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fire resistive construction

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fire resistive construction

  1. 1.  Introduction  Types of construction  Commonly used building materials  Fire resistant building materials  Fire Resistance Ratings of Structural Elements  Designing of a fire-resistive building  Conclusions  References 5/22/2015
  2. 2. Aim : To provide better or more protection against building with the use of fire resistive Construction materials to increase the safety of life and property. OBJECTIVE : • To study the meaning of fire safety in a building. • To enlist the various materials and techniques of fire resistance. • To identify the fire resistive effect of different dimensions of materials. • To understand the fire resistive ratings of different materials. • To analyze the literature study and conclude the dissertation. INTRODUCTION : Construction in which the floors, walls, roof, and other components are built exclusively of non combustible materials, with fire- endurance ratings equal to or greater than those mandated by law. 5/22/2015
  3. 3. In a fire resistant construction, the maximum use of non-combustible materials should be encouraged. All the structural elements such as beams, columns, lintel, floors and roofs, load bearing walls or partition walls etc. Should be constructed in such a way that they should continue to function as structural members at least for the period which may be sufficient for the occupants to escape.  The load bearing walls or columns of masonry should be thicker in section so that they may successfully act as fire barrier for a considerable time  So far as possible fire resisting materials should be used in construction 5/22/2015
  4. 4. TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION : 1. Fireproof construction 2. Noncombustible construction 3. Exterior protected construction 4. Wood construction 5/22/2015
  5. 5. TYPE 1. FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION (Fire Resistive Construction)  Construction of buildings that resist fire damage and prevent the spread of fire.  Fireproof building containing only no burning components, Such as steel, terra-cotta, plaster, and concrete  Fire-resistance requirements can range from 3 to 4 hour.  Buildings may be used as high-rise office buildings, shopping centers, or residential units.  For buildings 15 m in height or above.  Buildings may be used as high-rise office buildings, shopping centers, or residential units. Fire-resistance requirements have the following ratings as a range.  Exterior bearing walls: 3 to 4 hours.  Interior bearing walls: 2 to 4 hours.  Columns: 2 to 4 hours.  Beams, girders, trusses, and arches: 2 to 4 hours.  Floors: 2 to 3 hours.  Roof: 1-1/2 to 2 hours. 5/22/2015
  6. 6. TYPE 2. NONCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION  Construction using masonry materials, Brick or concrete, on the outside walls of the structure,  And noncombustible materials for the roof and floor.  For buildings 15 m in height or above  Fire-resistance requirements can range from 2to 3 hour.  Construction using masonry materials, Brick or concrete, on the outside walls of the structure, And noncombustible materials for the roof and floor.  Buildings may be used as office buildings. Fire-resistance requirements shall have, as a minimum, the following ratings:  Exterior bearing walls: 0 to 2 hours.  Interior bearing walls: 0 to 2 hours.  Columns: 0 to 2 hours.  Beams, girders, trusses, arches: 0 to 2 hours.  Floors: 0 to 2 hours.  Roof: 0 to 1 hour. 5/22/2015
  7. 7. TYPE 3. EXTERIOR PROTECTED CONSTRUCTION (Ordinary Building)  Construction in which all structural elements of exterior walls are of non-combustible materials  Fire-resistance requirements for all elements can range from 0 to 1 hour.  Buildings may be retail stores, mixed occupancy, dwellings, and apartment buildings.  Only the exterior load-bearing walls shall be noncombustible or limited combustible, and shall have as a minimum a 1-hour rating. They also may be required to be protected and to have the following fire-resistance ratings:  Interior bearing walls: 0 to 1 hour.  Columns: 0 to 1 hour.  Beams, girders, trusses, arches: 0 to 1 hour.  Floors: 0 to 1 hour.  Roof: 0 to 1 hour. 5/22/2015
