of oil.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans advance swiftly but are halted on 6 December by a Russian counterattack just short of Moscow, where Stalin directs the Soviet campaign from his rooms in the Kremlin. His armies fight under the slogan 'Die, But Do Not Retreat'. </li></ul><ul><li>To the north, the Germans reach Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) in August. The city is surrounded on 8 September, beginning a 900-day siege during which almost 1.5 million civilians and soldiers will die. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to encourage military aid from the Western Allies, Stalin agrees to release about 115,000 of the Poles imprisoned after the 1939 annexation. </li></ul><ul><li>1942 , Stalin is again named 'Time' magazine's man of the year, this time for stopping Hitler and opening the possibility of an Allied victory in Europe. </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 <ul><li>A Shock to the System </li></ul><ul><li>On 23 August, 1939, the world was shocked when, suddenly, Russia and Germany signed a Non-aggression Pact. People would have been even more shocked if they had known at the time that, in addition, the two countries had a secret agreement to invade and divide Poland between them.   </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul>
  37. 37. Nazi-Soviet Pact <ul><li>Hitler and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>In August 1939, Hitler sent Ribbentrop, a senior Nazi, to Russia. He offered a Nazi-Soviet alliance – Russia and Germany would not go to war, but would divide Poland between them. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin knew Hitler was lying, but he did not trust the British either – the Munich Agreement had convinced him that Britain and France would never dare to go to war with Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin had two choices: </li></ul><ul><li>if he made an alliance with Britain, he would end up fighting a war with Hitler over Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>if he made an alliance with Germany, he would get half of Poland, and time to prepare for the coming war with Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>He chose the latter. On 23 August 1939, he signed the Pact with Hitler.   </li></ul>Germany and Russia agreed to bury the hatchet; they agreed to bury it in Poland.
  38. 39. The Global Conflict: Axis Advances <ul><li>What early gains allowed the Axis powers to control much of Europe? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the Battle of Britain and Operation Barbarossa? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Japan respond to growing American involvement? </li></ul>2
  39. 40. Early Axis Gains By 1941, the Axis powers or their allies controlled most of Western Europe. 2 Germany and Russia conquered and divided Poland. Stalin’s armies pushed into Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Soviet forces seized Finland. Hitler conquered Norway and Denmark. Hitler took the Netherlands and Belgium. France surrendered to Hitler. Axis armies pushed into North Africa and the Balkans. Axis armies defeated Greece and Yugoslavia. Bulgaria and Hungary joined the Axis alliance.
  40. 41. <ul><li>In 1940, Hitler ordered Operation Sea Lion, the invasion of Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans first bombed military targets, then changed tactics to the blitz, or bombing, of London and other cities. </li></ul><ul><li>London did not break under the blitz. The bombing only strengthened British resolve to turn back the enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Sea Lion was a failure. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1941, Hitler embarked on Operation Barbarossa, the conquest of the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazis smashed deep into Russia, but were stalled before they could take Moscow and Leningrad. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of German soldiers froze to death in Russia’s winter. </li></ul><ul><li>Russians also suffered appalling hardships. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin urged Britain to open a second front in Western Europe. </li></ul>THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN OPERATION BARBAROSSA 2
  41. 42. Benito Mussolini was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism. He became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and began using the title Il Duce by 1925. After 1936, his official title was &quot; His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire &quot;. Mussolini also created and held the supreme military rank of First Marshal of the Empire along with King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, which gave him and the King joint supreme control over the military of Italy. Mussolini remained in power until he was replaced in 1943; for a short period after this until his death, he was the leader of the Italian Social Republic. Mussolini was among the founders of Italian Fascism, which included elements of nationalism, corporatism, national syndicalism, expansionism, social progress and anti-communism in combination with censorship and state propaganda. In the years following his creation of the fascist ideology, Mussolini influenced, or achieved admiration from, a wide variety of political figures.
  42. 43. Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years 1924–1939 were: his public works programs such as the taming of the Pontine Marshes, the improvement of job opportunities, and public transport. Mussolini also solved the Roman Question by concluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See. He is also credited with securing economic success in Italy's colonies and commercial dependencies. Although he initially favored siding with France against Germany in the early 1930s, Mussolini became one of the main figures of the Axis powers and, on 10 June 1940, Mussolini led Italy into World War II on the side of Axis. Three years later, Mussolini was deposed at the Grand Council of Fascism, prompted by the Allied invasion. Soon after his incarceration began, Mussolini was rescued from prison in the daring Gran Sasso raid by German special forces. Following his rescue, Mussolini headed the Italian Social Republic in parts of Italy that were not occupied by Allied forces. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape to Switzerland, only to be quickly captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian partisans. His body was then taken to Milan where it was hung upside down at a petrol station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.
  43. 44. <ul><li>The Second Italo–Abyssinian War/Second Italo-Ethiopian War was a brief colonial war that started in October 1935 and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy ( Regno d'Italia ) and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia). The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (AOI). However, Ethiopia never capitulated or surrendered. </li></ul><ul><li>Politically, the war is best remembered for exposing the inherent weakness of the League of Nations. The Abyssinia Crisis in 1934 is often seen as a clear example of the ineffectiveness of the League. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations and yet the League was unable to control Italy or to protect Ethiopia when Italy clearly violated the League's own Article X. The war is also remembered for the illegal use of mustard gas and phosgene by the Italian armed forces. </li></ul><ul><li>The positive outcome of the war for the Italians coincided with the zenith of the international popularity of dictator Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime, in a phase called &quot;the age of consensus&quot; during which foreign leaders, including Winston Churchill, praised him for his achievements, it must not be ignored that during the fascist period slavery was abolished in Ethiopia. </li></ul>
  44. 45. On 3 October 1935, Italian soldiers commanded by General Emilio De Bono invaded Ethiopia from Eritrea and started the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. The war lasted seven months before Haile Selassie I went into exile and the Italians declared victory. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, Italy was named as the aggressor, and some sanctions were imposed. However, not much was ever done to end hostilities. In May 1936, Ethiopia became part of Italian East Africa and remained as part of the colony until World War II. In 1941, the Ethiopian Empire was liberated by a combination of Ethiopian partisans and British and Commonwealth forces. The major offensives launched against the Italian colonial forces came from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and from British East Africa. Haile Selassie re-entered Addis Ababa five years to the day from when he was forced into exile. After World War II, Eritrea was incorporated into the Ethiopian Empire. Eritrea remained a part of Ethiopia even after the dissolution of the monarchy. In 1993, Eritrea won its independence from Ethiopia. International Fascism: The Italian Empire in 1939.
