Workstudy

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Workstudy

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Workstudy

  1. 1. Managing Efficiency, Processes & Productivity
  2. 2. Work Study <ul><li>generic term for management services and system engineering techniques, used to investigate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methods of performing work (method study) and improve its efficiency and economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the time taken to do it (work measurement) with a view to rationalization, routinisation, utilisation, cost and incentive improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the worker-work system-technology relationship: how this is best designed and improved (ergonomics and the human-machine-information interfaces) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Productivity <ul><li>a measure of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>broadly a ratio of output to input, i.e. comparing amount produced (output) with resources used (input) </li></ul><ul><li>materials, machinery, labour, capital, energy --- a combination </li></ul><ul><li>What improvements have there been over the last 50 years in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>construction productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>payroll processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car servicing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>banking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we evaluate productivity levels and identify areas for improvement? </li></ul>
  4. 4. A work study curriculum - 1 <ul><li>historical development & commitments of Work Study </li></ul><ul><li>basic concepts, objectives and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Method Study approaches and tools of Method Analyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow Diagrams & Process Charts etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical questioning techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work Measurement and calculating times for Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining job elements & calculating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance rating and standard/basic times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining allowances: fatigue, unavoidable & avoidable delays, extra allowances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>various incentive plans </li></ul>
  5. 5. A work study curriculum - 2 <ul><li>examining worker-machine relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>workload & line balancing & staff/machine inefficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>material handling, human controls, tools and devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation layout & design (EU work-station directive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupation Health & Safety:signals, reaction times, eyes, backs, RSI safety criteria, preventing accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics & human-machine-environment interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of visual displays for dynamic information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing for: lighting systems, industrial noise, thermal controls, vibration etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems analysis the human-machine information system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data capture and processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design of the user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business process re-engineering (BPR) </li></ul>
  6. 6. System relationships Process analysis Method study Plant layout Incentive rewards Time study Jobs Work breakdowns standard times Engineer workflows Design work station & information arrangements
  7. 7. Nature of the Theory <ul><li>organised common sense, human ingenuity & creation of tools </li></ul><ul><li>functional and assumed to be neutral/unemotional </li></ul><ul><li>critical questioning & taking nothing for granted </li></ul><ul><li>focus on efficiencies, utilisation and costs </li></ul><ul><li>predictability and control over quality </li></ul><ul><li>maximise use (utilisation) of compliant labour & capital - unit costing </li></ul><ul><li>machine & economic man vs. social/sentient </li></ul>Separation of worker from means of production
  8. 8. Opposition to Work Study <ul><li>All work is different - idiographic vs/ nomothetic </li></ul><ul><li>Large firm/employer and large engineered systems only </li></ul><ul><li>Work study is obsolete </li></ul><ul><li>It is exploitative of workers </li></ul><ul><li>It has never been and never will be accepted here </li></ul>Is this so? What is the evidence of work study in the world around you
  9. 9. Pioneers of efficiency measurement & systems <ul><li>Gunpowder manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese ceramics industry </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith observations of French - pin making </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneers of agrarian and industrial revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Derby & Josiah Wedgwood </li></ul><ul><li>Madame Guillotine, Springfield Rifle </li></ul><ul><li>F W Taylor at Bethlehem Steel work </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Gantt </li></ul><ul><li>Frank and Lillian Gilbreth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and motion study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles Bedaux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work measurement </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Methods, times and systems for performance <ul><li>improve methods - get it right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O & M & Ergonomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial & systems engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>define & maintain work standards </li></ul><ul><li>incentive schemes e.g. piece work & measured day work </li></ul><ul><li>human-computer interface & systems analysis & design </li></ul><ul><li>rationalisation, automation & substitution of machine technologies for people </li></ul>Braverman and de-skilling in the labour process
  11. 11. Method study <ul><li>Select job/process to be examined & observe current performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high process cost, bottlenecks, tortuous route, low productivity, erratic quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Record & document facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>activities performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operators involved - how etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>equipment and tools used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>materials processed or moved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>apply critical examination - challenge job components & necessity (purpose, place, sequence, method). </li></ul><ul><li>develop alternative methods & present proposals </li></ul><ul><li>document as base for new work system </li></ul><ul><li>Install, monitor (slippage) & maintain </li></ul>Process re-engineering? Risk assessment for safety?