  8. 8. TYPE 4. WOOD CONSTRUCTION  The construction in which the exterior wall or bearing wall, roof and floor wholly or partially of wood  Structural members are entirely or partially made from wood or other approved combustible material.  Fire-resistance requirements for all elements can range from 0 to 1 hour. Exterior and interior bearing walls shall have, as a minimum, the following fire-resistance ratings:  Exterior bearing walls: 2 hours.  Interior bearing walls: 1 to 2 hours 5/22/2015
  9. 9. 1. TIMBER 2. BRICK 3. STONE 4. STEEL 5. CONCRETE 6. GLASS 7. PLASTER OR MORTAR 5/22/2015
  10. 10. 1. TIMBER Wood is the oldest material used by humans for construction after stone. Exceptionally strong relative to its weight  A good heat and electrical insulator  It is a renewable and biodegradable resource.  Environmentally friendly  Strong and lightweight  Easy to install, Durable, Cost effective, Flexible Timber has a unique property of self insulation and slow burning and offers considerable resistance to fire  Additional fire resistance is achieved through impregnation of timber with large quantities of fire- retarding chemicals  The commonly used chemical for this purpose are ammonium phosphate and sulphate, borax and boric acid, zinc chloride etc.  This treatment retards increase in temperature during fire, decrease rate of flame spread 5/22/2015
  11. 11. 2. BRICK Bricks are used for building and pavement all throughout the world. Bricks are usually laid flat and are usually bonded forming a structure to increase its stability and strength. 5/22/2015  Common Burnt Clay Bricks  Sand Lime Bricks  Engineering Bricks  Concrete Bricks  Fly ash Clay Bricks  First class bricks moulded from good clay can stand exposure to fire for a considerable length of time  The properties of bricks which render them fire resistant are the materials of construction and the component of fire-resistive materials in brick i.e. clay
  12. 12. 3. STONE  The usage of stone in a fire resistive construction should be strictly restricted to the minimum  Hot stone when subjected to sudden cooling develops crack and can lead to failure of structure  Lime stone is least recommended as it get ruined by an ordinary fire  Only compact sand stone having fine grains may be used as it can stand the exposure to moderate fire without serious cracks 4. STEEL  Steel has a very low fire resistance value  With increase in temperature, the co-efficient of elasticity of metal falls appreciably rendering the structural members soft and free to expand  When the members in this state came in contact with water used for extinguishing the fire, they tend to contract, twist or distort and thus the stability of the entire structure is endangered. 5/22/2015
  13. 13. 5. CONCRETE Concrete is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. Often, additives and reinforcements (such as rebar) are included in the mixture to achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material.  Normal concrete  High Strength Concrete  High Performance Concrete  Light Weight Concrete  Self-Compacting Concrete  Shotcrete  Pervious Concrete  The influence of fire on concrete varies with the nature of its coarse aggregate and its density  it has been noticed that in an average fire, the concrete surface gets disintegrated for a depth of about 25mm  This is due to the de hydration of mortar in concrete by the fire  Hence in a reinforced concrete fire resistant construction, the thickness of clear cover should be more 5/22/2015
  14. 14. 5/22/2015 5. CONCRETE contd. Normal concrete High Strength Concrete High Performance Concrete Light Weight Concrete Self-Compacting ConcreteShotcrete Pervious Concrete
  15. 15. 6. GLASS Glass is an amorphous solid material which is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage  Flat Glass  Fiber Glass  Laminated Safety Glass  Tempered Safety Glass  Colored Structural Glass  Glass Building Blocks  Heat-Resistant Glass  Glass for Electrical Uses  Glass conduct heat faster than metal because of its low thermal conductivity  When glass is subjected to sudden and extreme variation of temperature, it fractures or cracks.  By the use of glass reinforced with steel wire netting, such cracks can be minimized  The reinforced glass has a higher melting point then the ordinary glass, and such it is commonly used for fire resisting doors, windows, sky-lights etc. 5/22/2015
  16. 16. 5/22/2015 Flat Glass Fiber Glass Laminated Safety Glass Tempered Safety Glass Colored Glass Glass Building Blocks Heat-Resistant Glass 6. GLASS contd.