  45. 46. Haile Selassie, Ras Tafari <ul><li>In 1936, with the Italian conquest of Ethiopia, Mussolini proclaimed Victor Emmanuel III to be the Emperor of Ethiopia - a title considered illegitimate by parts of the international community, and lasted only five years. </li></ul><ul><li>Haile Selassie returned to power with the British conquest of the Italian East Africa during WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>In January 1942 he was officially reinstated to power in Ethiopia by the British government. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Norman Rockwell’s Art in The Saturday Evening Post The Four Freedoms 1941 1. Freedom of Speech 2. Freedom of Religion 3. Freedom from Want 4. Freedom from Fear
  47. 48. Growing American Involvement When the war began in 1939, the United States declared its neutrality. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the President to supply arms to those who were fighting for democracy. Roosevelt and Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter, which called for the “final destruction of the Nazi tyranny.” Japan advanced into French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies. To stop Japanese aggression, the United States banned the sale of war materials to Japan. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. The United States declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy, as Japan’s allies, declared war on the United States. 2
  48. 49. Cash/Carry and Lend/Lease <ul><li>The US tried to maintain neutrality as the danger in Europe grew. To revise the strict principles of neutrality, cash and carry and lend-lease acts will be introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>The US response was divided after Italy took Ethiopia and Franco conquered Spain. Strong isolationist forces controlled Congress (although most Congressmen did not favor extreme isolationism) and passed a series of Neutrality laws. The laws, passed in 1939, taken together, forbade Americans from sending arms or loans to countries engaged in wars (including civil wars like Spain). Later, the law was changed so that Americans could sell arms on a &quot;cash and carry&quot; basis--meaning that the country needed to pay for the arms in cash and needed to ship it in their own ships . The object was to stop incidents like the sinking of American ships and support for one side in any war that might break out so that America would not be tempted to enter the war. Once the Allies had lost too many ships to Nazi subs (by October of 1941), FDR upgraded the plan to the Lend/Lease. We would loan any materiel that would &quot;Further to promote the defense of the United States, and for other purposes.&quot; . In a famous fireside chat, FDR proposed, ”Suppose your neighbor’s house were on fire…would you lend him your garden hose to put out the fire?” In short FDR convinced his listeners that to help England might actually be to US benefit and keep us out of war. system by which the United States aided its World War II allies with war materials, such as ammunition, tanks, airplanes, and trucks, and with food and other raw materials. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had committed the United States in June 1940 to materially aiding the opponents of fascism, but, under existing U.S. law, Great Britain had to pay for its growing arms purchases by leasing geographic locations for naval and airbases around the globe. </li></ul>
  49. 50. The Fall of France, 1940 <ul><li>Hitler unleashes his blitzkrieg invasion of the Low Countries and France with a fury on May 10, 1940. Within three weeks, a large part of the British force, accompanied by some of the French defenders, is pushed to the English Channel and compelled to abandon the continent at Dunkirk. </li></ul><ul><li>The German advance continues to sweep southward driving before it not only the retreating French army, but an estimated 10 million refugees fleeing for their lives.  The French abandon Paris, declaring it an open city. This allows the Germans to enter the French capital on June 14 without resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>The French government calls on the Germans for an armistice that will end the fighting. Hitler dictates that the French capitulation take place at Compiegne, a forest north of Paris . This is the same spot where twenty-two years earlier the Germans had signed the Armistice ending World War I. Hitler intends to disgrace the French and avenge the German defeat. To further deepen the humiliation, he orders that the signing ceremony take place in the same railroad car that hosted the earlier surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>The Armistice is signed on June 22. Under its terms, two thirds of France is to be occupied by the Germans. The French army is to be disbanded. The Nazis set up a puppet government in Vichy. In addition, France must bear the cost of the German invasion. </li></ul>
  50. 52. The Battle of Dunkirk <ul><li>The Battle of Dunkirk was a battle in the Second World War between the Allies and Germany. A part of the Battle of France on the Western Front, the Battle of Dunkirk was the defense and evacuation of British and allied forces in Europe from 24 May to 4 June 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>A series of Allied counter-attacks, including the Battle of Arras, failed to sever the German spearhead, which reached the coast on 20 May, separating the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) near Armentières, the French First Army, and the Belgian Army further to the north from the majority of French troops south of the German penetration. After reaching the Channel, the Germans swung north along the coast, threatening to capture the ports and trap the British and French forces before they could evacuate to Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Nothing but a miracle can save the BEF now,&quot; wrote General Brooke in his diary. And General Lord Gort told Anthony Eden, the British Secretary of State for War: &quot;I must not conceal from you that a great part of the BEF and its equipment will inevitably be lost even in the best circumstances.&quot; On 23 May, he put the army on half-rations. In Britain, 26 May was designated a &quot;Day of National Prayer&quot; for the Army. </li></ul><ul><li>In one of the most widely-debated decisions of the war, Adolf Hitler ordered his generals to halt for three days, in a successful effort to maintain control over them, giving the Allies time to organize an evacuation and build a defensive line. Despite the Allies' gloomy estimates of the situation, in the end, over 330,000 Allied troops were rescued. </li></ul>
  51. 53. <ul><li>What happened at Dunkirk in May and June 1940 must rank as one of the greatest maritime evacuations in history. </li></ul><ul><li>Told from the perspective of the decision makers and the soldiers, sailors and civilians caught up in the events of those desperate days, this factual drama follows the race against time to save the Allied armies trapped in France. </li></ul><ul><li>As British and French troops were forced into a shrinking pocket by the relentless onslaught of the German army, the Royal and Merchant navies, helped by a fleet of small civilian craft, launched a momentous effort to rescue them - and miraculously managed to save more than 338,000 men in just ten days. </li></ul>The Miracle of Dunkirk
  52. 54. Section 2 Assessment <ul><li>Operation Sea Lion referred to Hitler’s planned invasion of a) Russia. b) Britain. c) France. d) Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>When the war began in 1939, the United States a) immediately sided with Allies. b) joined the Axis powers. c) declared war on Germany. d) declared neutrality. </li></ul>2
  53. 55. Section 2 Assessment <ul><li>Operation Sea Lion referred to Hitler’s planned invasion of a) Russia. b) Britain. c) France. d) Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>When the war began in 1939, the United States a) immediately sided with Allies. b) joined the Axis powers. c) declared war on Germany. d) declared neutrality. </li></ul>2
  54. 56. The Global Conflict: Allied Successes <ul><li>How did Germany and Japan treat people in occupied lands? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Allies turn the tide of war? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Red Army and the Allied invasion of France undo German plans? </li></ul>3
  55. 57. Occupied Lands <ul><li>Hitler set up puppet governments in countries that were peopled by “Aryans.” </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europeans were considered an inferior “race,” and were thus shoved aside to provide “living space” for Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>To the Nazis, occupied lands were an economic resource to be looted and plundered. </li></ul><ul><li>German leaders worked to accomplish the “final solution of the Jewish problem” — the genocide, or deliberate murder, of all European Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s self-proclaimed mission was to help Asians escape imperial rule. In fact, its real goal was a Japanese empire in Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese treated conquered people with great brutality, having no respect for those they defeated. </li></ul>While the Germans rampaged across Europe, the Japanese conquered an empire in Asia and the Pacific. Each set out to build a “new order” in the occupied lands. 3
  56. 58. Turning Points The Allies opened a second front in Europe with the invasion of Paris. They freed France and were then able to focus on defeating Germany and Japan. (mid-1944) The Red Army took the offensive and drove the Germans out of the Soviet Union entirely. Hitler’s forces suffered irreplaceable losses of troops and equipment. (late 1942) From North Africa, the Allies invaded Italy. The invasion weakened Hitler by forcing him to fight on another front. (mid-1943) The British stopped Rommel’s advance and drove the Axis forces back across Libya into Tunisia. (late 1942) During 1942 and 1943, the Allies won several victories that would turn the tide of battle and push back the Axis powers. EL ALAMEIN INVASION OF ITALY STALINGRAD INVASION OF FRANCE 3