  12. 12. ASME Symbols and Process Charting Operation Move Delay Store Inspect/ process Decision
  13. 13. Traditional O&M critical examination questions <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What, Why, What else might & Should be done ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where, Why, Where else & Where should it be done ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When, Why then, When else could & When should ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who, Why, Who else might & should do it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How, Why, How else could, How else should </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a sound reason for every activity </li></ul><ul><li>no assumptions so double check </li></ul><ul><li>quality, safety and health must not compromised </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other types of process modelling <ul><li>multiple activity charts </li></ul><ul><li>string diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>3-dimensional models </li></ul><ul><li>recording methods - video,etc </li></ul><ul><li>computer-based modeling </li></ul>
  15. 15. Measuring Work <ul><li>Why define/measure work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standard, reliable methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control performance & quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain predictability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defined labour costs & performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set pay rates & provide data for effort-reward relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why set standard times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assumptions about competent, motivated workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be clear about &quot;allowances&quot; & fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toyota Avensis 10000 mile service </li></ul><ul><li>MOT testing </li></ul><ul><li>Service times & queue management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airline check-in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call centres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out-sourcing & service level agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work-load balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Work related bonuses </li></ul>
  16. 16. Work Measurement <ul><li>techniques to establish the time for a qualified, motivated worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working. </li></ul><ul><li>time Study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establish standard times - management knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rate operator performance - criteria for appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gather information to calculate production capabilities & data for capacity planning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>define/cost work content of finished goods and services e.g. for charging & estimating </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A Time Study <ul><li>select job & identify the work tasks </li></ul><ul><li>check the method - is it efficient/agreed? </li></ul><ul><li>start a Time Study sheet & break work task into &quot;units&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>several times with a stop watch & for a sample of workers, time measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>completion times for each unit of work in the job sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>average for each worker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine & apply worker effort rating for each worker (BSI scale) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply fatigue, personal & other allowances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From the observation data (worker average times) calculate standard time for the task </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes: set sequence, routine work cycle (all workers), little discretion, 100% effort rating - trained/qualified, motivated/committed, working at normal pace & not fatigued </li></ul><ul><li>Fix standard time and enter into measured work manual/database </li></ul>
  18. 18. Example standard time calculation 13.39 minutes Standard time Total 4.55 110% + 15% 3.60 3 5.81 110% + 5% 4.80 2 3.03 110% +10% 2.50 1 Standard time Effort % Relaxation % Basic time Element
  19. 19. Incentive Schemes <ul><li>What are incentives? </li></ul><ul><li>Effort-reward relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Economic orientation & motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time rates of pay & assumptions/requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piecework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured day work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incentive scheme problems </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism and prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>cost savings ? </li></ul><ul><li>economy of operation ? </li></ul><ul><li>easily understood ? </li></ul><ul><li>maintain safety standards ? </li></ul><ul><li>equitable to all ? </li></ul><ul><li>control and improve effectiveness & standards ? </li></ul><ul><li>common goal ? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Process Analysis and BPR <ul><li>Management services & business process re-engineering </li></ul><ul><li>how work is done & data for planning, staffing & control functions. </li></ul><ul><li>applied across a wide range of industrial/commercial activity: manufacturing, office, service industries, facilities layout, materials handling, logistics, IT and IS </li></ul><ul><li>Identify process components & interrelationships (inputs, processes/transformations, rules, outputs, interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>break down the process into its logical sub processes (work breakdown structure) </li></ul><ul><li>map using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process flow charts etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>describe the business process & jobs at sub process levels </li></ul><ul><li>document for: capacity planning, quality (zero defects & process orientation, inspection), operator intervention, safety, accounting/cost, planned maintenance, JIT purposes </li></ul>Clearly represented in the development and adoption of on-line computer systems
