Basics of Work Study - Work
Measurement
N.K.Agarwal
Work Study
• Systematic examination of the method
of carrying out an activity so as to
– Improve the existing method of do...
Work Study - Objectives
• To recommend and implement the desired
improvement in work methods by establishing the
most econ...
Work Study - Objectives
• Measurement of work values
• To initiate and maintain incentive bonus schemes
• Setting standard...
BASIC WORK CONTENT
POOR DESIGN AND FREQUENT CHANGES
WASTE OF MATERIALS
POOR LAYOUT AND UTILISATION OF SPACE
INADEQUATE MAT...
WORK STUDY
WORK STUDY

METHOD STUDY

WORK MEASUREMENT

TO IMPROVE METHODS
OF PRODUCTION

TO ASSESS
EFFECTIVENESS OF
WORKER...
Method Study
• Systematic investigation i.e. recording &
critical examination of the existing method of
doing a job in ord...
Work Measurement
• Application of different techniques to measure
and establish time required to complete the
job by a qua...
Method Study - Procedure
• Select and define
– Economic (cost) benefit is the main criteria

• Record
– Recording/ collect...
Method Study - Procedure
– Two sets of detailed questions are asked
• To indicate facts and the reasons underlying
• To in...
Method Study - Procedure
•

Define the new method
– Management and workers to be familiarised with the
new method and writ...
Method Study - Techniques
• Various techniques used are
– Charts
•
•
•
•
•

Outline process charts
Flow process charts: ma...
PROCESS CHARTS
A chart / diagram giving an overall view of the process :
activities represented by symbols
OPERATION
STORA...
Method Study - Procedure
– Diagrams
•
•
•
•

Flow
String
Cyclegraph
Chronocycle graph

– String diagram
• String strung to...
Method Study - Procedure
– Cycle graph
•
•
•
•

Introduced by Gilberth
Photographic method
Very accurate
Used for recordin...
Method study - Procedure
– SIMO chart
•
•
•
•

Used for micro motion studies
Time in terms of winks
Very accurate for deta...
Work Measurement - Objectives
• Target time for each job can be estimated
scientifically
• Sound comparison of alternative...
Work Measurement - Steps
• Select the job to be measured
– Decision mostly based on increasing productivity

• Break job i...
Work Measurement - Steps
• Calculate Normal (Basic) time by using
Performance Rating Factor
• Add process allowance, rest ...
Time Estimates and Production
Standards
• Standard Time
– Time required to complete a unit of work
• Under existing workin...
Time Estimates and Production
Standards
• Basic time
– Time required to perform a task by a Normal
Operator working at a s...
Time Estimates and Production
Standards
• Allowances
– Personal allowances
• For visiting toilets, drinking water etc

– F...
Time Estimates and Production
Standards
• Performance rating
– Indicates gauging and comparing the pace rate of
the perfor...
Time Estimates and Production
Standards
• Standard time calculation
– Standard time for an operation will be the sum of
th...
Performance Rating

OBSERVED TIME
BASIC TIME

BONUS
ALLOWANCES
STANDARD TIME

POLICY ALLOWANCE

INTERFERENCE ALLOWANCE
DEL...
Work Measurement - Techniques
• Time study
– Stop watch procedure

• Work sampling
• Pre-determined Motion Time Systems (P...
Time Study - Procedure
• Most widely used and involves
– Recording the time for performing a certain job /
its elements un...
Work study- advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Uniform & improved production flow
Higher productive efficiency
Reduced manufact...
Work Study - Limitations
• Always looked upon by the supervisor &
workers or unions with suspicion
• Sudden change is not ...
References
•
•
•
•

Production Operations Management : Dr. B. S. Goel
Work Study (Motion & Time Study) : O.P.Khanna
Produc...
Thank You
WORK SAMPLING