  57. 59. World War II in Europe and North Africa 3
  58. 60. Section 3 Assessment <ul><li>What happened at El Alamein? a) The British drove Axis forces back into Tunisia. b) The Axis forces consolidated claims in North Africa. c) Hitler was forced to fight on a second front. d) The Red Army defeated the Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following nations was neutral in 1942? a) Hungary b) Spain c) Finland d) Bulgaria </li></ul>3
  59. 61. Section 3 Assessment <ul><li>What happened at El Alamein? a) The British drove Axis forces back into Tunisia. b) The Axis forces consolidated claims in North Africa. c) Hitler was forced to fight on a second front. d) The Red Army defeated the Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following nations was neutral in 1942? a) Hungary b) Spain c) Finland d) Bulgaria </li></ul>3
  60. 62. Toward Victory <ul><li>How was the Pacific war fought? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Allies defeat Nazi Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>What debates surrounded the defeat of Japan? </li></ul>4
  61. 63. Pearl Harbor <ul><li>Dec. 7, 1941—at five minutes to eight o'clock, 183 Japanese warplanes ruined a perfectly fine Sunday morning on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. The first attack wave had reached the U.S. Pacific Fleet stationed at Oahu's Pearl Harbor and for all intents and purposes, World War II began for the United States. Although the U.S. military forces in Pearl Harbor had been recently strengthened, the base was not at a state of high alert. Many people were just waking when the first bombs were dropped. No one was prepared to do battle. Japanese aircraft had flown 230 miles from the north, originating from an attack force comprising six aircraft carriers and 423 planes. </li></ul><ul><li>The assault was the complete surprise the Japanese wanted, even though at 7:02 a.m., almost an hour before the first wave of planes arrived, two Army radar men on Oahu's northern shore had detected the attack approaching. They contacted a junior officer, who disregarded their reports, assuming they had instead spotted American B-17 bombers expected in from the West Coast of the U.S. The first wave of Japanese planes, made up of 51 Val dive bombers, 50 high level bombers, 43 Zero fighters and 40 Kate torpedo bombers, attacked when flight commander Mitsuo Fuchida gave the now infamous battle cry &quot;Tora! Tora! Tora!&quot; (&quot;Tiger! Tiger! Tiger!&quot;) The second wave arrived shortly thereafter. Almost simultaneously, five Japanese &quot;minisubs&quot; began their attack from underwater, but were able to do little damage. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  62. 64. &quot;A date which will live in infamy&quot; <ul><li>Pearl Harbor, on the southern coast of Oahu, housed the bulk of the Pacific Fleet at the time of the attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Less than two hours later, 2,280 American servicemen and 68 civilians were dead, 1,109 were wounded, eight battleships were damaged and five sunk. Three light cruisers, three destroyers, and three smaller boats were lost, along with 188 aircraft. The biggest loss that day was the USS Arizona, on which 1,177 crewmen were killed when a 1,760 pound bomb smashed through her decks and ignited her forward ammo magazine causing a terrible explosion. Fewer than nine minutes later she was underwater. </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbor was the principal but not sole target of the Japanese attack that day. Other military installations on Oahu were hit. Hickam, Wheeler, and Bellows airfields, Ewa Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe Bay Naval Air Station, and Schofield Barracks suffered varying degrees of damage, with hundreds of planes destroyed on the ground and hundreds of men killed or wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>While the attack that day was a huge blow to the U.S. military presence in the Pacific, it was not a total victory for the Japanese. Not only were the attack's biggest targets, the American aircraft carriers, out of port at the time and therefore saved, but the attack galvanized the nation's support for involvement in the war, ultimately contributing to the defeat of the Axis powers. Today, 64 years later, more than 1.5 million people a year visit the memorial that floats over the sunken Arizona to pay respects to the loss of life that occurred on what President Franklin D. Roosevelt would call &quot;a date which will live in infamy.&quot; </li></ul>
  63. 65. Doris Miller <ul><li>Doris Miller, known as &quot;Dorie&quot; to shipmates and friends, was born in Waco, Texas, on 12 </li></ul><ul><li>October 1919, to Henrietta and Conery Miller. He had three brothers, one of which served in the Army during World War II. While attending Moore High School in Waco, he was a </li></ul><ul><li>fullback on the football team. He worked on his father's farm before enlisting in the U.S Navy as Mess Attendant, Third Class, at Dallas, Texas, on 16 September 1939, to travel, and earn money for his family. He later was commended by the Secretary of the Navy, was advanced to Mess Attendant, Second Class and First Class, and subsequently was promoted to Ship's Cook, Third Class. </li></ul><ul><li>Following training at the Naval Training Station, Norfolk, Virginia, Miller was assigned to the ammunition ship USS Pyro (AE-1) where he served as a Mess Attendant, and on 2 January 1940 was transferred to USS West Virginia (BB-48), where he became the ship's heavyweight boxing champion. In July of that year he had temporary duty aboard USS Nevada (BB-36) at Secondary Battery Gunnery School. He returned to West Virginia and on 3 August, and was serving in that battleship when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Miller had arisen at 6 a.m., and was collecting laundry when the alarm for general quarters sounded. He headed for his battle station, the antiaircraft battery magazine amidship, only to discover that torpedo damage had wrecked it, so he went on deck. Because of his physical prowess, he was assigned to carry wounded fellow Sailors to places of greater safety. Then an officer ordered him to the bridge to aid the mortally wounded Captain of the ship. He subsequently manned a 50 caliber Browning anti-aircraft machine gun until he ran out of ammunition and was ordered to abandon ship. </li></ul>Captured Japanese pix of Battleship Row while Hickam Field burns in the background
  64. 66. <ul><li>He returned to West Virginia and was serving in that battleship when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Miller had arisen at 6 a.m., and was collecting laundry when the alarm for general quarters sounded. He headed for his battle station, the antiaircraft battery magazine amidship, only to discover that torpedo damage had wrecked it, so he went on deck. Because of his physical prowess, he was assigned to carry wounded fellow Sailors to places of greater safety. Then an officer ordered him to the bridge to aid the mortally wounded Captain of the ship. He subsequently manned a 50 caliber Browning anti-aircraft machine gun until he ran out of ammunition and was ordered to abandon ship. Miller described firing the machine gun during the battle, a weapon which he had not been trained to operate: &quot;It wasn't hard. I just pulled the trigger and she worked fine. I had watched the others with these guns. I guess I fired her for about fifteen minutes. I think I got one of those Jap planes. They were diving pretty close to us.&quot; </li></ul>During the attack, Japanese aircraft dropped two armored piercing bombs through the deck of the battleship and launched five 18-inch aircraft torpedoes into her port side. Heavily damaged by the ensuing explosions, and suffering from severe flooding below decks, the crew abandoned ship while West Virginia slowly settled to the harbor bottom. Of the 1,541 men on West Virginia during the attack, 130 were killed and 52 wounded. Subsequently refloated, repaired, and modernized, the battleship served in the Pacific theater through to the end of the war in August 1945.
  65. 67. <ul><li>On 13 December 1941, Miller reported to USS Indianapolis (CA-35), and subsequently returned to the west coast of the United States in November 1942. Assigned to the newly constructed USS Liscome Bay (CVE-56) in the spring of 1943, Miller was on board that escort carrier during Operation Galvanic, the seizure of Makin and Tarawa Atolls in the Gilbert Islands. Liscome Bay' s aircraft supported operations ashore between 20-23 November 1943. At 5:10 a.m. on 24 November, while cruising near Butaritari Island, a single torpedo from Japanese submarine I-175 struck the escort carrier near the stern. The aircraft bomb magazine detonated a few moments later, sinking the warship within minutes. Listed as missing following the loss of that escort carrier, Miller was officially presumed dead 25 November 1944, a year and a day after the loss of Liscome Bay . Only 272 Sailors survived the sinking of Liscome Bay , while 646 died. </li></ul><ul><li>Miller was commended by the Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox on 1 April 1942, and on 27 May 1942 he received the Navy Cross, which Fleet Admiral (then Admiral) Chester W. Nimitz, the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet personally presented to Miller on board aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) for his extraordinary courage in battle. Speaking of Miller, Nimitz remarked: </li></ul><ul><li>This marks the first time in this conflict that such high tribute has been made in the Pacific Fleet to a member of his race and I'm sure that the future will see others similarly honored for brave acts. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the Navy Cross, Miller was entitled to the Purple Heart Medal; the American Defense Service Medal, Fleet Clasp; the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal; and the World War II Victory Medal. </li></ul>
  66. 68. WAR!