  17. 17. 7. PLASTER OR MORTAR Plaster Is a building material used for coating walls and ceilings. Mortar Is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.  Plaster or mortar are incombustible and as such, by suitable choice of the type of mortar, the walls or ceiling of a building can be made more fire resistant  The resistance of the plaster to fire hazards can be increased by using it in thicker layer 5/22/2015
  18. 18. SNo. Structural Element Type Of Construction Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 1 Exterior walls : a) Fire separation less than 3.7 m i) Bearing 4 2 2 1 ii) Nonbearing 2 1½ 1 1 b) Fire separation of 3.7 m or more but less than 9 m i) Bearing 4 2 2 1 ii) Nonbearing 1½ 1½ 1 1 c) Fire separation of 9 m or more i) Bearing 4 2 2 1 ii) Nonbearing 1 1 1 1 2 Fire walls 4 2 2 2 Fire Resistance Ratings of Structural Elements (in Hours)  National building code 2005 5/22/2015
  19. 19. SNo. Structural Element Type Of Construction Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 3 Fire separation assemblies (like fire check doors) 4 2 2 2 4 Fire enclosures of exit ways, exit way hallways, and stairways 2 2 2 2 5 Shaft other than exit ways elevator hoist ways 2 2 2 2 6 Exit way access corridors 1 1 1 1 7 Vertical separation of tenant spaces 1 1 1 1 8 Dwelling unit separation 1 1 1 1 Nonload bearing partitions At least an hour half Fire Resistance Ratings of Structural Elements (in Hours)  National building code 2005 5/22/2015
  20. 20. SNo. Structural Element Type Of Construction Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 9 Interior bearing walls, bearing partitions, columns, girders, trusses (other than roof trusses) and framing i) Supporting more than one floor 4 2 2 2 ii) Supporting one floor only 3 1½ 1 1 iii) Supporting a roof only 3 1½ 1 1 10 Structural members support walls 3 1½ 1 1 11 Floor construction including walls 3 1½ 1 1 12 Roof construction i) 5 m or less in height to lowest member 2 1½ 1 1 ii) More than 5 m but less than 6.7 m in height to lowest member 1 1 1 1 iii) 6.7 m or more in height to lowest member 0 2 0 0
  21. 21.  FIRE-RESISTANT GLASS FOR WINDOWS  CONCRETE  STUCCO  GYPSUM  BRICK 5/22/2015
  22. 22. FIRE-RESISTANT GLASS FOR WINDOWS Glass is a poor conductor of heat and expends little during heating. Cracks are formed in glass when it is cooled after heating.  Windows, important for visibility and light, can nonetheless be a fire hazard.  Even before a window is in direct contact with flames, the intense heat of a nearby fire can cause the glass to break. And a broken window allows flames to enter a building easily.  In addition, the heat from a fire outside might be enough to simply ignite flammable items inside a home without direct contact.  To protect your house, consider installing fire-resistant windows.  One example is dual-paned glass windows, which double the time it would take for fire to break the windows.  The outer layer will break first before the inner layer. 5/22/2015
  23. 23. CONCRETE  It is one of the most common building materials,  is also an excellent fire-resistant material.  It is noncombustible and has low thermal conductivity, meaning that it takes a long time for fire to affect its structural, load-bearing ability, and it protects from the spread of fire.  It's actually significantly more fire-resistant than steel, and often used to reinforce and protect steel from fire.  The exact fire-resistance properties change depending on the type and amount of aggregate used.  Concrete is often listed among the best fire- resistant roofing materials. 5/22/2015
  24. 24. STUCCO  Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water.  It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as metal, concrete or clay brick and adobe.  Modern stucco is made of Portland cement, sand and lime, and it serves as an excellent and durable fire-resistant finish material for buildings.  It can cover any structural material, such as brick or wood.  It usually consists of two or three coats over metal reinforcing mesh. A one-inch (2.54-centimeter) layer of stucco can easily lend a 1-hour fire rating to a wall 5/22/2015