• TECHNIQUE IN WHICH
– LARGE NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS ARE
MADE OVER A PERIOD OF TIME OF ONE OR A
GROUP OF MAC...
PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM
(PMTS)
• PRE-DETERMINED TIME STANDARD IS A WORK
MEASUREMENT WHEREBY TIMES ESTABLISHED FO...
METHOD TIME MEASUREMENT
(M-T-M )
• M-T-M ASSOCIATION GOT RECOGNITION IN 1948
• BASIC HUMAN MOVEMENTS ARE ANALYSED IN
MORE ...
STRUCTURED ESTIMATION
• A TECHNIQUE WHICH USES PAST DATA TO PREDICT
FUTURE VALUES
• STEPS INVOLVED ARE:
– BREAK THE JOB IN...
STRUCTURED ESTIMATION
• COMPARATIVE ESTIMATION
– RELIES ON IDENTIFICATION & MEASUREMENT OF
BENCHMARK JOBS OF KNOWN WORK CO...
STRUCTURED ESTIMATION
• EACH OF THE BENCHMARK JOBS IS ASSIGNED TO THE
APPROPRIATE SLOT
• WHEN ESTIMATING WORK SUBSEQUENTLY...
METHOD STUDY
• DIAGRAMS
– STRING DIAGRAM
• STRING STRUNG TO FOLLOW PATH TAKEN BY MATERIAL
• DEALS TO SOLVE COMPLEX MOVEMEN...
METHOD STUDY
• 3. EXAMINE CRITICALLY
• EACH ACTIVITY CRITICALLY EXAMINED AFTER
RECORDING ALL RELEVANT INFORMATION
ABOUT TH...
METHOD STUDY
•

EXAMINE CRITICALLY contd…
– TWO SETS OF DETAILED QUESTIONS ARE ASKED
• PRIMARY
– TO INDICATE FACTS AND THE...
METHOD STUDY
• PROCEDURE ….contd
• 4. DEVELOP AND EVALUATE THE BEST
METHOD
– RECORD METHOD PROPOSED
– CONSULT MANAGEMENT &...
TIME STUDY - STEPS
•
•
•
•
•
•

IDENTIFY JOB AND OPERATION TO BE TIMED
USE IMPROVED PROCEDURE
SELECT WORKER AND BRIEF HIM ...
WORK SAMPLING
•

•

•
•

TECHNIQUE IN WHICH
– LARGE NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS ARE MADE OVER A
PERIOD OF TIME OF ONE OR A GROU...
BELL SHAPED CURVE
Standard Deviation σ
1.00
1.96
2.00
3.00

Confidence Level %
68.27
95.00
95.45
99.73

68.27
95.45
99.73
...
WORK SAMPLING….contd
• NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS TO BE MADE
N = 4*p*(100 – p ) / L2 , WHERE
N = NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS,
p = P...
PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM
(PMTS)….contd
• COMPONENTS OF A BASIC PMTS ARE
– REACH : MOVE HAND TO DESTINATION
– GRAS...
PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM
(PMTS)….contd
• STEPS
– IDENTIFY BASIC MOTIONS CONSTITUTING OPERATION
– GET STANDARD TIM...
PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM
(PMTS)….contd
• APPLICATION
– DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE MOTIONS USED BY THE WORKER
– MEN...
PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM
(PMTS)….contd
• LIMITATIONS
– LOT OF PRACTICE REQUIRED TO APPLY CORRECTLY
– DEALS ONLY W...
ANALYTICAL ESTIMATES
• STEPS INVOLVED ARE:
– BREAK THE JOB INTO ELEMENTS
– USE STANDARD DATA TO GET TIME VALUES OF
ELEMENT...
COMPARATIVE ESTIMATION
• RELIES ON IDENTIFICATION & MEASUREMENT
OF BENCHMARK JOBS OF KNOWN WORK
CONTENT AGAINST WHICH ALL ...
Om lect 08(r0-june-08)_basics of work study_work measurement_mms_bharti_sies
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Om lect 08(r0-june-08)_basics of work study_work measurement_mms_bharti_sies