  67. 69. Daniel K. Inouye <ul><li>Senator Daniel K. Inouye was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on September 7, 1924, and was named after a Methodist minister who had adopted his mother. He was Nisei, or first generation American born to Japanese parents. Young Dan Inouye attended Honolulu public schools and earned pocket money by parking cars at the old Honolulu Stadium and giving haircuts to fellow students. Most of his earnings were spent on a flock of homing pigeons, a postage stamp collection, parts for crystal radio sets and chemistry sets. </li></ul><ul><li>On December 7, 1941, the fateful day of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 17-year-old Dan Inouye was one of the first Americans to handle civilian casualties in the Pacific war. He had taken medical aid training and was pressed into service as head of a first-aid litter team. He saw a &quot;lot of blood&quot; and did not go home for a week. </li></ul><ul><li>In March 1943, 18-year-old Dan Inouye, then a freshman in pre-medical studies at the University of Hawaii, enlisted in the U.S. Army's 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the famed &quot;Go For Broke&quot; regiment. </li></ul>
  68. 70. Daniel K. Inouye <ul><li>Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Inouye is a Nisei (second-generation) Japanese-American and a son of Kame Imanaga and Hyotaro Inouye. He grew up in the Bingham Tract, a Chinese-American enclave within the predominantly Japanese-American community of Mo'ili'ili in Honolulu. </li></ul><ul><li>He was at the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941 as a medical volunteer. </li></ul><ul><li>Inouye as a lieutenant in the U.S. Army </li></ul><ul><li>Medal of Honor </li></ul><ul><li>In 1943, when the U.S. Army dropped its ban on Japanese-Americans, Inouye curtailed his premedical studies at the University of Hawaii and enlisted in the Army. He was assigned to the Nisei 442nd Regimental Combat Team, which became the most-highly decorated unit in the history of the Army. During the World War II campaign in Europe he received the Bronze Star, the Purple Heart, and the Distinguished Service Cross, which was later upgraded, by President Clinton in June 2000, to the Medal of Honor. “Go For Broke” </li></ul>“ Go For Broke”
  69. 71. Winston Churchill <ul><li>Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>(1874-1965), became one of the greatest statesmen in world history. Churchill reached the height of his fame as the heroic prime minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. He offered his people only &quot;blood, toil, tears, and sweat&quot; as they struggled to keep their freedom. Churchill also was a noted speaker, author, painter, soldier, and war reporter. </li></ul><ul><li>Early in World War II, the United Kingdom stood alone against Nazi Germany. The British people refused to give in despite the tremendous odds against them. Churchill's personal courage, the magic of his words, and his faith in victory inspired the British to &quot;their finest hour.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The mere sight of this stocky, determined man—a cigar in his mouth and two fingers raised high in a &quot;V for victory&quot; salute—cheered the people. Churchill seemed to be John Bull, the symbol of the English people, come to life. </li></ul>
  70. 72. Doolittle's Raid Fact Sheet <ul><li>In the beginning of 1942, gloom was descending over the United States like a winter twilight. </li></ul><ul><li>On all fronts, the United States and its allies were reeling from the blows of the Axis powers. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Pacific, Japan had taken Malaya, Singapore, Java, Guam and Wake Island and was threatening the lifeline with Australia.  On April 9, 1942, the &quot;Battling Bastards of Bataan&quot; in the Philippines finally laid down their arms. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Atlantic, German U-boats were sinking American ships within sight of the U.S. coast. Britain was being strangled, and the German Wehrmacht was in the suburbs of Moscow. </li></ul><ul><li>The Axis powers looked invincible. </li></ul><ul><li>In the midst of these dark days burst the light of the Doolittle Raid on Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Navy conceived the raid as a way to raise morale. It entailed launching Army twin-engine bombers from the deck of an aircraft carrier to bomb selected cities in Japan. It was a way to strike back. It was a way to demonstrate that no matter how bleak the future looked; the United States would not give up. Leading the attack was Army Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle.  </li></ul><ul><li>Jimmie Doolittle was an aviation pioneer and daredevil racer.  He pioneered instrument flying. He won the Schneider Race for the Army in 1925. He pushed for higher-octane gasoline for aircraft in the 1930s. </li></ul>This medal was wired to a 500-lb. bomb for return to Japan &quot;with interest.&quot;
  71. 73. Doolittle's Raid <ul><li>Doolittle trained the volunteer crews to take off their B-25B Mitchell bombers in only 450 feet instead of the usual 1,200. The planes were loaded aboard the USS Hornet in March 1942. </li></ul><ul><li>The plan was to launch the bombers within 400 miles of the Japanese coast. They would then bomb their targets and continue to airfields in China. But Japanese picket boats discovered the task force about 800 miles off the coast, and the Army planes were launched immediately. The 16 bombers struck Tokyo, Kobe, Nagoya and Yokohama. Because of the added distance, no plane was able to make the Chinese airfields. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the planes crash-landed in China with one plane landing in the Soviet Union. Of the 75 fliers who landed in China three died in accidents and the Japanese captured eight. The rest returned to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The raid inflicted little physical damage to Japan, but it gave a needed lift to morale in the </li></ul><ul><li>United States. In Japan, the psychological damage of the attack was more important.  The Doolittle Raid convinced Adm. Isoruku Yamamoto, chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet, </li></ul><ul><li>that he had to extend Japan's  defensive perimeter. He aimed the extension at Midway Island.  If Japan held that strategic mid-Pacific atoll, no carrier task force could approach. The battle </li></ul><ul><li>of Midway in June 1942, was a decisive victory for the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Many called Midway the turning point of the war in the Pacific. </li></ul><ul><li>For his leadership of the raid, Jimmy Doolittle received the Medal of Honor. </li></ul>
  72. 74. Map of Doolittle’s 30 Seconds Over Tokyo
  73. 75. The Doolittle Raid <ul><li>To show that Japan could be beaten, the United States staged a daring bombing raid on the Japanese homeland. On April 18, 1942, Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle led 16 B-25 bombers in a surprise attack on Tokyo and other Japanese cities. The bombers took off from the deck of the Hornet, an aircraft carrier more than 600 miles (960 kilometers) east of Japan. The raid did very little damage. But it alarmed Japan's leaders, who had believed that their homeland was safe from Allied bombs. To prevent future raids, the Japanese determined to capture more islands to the south and the east and so extend the country's defenses. They soon found themselves in trouble. </li></ul> <object width=&quot;425&quot; height=&quot;344&quot;><param name=&quot;movie&quot; value=&quot;;></param><param name=&quot;allowFullScreen&quot; value=&quot;true&quot;></param><param name=&quot;allowscriptaccess&quot; value=&quot;always&quot;></param><embed src=&quot;; type=&quot;application/x-shockwave-flash&quot; allowscriptaccess=&quot;always&quot; allowfullscreen=&quot;true&quot; width=&quot;425&quot; height=&quot;344&quot;></embed></object>
  74. 76. Japanese-American Internment <ul><li>Japanese-American Internment was a World War II action decided on by the president and his advisers in February 1942, following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, and carried out under Executive Order 9066. Federal officials, fearing groundlessly that Americans of Japanese ancestry might cooperate with a West Coast invasion by Japan, forcibly relocated over 100,000 Japanese-Americans, including U.S. citizens, to internment camps inland and seized their property. In 1944 the order was rescinded and by 1945 the camps were closed. The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 provided compensation of $20,000 each to the 60,000 surviving internees. </li></ul>
  75. 77. Korematsu v. United States <ul><li>323 U.S. 214 (1944) </li></ul><ul><li>Docket Number: 22 </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Argued: </li></ul><ul><li>October 11, 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>Decided: </li></ul><ul><li>December 18, 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>Facts of the Case </li></ul><ul><li>During World War II, Presidential Executive Order 9066 and congressional statutes gave the military authority to exclude citizens of Japanese ancestry from areas deemed critical to national defense and potentially vulnerable to espionage. Korematsu remained in San Leandro, California and violated Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34 of the U.S. Army. </li></ul><ul><li>Question Presented </li></ul><ul><li>Did the President and Congress go beyond their war powers by implementing exclusion and restricting the rights of Americans of Japanese descent? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>The Court sided with the government and held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsu's rights. Justice Black argued that compulsory exclusion, though constitutionally suspect, is justified during circumstances of &quot;emergency and peril.&quot; </li></ul>
  76. 78. 1941 Dec. 7 Japan bombed U.S. military bases at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Dec. 8 The United States, Great Britain, and Canada declared war on Japan. 1942 Feb. 15 Singapore fell to the Japanese. Feb. 26-28 Japan defeated an Allied naval force in the Battle of the Java Sea. April 9 U.S. and Philippine troops on Bataan Peninsula surrendered. April 18 U.S. bombers hit Tokyo in the Doolittle raid. May 4-8 The Allies checked a Japanese assault in the Battle of the Coral Sea. June 4-6 The Allies defeated Japan in the Battle of Midway. Aug. 7 U.S. marines landed on Guadalcanal.