  21. 21. From Work Study to Systems Analysis and Design Information modelling Analysis & design Socio-tech Human activity Keep in mind Our focus
  22. 22. Analysis, Design, Build Projects <ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Fine-tune </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Cut-over </li></ul><ul><li>Build & test </li></ul><ul><li>databases </li></ul><ul><li>programs </li></ul><ul><li>HCI </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>databases </li></ul><ul><li>programs </li></ul><ul><li>HCI </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>security </li></ul>Design Specification Business Situation & Information Processing Requirement <ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>data flows </li></ul><ul><li>d-structures </li></ul><ul><li>events </li></ul>BSOs, TSOs Requirements <ul><li>New system </li></ul><ul><li>Add modules </li></ul><ul><li>Review performance </li></ul><ul><li>Devel. Team dispersed </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>Accept Continuity contracts Contribution/VfM? Prototyping
  23. 23. System Development Costs
  24. 24. Modelling the Information System Our 'model' of the information system Input - triggers activities <ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>information processing functions </li></ul><ul><li>data to store </li></ul>Output to activities which use the processed information Data items
  25. 25. Data Flow Modelling (DFDs) <ul><li>Data flows across the system boundary & within the system </li></ul><ul><li>Processes (functions that process data) </li></ul><ul><li>Data stores </li></ul><ul><li>Sources/sinks (external entities) </li></ul><ul><li>Functional decomposition (levels & modularisation) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not show </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time (when things happen & sequence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions (see process specification) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrams - better than narrative </li></ul><ul><li>CASE tools to draw and record details </li></ul>
  26. 26. Context DFD - Level 0
  27. 27. Level 1 DFD
  28. 28. DFDs - Levelling Consistency of data flows between levels. Are the diagrams consistent?
  29. 29. Logical Data Modelling <ul><li>data captured by the system </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the data entities, attributes and relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entities things (physical or conceptual) of interest that the system needs to store information about. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes The data items stored in each occurrence of an entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships how the data in one entity may be related (for functional purposes) to another) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create database schema for developers and DB managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system processes use the data - jobs, calculations, reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain the access rules, security and integrity of the data </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Events acting on data applies interviewed final accept/reject enrols/pays assessed graduates leaves <ul><li>Identify all processes </li></ul><ul><li>Map against the LDM </li></ul><ul><li>Data updates </li></ul><ul><li>Referential integrity & validation </li></ul><ul><li>Menus, screens, reports </li></ul>
  31. 31. Example: Dabbs plc <ul><li>Customers place sales orders </li></ul><ul><li>A single order may contain several products </li></ul><ul><li>Each customer is in one of 500 areas </li></ul><ul><li>Each customer is serviced by one of 6 depots </li></ul><ul><li>Each customer is allocated a depot depending on their area location </li></ul><ul><li>All products are stocked at all depots </li></ul>
  32. 32. Entity occurrence - 1 <ul><li>Entity: Footballer </li></ul><ul><li>Occurrence: David Beckham </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOB, height, weight, position, skills, goals scored, next of kin, address, salary, contract dates, sending-offs, number of international caps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationships with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games, team sheets, payments, club TV appearances, insurance policies, contracts, agents, injuries, treatments </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Entity occurrence - 2 <ul><li>Entity: Patient </li></ul><ul><li>Occurrence: Chris Woodhead </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name, age, address, NHS number, allergies, next-of-kin, {medical conditions}, {treatments}, private health care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationships with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments, appointments, medical conditions, allergies, GP, clinics, medical staff, private health payments </li></ul></ul>

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