  1. 1. Basics of Work Study - Work Measurement N.K.Agarwal
  2. 2. Work Study • Systematic examination of the method of carrying out an activity so as to – Improve the existing method of doing the job, called method study, and – To set up standards of performance , called work measurement With the objective of improving the productivity
  3. 3. Work Study - Objectives • To recommend and implement the desired improvement in work methods by establishing the most economical way of doing things • Investigation and analysis of existing situation • Examination of weaknesses if any in the production process • Most effective use of the existing or proposed plant • Efficient use of human efforts • Ensure proper performance of those employed in the production process
  4. 4. Work Study - Objectives • Measurement of work values • To initiate and maintain incentive bonus schemes • Setting standards for labor cost and originating labour cost control documentation • To standardise the method, material and equipment used in the production process • To determine the time required by an ideal operator to perform the task at some desired level of performance
  5. 5. BASIC WORK CONTENT POOR DESIGN AND FREQUENT CHANGES WASTE OF MATERIALS POOR LAYOUT AND UTILISATION OF SPACE INADEQUATE MATERIAL HANDLING WORK CONTENT ADDED DUE TO INEFFICIENT METHODS OF MANUFACTURE OR OPERATION FREQUENT STOPPAGES AS PRODUCTION CHANGES FROM ONE PRODUCT TO ANOTHER INEFFECTIVE METHOD OF WORK POOR PLANNING OF INVENTORY FREQUENT BREAKDOWNS OF MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT WORK CONTENT ADDED DUE TO HUMAN FACTORS ABSENTEEISM AND LATENESS POOR WORKMANSHIP ACCIDENTS AND OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS TOTAL WORK CONTENT TOTAL WORK CONTENT WORK CONTENT ADDED DUE TO POOR PRODUCT DESIGN OR MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
  6. 6. WORK STUDY WORK STUDY METHOD STUDY WORK MEASUREMENT TO IMPROVE METHODS OF PRODUCTION TO ASSESS EFFECTIVENESS OF WORKERS RESULTING IN MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF MATERIALS, MANPOWER, PLANT & EQUIPMENT MAKING POSSIBLE IMPROVED PLANNING & CONTROL, MANNING & AS A BASIS FOR SOUND INCENTIVES HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY
  7. 7. Method Study • Systematic investigation i.e. recording & critical examination of the existing method of doing a job in order to – Develop and install an easy, rapid, efficient, effective & less fatiguing procedure – Develop a more economic method For doing the same job
  8. 8. Work Measurement • Application of different techniques to measure and establish time required to complete the job by a qualified worker at a defined level of performance • Objectives – Reveals excess work content in any operation – Can be used to look into cause and take steps to reduce ineffective time – Set standard time for the work
  9. 9. Method Study - Procedure • Select and define – Economic (cost) benefit is the main criteria • Record – Recording/ collection of necessary information • • • • Movement of equipment or material Clerical procedure involved in the job Work done by an operator Movement of operator with respect to machines and other operations, etc. • Examine critically the existing method – Each activity critically examined after recording all relevant information about the same (for value / non value adding )
  10. 10. Method Study - Procedure – Two sets of detailed questions are asked • To indicate facts and the reasons underlying • To indicate alternatives and means of improvements – Brain storming and creative thinking session • . Develop and evaluate the best method – Record method proposed – Consult management & workers for their suggestions – Workout cost of installing new method – Prepare new flow process chart – Put up report for management approval
  11. 11. Method Study - Procedure • Define the new method – Management and workers to be familiarised with the new method and written standard practice report prepared • Install – Properly plan and implement the new method – Do trial runs to remove snags till it works smoothly • Maintain – Once installed, the new method to be maintained – Verify proper functioning through periodic checks / verifications
  12. 12. Method Study - Techniques • Various techniques used are – Charts • • • • • Outline process charts Flow process charts: man, material, equipment types Two handed process charts Multiple activity chart Travel chart