  77. 79. 1943 Nov. 20 U.S. forces invaded Tarawa. 1944 June 19-20 A U.S. naval force defeated the Japanese in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. July 18 Japan's Prime Minister Tojo resigned. Oct. 20 The Allies began landing in the Philippines. Oct. 23-26 The Allies defeated Japan's navy in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Philippines. 1945 March 16 U.S. marines captured Iwo Jima. June 21 Allied forces captured Okinawa. Aug. 6 An atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. Aug. 8 The Soviet Union declared war on Japan. Aug. 9 An atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Aug. 14 Japan agreed to surrender unconditionally. Sept. 2 Japan signed surrender terms aboard the battleship U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
  78. 80. Operation Torch <ul><li>The job that General Patton was talking about was Operation Torch, which was the Allied invasion of North Africa that began in the early hours of November 8, 1942. Plans of the operation began in the spring and summer of 1942 between President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill. The two leaders, however, disagreed on where the operation would commence. Roosevelt, along with General Eisenhower, wanted to open a &quot;second front&quot; to help relieve the Russians who were bitterly defending their homeland against the invading Germans on the Eastern front. Roosevelt wanted a cross-channel invasion of northwest France and strike quickly so as to avoid a long drawn out war with Germany. Churchill, on the contrary, was opposed to a cross-channel invasion because he felt the Germans were too heavily fortified to make a cross-channel invasion successful. Churchill proposed that the Allies take a less direct attack and invade North Africa instead. This, Churchill thought, would put pressure on Rommel and if successful in pushing him out, North Africa would provide a solid base for the Allies to invade southern Europe, possibly southern France or Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>French Northwest Africa, not northwest France, would be the locale of the Allied blow to relieve the pressure on the Russian army. And so we land at Casablanca. </li></ul>
  79. 81. George Stevens, director <ul><li>Stevens entered the U.S. Army in February 1943 and served as a major in the Signal Corps. He first covered combat in the North Africa campaign and then was stationed in England, where he shot footage of the plans being made for the D-Day invasion, which he covered from the deck of the HMS Belfast . He was then put in charge of the Special Coverage Motion Picture Unit, which landed in Europe after the invasion and covered, among other events, the liberation of Paris, the freeing of prisoners at the Dachau concentration camp, the taking of Hitler's Berchtesgaden headquarters, and the meeting of American and Russian forces at the Elbe River. He was demobilized in March 1946 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and returned to Hollywood. </li></ul>
  80. 82. Casablanca <ul><li>The classic and much-loved romantic melodrama Casablanca (1942), always found on top-ten lists of films, is a masterful tale of two men vying for the same woman's love in a love triangle. The story of political and romantic espionage is set against the backdrop of the wartime conflict between democracy and totalitarianism. [The date given for the film is often given as either 1942 and 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>With rich and smoky atmosphere, anti-Nazi propaganda, Max Steiner's superb musical score, suspense, unforgettable characters (supposedly 34 nationalities are included in its cast) and memorable lines of dialogue (e.g., &quot;Here's lookin' at you, kid,&quot; and the inaccurately-quoted &quot;Play it again, Sam&quot;), it is one of the most popular, magical (and flawless) films of all time - focused on the themes of lost love, honor and duty, self-sacrifice and romance within a chaotic world. Woody Allen's Play It Again, Sam (1972) paid reverential homage to the film, as have the lesser films Cabo Blanco (1981) and Barb Wire (1996) , and the animated Bugs Bunny short Carrotblanca (1995) . </li></ul><ul><li>The sentimental story, originally structured as a one-set play, was based on an unproduced play entitled Everybody Comes to Rick's by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison - the film's original title. Its collaborative screenplay was mainly the result of the efforts of Julius J. and Philip G. Epstein and Howard Koch. </li></ul>
  81. 83. North Africa with Rommel and the Afrika Korps <ul><li>German forces, under the command of Rommel, met the British forces, under the command of General Montgomery at El Alamein. Montgomery had a two-to-one advantage in tanks, and was victorious. The victory in El Alamain eliminated the German threat to the Suez Canal and the Middle East. </li></ul>
  82. 84. The Desert Fox, Erwin Rommel <ul><li>Rommel was a German field marshal, was one of the most brilliant generals of World War II. He led the Afrika Korps, and his clever tactics earned him the nickname of The Desert Fox. But in 1942, he was stopped by British forces in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1944, Rommel led some of the troops that opposed the Allied invasion of Normandy. After he recognized the significance of the superiority of the Allied air forces, he reported to Adolf Hitler that it was futile for Germany to continue the war. He was implicated in the plot to kill Hitler in July 1944. Rommel was given his choice of trial or poison. He chose death by poison. </li></ul>
  83. 85. General George Patton <ul><li>The controversial, bombastic, multi-dimensional World War II general and hero George S. Patton. The larger-than-life, flamboyant, maverick, pugnacious military figure, nicknamed &quot;Old Blood and Guts,&quot; was well-known for his fierce love of America, his temperamental battlefield commanding, his arrogant power-lust (&quot;I love it. God help me, I do love it so. I love it more than my life&quot;), his poetry writing, his slapping of a battle-fatigued soldier, his anti-diplomatic criticism of the Soviet Union, and his firing of pistols at fighter planes. </li></ul>
  84. 86. Patton <ul><li>The 3rd Army was not used during Operation Overlord (the invasion of France) but still served a useful purpose, since Hitler and many members of the Abwehr (German military intelligence) believed that Normandy could not be the primary invasion site if Patton was not committed to the battle. The German command, therefore, held back critical Panzer divisions which could have opposed the landings. Eisenhower, knowing Patton's value at exploiting an enemy's weakness and driving through it, was holding Patton in reserve to breakout from the beachhead. </li></ul>
  85. 87. The European Theater
  86. 88. The Home Front <ul><li>Ration books were used in WW2. The government rationed food so we could feed our soldiers at war and feed civilians at the same time. Ration stamps came inside the book and had to be presented so you could actually buy rationed goods. Some goods were: canned foods, sugar, eggs, coffee, sugar, meats. Without a ration stamp, you could not buy rationed foods. There were very strict rules about exactly how to use them. </li></ul><ul><li>During the time of World War Two, many men left for the war, leaving jobs at home. Women promptly went to fill these jobs and others needed during wartime. The challenging part was that many women worked a night shift and still had the responsibility of maintaining the household and raising her children. For mothers with children not old enough to be in school, daycare was hard to find. Banks and grocery shops also made it hard for women to keep the household running. Although some working women had to quit their jobs maintain the household, women were a key part in winning World War Two. </li></ul>
  87. 89. On the Home Front <ul><li>The World War II effort required the complete devotion of everyone. Not a single person was unaffected by the war. Countless campaigns were implemented in support of the war effort. From scrap drives to government rations, to war bonds, everyone had to make sacrifices.  </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda was one of the driving forces of World War II. If it did not cause the war itself, it definitely helped control the path that the war took. From the hatred it sparked to the support it obtained, propaganda was an incredibly effective tool, detrimental in some cases and beneficial in others. Often times, propaganda consisted of of malicious attacks on opposing forces. More commonly though, it ignited nationalism and spurred nations and peoples to action and participation in the war effort.  </li></ul>
  88. 90. Rationing <ul><li>Hershey bars </li></ul><ul><li>Wrigley’s Chewing Gum </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola </li></ul><ul><li>cigarettes </li></ul>
  89. 92. Rosie the Riveter <ul><li>While American men were being shipped to the front lines in the 1940s, American women were moving to the factory lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Spurred on by higher wages and a propaganda poster featuring a muscle-bound &quot;Rosie the Riveter&quot; exclaiming &quot;We Can Do It!,&quot; millions of American women helped assemble bombs, build tanks, weld hulls and grease locomotives. More than 6 million women became war workers. Most were married; 60 percent were over 35 and a third had children under 14. A popular song of the day praised &quot;Rosie the Riveter&quot; in verse: &quot;That little frail can do/more than a male can do.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Though they were rewarded with increased wages -- and were thought to be better than men at certain tasks -- on average, women war workers were paid only 60 percent of male wages. Many faced harassment and were judged by prevailing social attitudes. At some plants women workers were told not to wear sweaters for &quot;moral reasons.&quot; And the government insisted that &quot;Rosie the Riveter&quot; was a temporary response to war. &quot;A woman is a substitute,&quot; claimed a War Department brochure, &quot;like plastic instead of metal.&quot; </li></ul>