  25. 25. GYPSUM  Many structural materials will require underlying gypsum sheathing in order to achieve a good fire-resistant rating, and gypsum board is the most commonly used fire-resistant interior finish.  Gypsum board, also known as drywall, consists of a layer of gypsum sandwiched between two sheets of paper.  In addition, gypsum board has a noncombustible core that contains chemically combined water (in calcium sulfate). When affected by fire, the first thing that happens is that this water comes out as steam. This effectively impedes the transfer of heat through the gypsum board. And even after the water is gone, the gypsum core continues to resist fire penetration for a time.  Builders often use multiple layers of gypsum board to increase the fire-resistance rating. 5/22/2015
  26. 26. BRICK  As bricks are made in a fire kiln, they're already highly resistant to fire.  brick is also commonly cited as among the best building materials for fire protection.  Depending on the construction and thickness of the wall, a brick wall can achieve a 1-hour to 4-hour fire-resistance rating. 5/22/2015
  27. 27. Designing of a fire resistive building The building is designed for the 4h fire rating as per NBC: 2005
  28. 28. Column:  Concrete column is provided.  Fully exposed : 450mm width, 35mm cover  50 Percent exposed : 350mm width, 35mm cover  One face exposed : 240mm width, 25mm cover Windows:  Fire-resistant windows are installed in the building  Dual-panel glass windows are used, which double the time it would take for fire to break the windows. Fully exposed 50 Percent exposed One face exposed Dual-panel glass
  29. 29. Walls:  Clay bricks are used for wall construction  170mm thick wall is provided  The thickness of plaster on both side is 25mm Floors:  Reinforced concrete floor is provided  The thickness of floor is 170mm  The cover of floor is 45mm Staircase:  Hollow concrete blocks are used for construction of wall of staircase  The thickness of concrete block is 150mm 5/22/2015 Clay bricks Hollow concrete blocks Reinforced concrete floor
  30. 30. Staircase contd.  The vent openings is provided 5 m above the external wall and top. The vent openings
  31. 31. Doors:  Teak wood is used for doors  50mm thick wood panels are used  The doors have the 2h fire resistance Beams:  Reinforced concrete beam is provided  The width of the beam is 280mm  The thickness of cover is 70mm 5/22/2015 Doors Reinforced concrete beam
  32. 32. Furniture:  The furniture is made of Sheesham wood  The furniture have the 2h fire resistance Furniture
  33. 33.  The Fire resistive approach of construction enables the building to become self-sustainable in case of critical situations like that of a hazardous Fire. Thereby, it is of utmost need to inculcate various techniques to Fire proof the building.  This dissertation concludes with the study of all possible ways to achieve the same. The literature studied drawn out suggesting that the fire-resistive materials should be used to ensure safety of life and property. 5/22/2015
  34. 34.  Fire-resistance rating is essentially important, which is basically the other factor in determining the construction class of a building based on its typology.  The building materials used in the construction of the building elements above will have a fire- resistance rating. Fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection system can withstand a standard fire resistance test.  In the end, this study marks its end by concluding that in order to safeguard a building from Fire, one must make the building using the various strategies mentioned in detail with efficient application. 5/22/2015
  35. 35.  National building code 2005  Indian standard: fire safety of buildings : IS 1642 : 1989  Building construction –by Sushil Kumar  Building materials in India: 50 years –T.N.Gupta http://home.howstuffworks.com/home-improvement/construction/materials/5-fire-resistant-building- materials.htm#page=1 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/masonry-noncombustible-construction.html www.google.co.in http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Building+construction http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Building+Materials http://www.aboutcivil.org/Properties%20of%20Wood%20and%20Timber.html http://construction.about.com/od/Masonry/a/Bricks-Bricks-Types.html http://www.texasglass.com/glass_facts/types_of_Glass.html http://www.understandconstruction.com/stone.html http://www.texasglass.com/glass_facts/types_of_Glass.html http://www.specsandcodes.com http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Fire-Safety-1925/Fire-Resistant-Building-Material_0.aspx 5/22/2015

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