  90. 93. Norman Rockwell A General Purpose Vehicle: GP =Jeep
  91. 94. <ul><li>NAZI PARTY </li></ul><ul><li>In 1930 there were 129,583 members of the National Socialist German Workers' Party or Nazi Party for short - NAtionalsoZIalstische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei - NSDAP). The word 'Nazi' is an acronym formed from the first syllable of NA tional and the second syllable of So ZI alstische. By 1933 membership had jumped to 849,009 and in the early war years this had reached more than five million. </li></ul><ul><li>THE ANCIENT SWASTIKA SYMBOL </li></ul><ul><li>The Swastika is a very old, sacred symbol from near-prehistoric times and referred to in Germany as the Hakenkreuz. Traditionally a sign of good fortune and well-being, its name is derived from the Sanskrit 'su' meaning 'well' and 'asti' meaning 'being'. It is well-known in Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Hitler displayed the symbol on a red background 'to win over the worker' and it had an hypnotic effect on all those who supported the Nazi movement. In his book Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote 'In the red we see the social idea of the movement, in the white the Nationalist idea and in the swastika the vision of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man.' </li></ul><ul><li>THE AXIS </li></ul><ul><li>An alliance of the two countries, Germany and Italy.  Benito Mussolini, the dictator of Fascist Italy, first used the term in 1923 when he wrote 'The axis of European history' runs through Berlin.' After his meeting with Hitler in October, 1936, at Berchtesgaden, he used the term again in a speech at Milan in November when he said 'This vertical line between Rome and Berlin is not a partition but rather an axis round which all European states animated by the will to collaboration and peace can also collaborate.' </li></ul>
  92. 95. The Dead Man Who Duped Hitler <ul><li>In early 1943 the Allies were getting ready to invade Nazi-occupied Europe from North Africa. Their destination was the island of Sicily. For the invasion to succeed, it was absolutely critical that the enemy be caught off guard. So British officers concocted a fantastic scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Codename: Operation Mincemeat </li></ul><ul><li>They grabbed a corpse from a London morgue and gave hi a completely new identity. He was outfitted with a uniform and identity papers stating that he was Major William Martin, a military courier. A briefcase was chained to his wrist. British spymasters planted forged documents suggesting that the target of the invasion would be Greece, not Sicily. Then a British sub dropped the body of “Major Martin” off the coast of Spain, making it look as if he was a military courier who had died in plane crash. </li></ul><ul><li>As hoped, Spanish authorities showed the papers to the Nazis, who were completely fooled. The news was rushed to Hitler, who made the defense of Greece his top priority. The Nazi High Command sent Panzer units there and Hitler ordered Rommel to Athens to mastermind the battle. </li></ul><ul><li>But there would be no battle in Greece. Instead forces under Generals Montgomery and Patton came ashore in Sicily, where Nazi forces were ill-prepared for them. Victory was made possible with the help of the man who never was. </li></ul><ul><li>For more than 50 years, the Brits kept the identity of the body remained TOP SECRET, but in 1995, it was revealed that he had been a 34 year old homeless man named Glyndwr Michael, who had committed suicide by eating rat poison. In life, he may have taken the coward’s way out, but in death, he was a hero. Because of this heroic deed, countless thousands of Allied lives were saved when we invaded Sicily!!! </li></ul>Major William Martin
  93. 96. General Dwight David Eisenhower <ul><li>General Dwight Eisenhower, &quot;Ike,&quot; Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, speaks to the young soldiers of the 101st Airborne, on the eve of D-Day. Eisenhower decided to visit the division in Newbury and talk with the soldiers. Even though his group arrived unannounced and the stars on his automobile had been covered, word quickly spread of his presence. Eisenhower walked among the men asking their names and where they lived. At some point a photo was taken that captured the humanity of the general and the crushing importance of the moment. &quot;Some of the men with Gen Eisenhower are presumed to be: Pfc William Boyle, Cpl Hans Sannes, Pfc Ralph Pombano, Pfc S. W. Jackson, Sgt Delbert Williams, Cpl William E Hayes, Pfc Henry Fuller, Pfc Michael Babich. and Pfc W William Noll. All are members of Co E, 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment. The other men shown on the photo are not identified. Ike punches the air forcefully, &quot;Full victory, or nothing else,&quot; he says. The determined troopers, faces blackened, listen attentively. The next morning, they dropped into Ste. Mere Eglise and other places to secure the beachheads at Normandy. </li></ul>
  94. 97. D Day Beaches
  95. 98. D-Day, the 6 th of June—The Longest Day <ul><li>In the early morning hours of June 7, 1944, reporter George Hicks stood on the deck of a destroyer stationed off the shore of Omaha Beach as the Allied invasion of Europe unfolded before him. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparations for the invasion began almost the day the British Army evacuated Dunkirk in 1940. When America joined the war, a date for the invasion was optimistically set for 1942. When reality set in, the date was moved to 1943 then to 1944. The final timetable called for a landing on the Normandy coast on June 5 when tide, weather and moonlight would be most favorable </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans knew the invasion was coming; they just didn't know where or when. An elaborate deception kept them guessing. This effort was so successful that even after troops stormed ashore at Normandy, Hitler believed it only a feint with the real invasion to take place at Pas de Calais. On June 4, the largest amphibious force ever assembled left its English ports for the French coast. The weather did not cooperate, however, and storms forced General Eisenhower to delay the effort for one day. </li></ul><ul><li>Airborne troops went in first, landing behind the beaches in the early hours of June 6. At dawn the invasion force waded ashore at five beaches - the British and Canadians at Gold, Sword and Juno; and the Americans at Utah and Omaha. Troops landing at Utah met relatively light resistance. The story was different at Omaha. The Americans faced a battle-hardened German division that pinned them down with a withering cross fire. Gradually they moved forward and off the beach. The price was high - 2,000 casualties at Omaha compared to 210 at Utah. By the end of the day the beaches were secured and a toehold established in Hitler's Europe. </li></ul>
  96. 99. D-DAY LANDINGS (June 6, 1944) <ul><li>Utah Beach - 23,250 troops were landed </li></ul><ul><li>Omaha Beach - 34,250 troops were landed </li></ul><ul><li>Gold Beach - 24,970 troops were landed </li></ul><ul><li>Juno Beach - 21,400 troops were landed </li></ul><ul><li>Sword Beach - 28,845 troops were landed. </li></ul><ul><li>By June 12, 326,000 troops were on the beaches, plus 54,000 vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>By July 2, another 929,000 men and 177,000 vehicles were put ashore. The ship armada at Normandy totaled 6,939 vessels of all kinds. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 10 days after D-day (June 6 to June 16) a total of 5,287 Allied soldiers were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>From D-Day till the end of the war, British casualties were 30,280 dead and 96,670 wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>The German surrender was signed 337 days after the D-Day landings </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  97. 100. French Bashing 101 <ul><li>The elderly American gentleman arrived in Paris by plane.  At French Customs, he fumbled for his passport. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;You 'ave been to France before, monsieur?&quot; the customs officer asked   sarcastically. The old gent admitted that he had been to France  previously. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;Zen, you should know enough to 'ave your passport ready for inspection.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  The American said, &quot;The last time I was here, I didn't have to show it.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;Impossible.  You Americans alwayz 'ave to show your passports on arrival in France!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  The American senior gave the Frenchman a long hard look.  Then he quietly explained. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;Well, when I came ashore at Omaha Beach on D-Day in '44, I couldn't find any damned Frenchmen to show it to.&quot; </li></ul>Lafayette, We Are Here… Again!
  98. 101. Is Paris Burning? <ul><li>As part of Adolf Hitler’s nihilistic resolution to decimate all traces of his infamous conquests and satanic occupations, Paris was to turn into a victim of Warsaw proportions. Picture the grueling scenario Generalfeldmarschall Dietricht von Choltitz had to endure: a German army turned decadent from Parisian amenities; Allied troops slowly filling in the fringes of the French capital; and most importantly, Hitler's irreversible obsession to obliterate le Champs Elysses, the Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame, the perennial scars of European history. </li></ul><ul><li>With the choice of disappointing Der Fuhrer or seriously annoying the victorious and his soon-to-be captors, Choltitz lies to Hitler and says, “Ja, Mein Fuhrer,” but does not detonate the explosives at key Parisian locations. </li></ul>&quot;I often considered whether we would not have to destroy Paris.“ A. Hitler
  99. 102. The Army 442nd Regimental Combat Team <ul><li>They were cold, wet, weary and battle-scarred. Yet that didn't stop the men with names like Hayashi, Inouye, Kobashigawa, Okutsu, Sakato and Kuwayama from answering the call Oct. 27, 1944, to rescue a battalion surrounded by German forces. </li></ul><ul><li>For the next three days, their unit, the all-Japanese-American 442nd Regimental Combat Team, would fight in dense woods, heavy fog and freezing temperatures near Bruyeres, France, and prove their motto &quot;Go for Broke!&quot; wasn't mere words. &quot;Go for Broke&quot; is Hawaiian slang for &quot;shoot the works.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans cut off the Texas National Guard 1st Battalion, 141st Infantry Regiment in the Vosges Mountains on Oct. 24. The 442nd was ordered in after the enemy had repelled repeated rescue tries by the 141st's other two battalions. Nearly half the men in the Japanese American unit would be dead or wounded three days later with the &quot;Lost Battalion&quot; still isolated. Then suddenly, all of the men began to fight back, hand to hand, and the enemy withdrew. </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers of the 442nd fought in eight major campaigns in Italy, France and Germany, including the battles at Monte Cassino, Anzio and Biffontaine. They earned more than 18,000 individual decorations, including one Medal of Honor, 53 Distinguished Service Crosses, 588 awards of the Silver Star, 5,200 awards of the Bronze Star Medal and 9,486 Purple Hearts, and seven Presidential Unit Citations, the nation's top award for combat units. President Clinton approved the upgrade of 19 DSCs to the Medal of Honor on May 12. </li></ul><ul><li>All the while the men fought, many of their parents and relatives were being held behind barbed wire in isolated detention camps in the United States. </li></ul>
  100. 103. In the Army 442nd Regimental Combat Team. <ul><li>Dan Inouye spent 20 months in Army hospitals after losing his right arm. On May 27, 1947, he was honorably discharged and returned home as a Captain with a Distinguished Service Cross (the second highest award for military valor), Bronze Star, Purple Heart with cluster and 12 other medals and citations. </li></ul><ul><li>His Distinguished Service Cross was recently upgraded to a Medal of Honor, the nation's highest award for military valor. </li></ul>
  101. 104. Daniel K. Inouye <ul><li>Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Inouye is a Nisei (second-generation) Japanese-American and a son of Kame Imanaga and Hyotaro Inouye. He grew up in the Bingham Tract, a Chinese-American enclave within the predominantly Japanese-American community of Mo'ili'ili in Honolulu. </li></ul><ul><li>He was at the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941 as a medical volunteer. </li></ul><ul><li>Inouye as a lieutenant in the U.S. Army </li></ul><ul><li>Medal of Honor </li></ul><ul><li>In 1943, when the U.S. Army dropped its ban on Japanese-Americans, Inouye curtailed his premedical studies at the University of Hawaii and enlisted in the Army. [2] He was assigned to the Nisei 442nd Regimental Combat Team, which became the most-highly decorated unit in the history of the Army. During the World War II campaign in Europe he received the Bronze Star, the Purple Heart, and the Distinguished Service Cross, which was later upgraded, by President Clinton in June 2000, to the Medal of Honor. </li></ul>
  102. 105. <ul><li>Inouye was promoted to the rank of sergeant within his first year, and he was given the role of platoon leader. He served in Italy in 1944 during the Rome-Arno Campaign before he was shifted to the Vosges Mountains region of France, where he spent two weeks searching for the Lost Battalion, a Texas battalion that was surrounded by German forces. He was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant for his actions there. At one point while leading an attack a shot struck him in the chest directly above his heart, but the bullet was stopped by the two silver dollars he happened to have stacked in his shirt pocket. He continued to carry the coins throughout the war in his shirt pocket as good luck charms. </li></ul><ul><li>Assault on Colle Musatello </li></ul><ul><li>On April 21, 1945, Inouye was grievously wounded while leading an assault on a heavily-defended ridge near Terenzo called Colle Musatello. The ridge served as a strongpoint along the strip of German fortifications known as the Gothic Line, which represented the last and most dogged line of German defensive works in Italy. As he led his platoon in a flanking maneuver, three German machine guns opened fire from covered positions just 40 yards away, pinning his men to the ground. Inouye stood up to attack and was shot in the stomach; ignoring his wound, he proceeded to attack and destroy the first machine gun nest with hand grenades and fire from his M1 Thompson submachine gun. After being informed of the severity of his wound by his platoon sergeant, he refused treatment and rallied his men for an attack on the second machine gun position, which he also successfully destroyed before collapsing from blood loss. </li></ul>
  103. 106. <ul><li>As his squad distracted the third machine gunner, Inouye crawled toward the final bunker, eventually drawing within 10 yards. As he raised himself up and cocked his arm to throw his last grenade into the fighting position, a German inside fired a rifle grenade that struck him on the right elbow, severing most of his arm and leaving the primed grenade reflexively &quot;clenched in a fist that suddenly didn't belong to me anymore&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Inouye's horrified soldiers moved to his aid, but he shouted for them to keep back out of fear his severed fist would involuntarily relax and drop the grenade. As the German inside the bunker reloaded his rifle, Inouye managed to successfully pry the live grenade from his useless right hand and transfer it to his left. As the German aimed his rifle to finish him off, Inouye managed at last to toss the grenade off-hand into the bunker and destroy it. He stumbled to his feet and continued forward, silencing the last German resistance with a one-handed burst from his Thompson before being wounded in the leg and tumbling unconscious to the bottom of the ridge. </li></ul><ul><li>When he awoke to see the concerned men of his platoon hovering over him, his only comment before being carried away was to gruffly order them return to their positions, since, as he pointed out, &quot;nobody had called off the war&quot;. </li></ul>
  104. 107. <ul><li>The remainder of Inouye's mutilated right arm was later amputated at a field hospital without proper anesthesia, as he had been given too much morphine at an aid station and it was feared any more would lower his blood pressure enough to kill him. His dream of becoming a surgeon had died. </li></ul><ul><li>When he was sworn in as Senator, Inouye had no right hand to raise. The other members of Congress who had watched an apparently Japanese man walk up to take the oath, suddenly saw Inouye as a WWII vet who had literally given his right arm for his country. Prejudice gave way to shame and then became acceptance. </li></ul><ul><li>Inouye was initially awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his bravery in this action, with the award later being upgraded to the Medal of Honor by President Bill Clinton (alongside 21 other Nisei servicemen who served in the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and were believed to have been denied proper recognition of their bravery due to their race). </li></ul><ul><li>His story, along with interviews with him about the war as a whole, were featured prominently in the 2007 Ken Burns documentary The War . </li></ul>
  105. 108. <ul><li>While recovering from WWII wounds and the amputation of his right forearm from the grenade wound (mentioned above) at Percy Jones Army Hospital, Inouye met future Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole, then a fellow patient. Dole mentioned to Inouye that after the war he planned to go to Congress; Inouye beat him there by a few years. The two have remained lifelong friends. In 2003, the hospital was renamed the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center in honor of the two WWII veterans and another U.S. Senator and fellow WWII veteran who had stayed in the hospital, Philip Hart. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, he was personally inducted as Légion d'honneur Chevalier by French President Nicolas Sarkozy. </li></ul>
  106. 109. The Battle of the Bulge <ul><li>The Battle of the Bulge which lasted from December 16, 1944 to January 28, 1945 was the largest land battle of World War II in which the United States participated. More than a million men fought in this battle including some 600,000 Germans, 500,000 Americans, and 55,000 British. The German military force consisted of two Armies with ten corps (equal to 29 divisions). While the American military force consisted of a total of three armies with six corps (equal to 31 divisions). At the conclusion of the battle the casualties were as follows: 81,000 U.S. with 19,000 killed, 1400 British with 200 killed, and 100,000 Germans killed, wounded or captured </li></ul>
  107. 110. “ Nuts!”
  108. 111. The Battle of Bastogne <ul><li>On the previous day four Germans had appeared under a flag of truce with a written demand for the Americans' surrender. When shown the message, General McAuliffe had just been awakened and uttered a one-word contemptuous reply. This word has been variously reported, but there is no disagreement as to what he wrote on the paper delivered to the Germans. It was the now famous &quot;Nuts&quot;, which had to be explained to the Germans, and incidentally, also to civilian Belgian and French friends. The latter, when told it was a gesture of defiance, replied &quot;Ah, the word of Combrun&quot;, referring to an unprintable that Napoleon's General Combrun had used under similar circumstances. There is now a &quot;Nuts&quot; street in Bastogne, as well as a &quot;Place McAuliffe&quot;. In spite of the air drops, fighter-bomber support, and McAuliffe's &quot;beau geste&quot;, the situation within the (now reduced) perimeter became daily more serious before relief became possible. They took many casualties and lost much equipment in the all-out enemy attacks that ensued, sending VIII Corps a radio message Saturday evening, Dec. 23rd, &quot;Only one more shopping day before Christmas&quot;. </li></ul>
  109. 112. Bastogne <ul><li>Bastogne was a strategic position which both the Germans and Americans wanted to occupy. This lead to a race between the American 101st Airborne divisions and the Germans. The Americans managed to get there first and occupy the city. The Germans were not far behind and quickly surrounded and laid siege to the city. This city was an important strategic location for the Allies because this city could be used as a base to launch a counteroffensive. </li></ul><ul><li>On December 22 German officers under the flag of truce delivered a message from General der Panzertruppe von Luttwitz Commander of XLVII Panzerhops, demanding the surrender of Bastogne. After receiving the message Brigadier General Mcauliffe exclaimed &quot;Aw, nuts&quot; which was his official reply to the request for surrender. This message was delivered by Joseph Harper to the Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>He told the Germans it meant they could all go to Hell. With that they parted and the siege continued. Because the Americans were surrounded the only way they could get supplies was by air drops. However because it was the winter and the weather was bad for a long time planes could not fly. The Americans had to survive the best they could until the weather finally cleared up. </li></ul><ul><li>The Americans at Bastogne were relieved when the VII Corps moved down and enlarged the U. S. line. This allowed Patton's Third Army to counterattack the Germans surrounding Bastogne. </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Army was then able to push the Germans past the border of Bastogne. </li></ul>
  110. 113. French Bashing 102 <ul><li>&quot;Going to war without France is like going duck hunting without your accordion.  You just leave a lot of useless noisy baggage behind.&quot; -- Jed Babbin, a former deputy undersecretary of defense in the first Bush administration   </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Somebody was telling me about the French Army rifle that was being advertised on eBay the other day -- the description was, 'Never shot. Dropped once&quot;---Missouri Republican Rep. Roy Blunt   </li></ul><ul><li>An old saying: Raise your right hand if you like the French.... Raise both hands if you ARE French.   </li></ul><ul><li>What do you expect from a culture and a nation that exerted more of its national will fighting against Disney World and Big Mac's than fighting the Nazis? &quot;You know why the French don't want to bomb Saddam Hussein? Because he hates America, he loves mistresses and wears a beret. He IS French, people. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;--Conan O'Brien   </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I don't understand why people are surprised that France won't help us </li></ul><ul><li>get Saddam out of Iraq. After all, France wouldn't help us get the </li></ul><ul><li>Germans out of France!&quot; ---Jay Leno   </li></ul><ul><li>Q: What did the mayor of Paris say to the German Army as they </li></ul><ul><li>entered the city in WWII? </li></ul><ul><li>A: &quot;Table for 100,000 m'sieur?&quot; </li></ul>
  111. 114. BERGEN-BELSEN CONCENTRATION CAMP <ul><li>On April 15, 1945, the Belsen concentration camp, near the village of Bergen,  was liberated by British troops. Scattered around the grounds were around 10,000 decaying corpses which the troops had to bury in mass graves using bulldozers. Some of the survivors who had been transferred to Belsen from Auschwitz, stated that living conditions here were far superior to those in Auschwitz. But this was soon to change as trains bringing thousands of inmates from camps in the east began to arrive in Belsen. Conditions became catastrophic during the final months of the war as transports bringing food supplies to the camp were increasingly being destroyed on the roads and railways by Allied bombers. Gross overcrowding, inadequate supplies of food, water and medicines and an uncontrollable outbreak of typhus caused the deaths of about 37,000 inmates up to the day of liberation. </li></ul><ul><li>In the few weeks after the British takeover, another 13,000 died in spite of all the care taken to preserve life. But in striking contrast to the distorted press coverage at the time, the Belsen Concentration Camp was not an extermination facility. There was no deliberate intention b