  13. 13. PROCESS CHARTS A chart / diagram giving an overall view of the process : activities represented by symbols OPERATION STORAGE DELAY OR TEMPORARY STORAGE TRANSPORT INSPECTION OPERATION CUM TRANSPORT OPERATION CUM INSPECTION
  14. 14. Method Study - Procedure – Diagrams • • • • Flow String Cyclegraph Chronocycle graph – String diagram • String strung to follow path taken by material • Deals to solve complex movement & plant layout
  15. 15. Method Study - Procedure – Cycle graph • • • • Introduced by Gilberth Photographic method Very accurate Used for recording very fast movement not possible for seeing by eye – Chronocycle graph • Light source 10-20 times per second records the path of movement in the form of pear shaped spots on the plate – Motion and film analysis( micro motion & memo motion studies) • Simultaneous motion (Simo) chart • Pre-determined motion time system (PMTS)
  16. 16. Method study - Procedure – SIMO chart • • • • Used for micro motion studies Time in terms of winks Very accurate for detailed analysis 1 wink ≅ 1/2000 of a minute
  17. 17. Work Measurement - Objectives • Target time for each job can be estimated scientifically • Sound comparison of alternative methods can be made by comparing their basic times • Useful incentive schemes can be generated by linking these target times • Variance between actual time and the target time can lead to apply better control on the operations • It can lead to proper balancing of the work distribution • Forecast for future manpower and related costs can be made
  18. 18. Work Measurement - Steps • Select the job to be measured – Decision mostly based on increasing productivity • Break job into operations / elements • Determine number of observations to be timed • Measure with a timing device and record on time study form – Time study is a work measurement technique for recording the times and rates of working for the elements of a specified job • Compute Observed time
  19. 19. Work Measurement - Steps • Calculate Normal (Basic) time by using Performance Rating Factor • Add process allowance, rest and personal allowance and special allowances to Normal (Basic) time to obtain Standard time • Define the new method • Install the new method as agreed standard procedure with the standard time allowed • Maintain the new standard practice
  20. 20. Time Estimates and Production Standards • Standard Time – Time required to complete a unit of work • Under existing working condition • Using specified method & machine • By an operator able to work in a proper manner and at a standard pace
  21. 21. Time Estimates and Production Standards • Basic time – Time required to perform a task by a Normal Operator working at a standard pace (rate) with no allowance for personal delays, unavoidable delays or fatigue – Basic / Normal (time) = Observed time * Observed rating of operator / Standard rating ( i.e. 100 )
  22. 22. Time Estimates and Production Standards • Allowances – Personal allowances • For visiting toilets, drinking water etc – Fatigue / relaxation allowance – Delay allowance • For tool breakage, interruption by foreman etc – Typically • Personal allowance : 2-5 % per day • Fatigue : 12-20% of normal time
  23. 23. Time Estimates and Production Standards • Performance rating – Indicates gauging and comparing the pace rate of the performance of a worker against a standard performance level set by time study engineer – Rating Factor is the leveling factor – Generally 0-100 % standard rating scale is the best and has been adopted by British Standard
  24. 24. Time Estimates and Production Standards • Standard time calculation – Standard time for an operation will be the sum of the standard times for all the elements of which it is made of. – Expressed in standard minutes or hours • Standard time = Basic time + Allowances – Basic (Normal time )= Observed time * Observed rating of operator / Standard rating – Observed time is the time observed by stopwatch
  25. 25. Performance Rating OBSERVED TIME BASIC TIME BONUS ALLOWANCES STANDARD TIME POLICY ALLOWANCE INTERFERENCE ALLOWANCE DELAY ALLOWANCE RATING FACTOR RELAXATION ALLOWANCE TIME ISSUED FOR PAYMENT PURPOSES
  26. 26. Work Measurement - Techniques • Time study – Stop watch procedure • Work sampling • Pre-determined Motion Time Systems (PMTS) or Elemental Motion Time Systems ( EMTS ) or Basic Motion Time Systems (BMTS ) ( work factor and M-T-M systems ) • Structured estimation – Analytical estimation – Comparative estimations
  27. 27. Time Study - Procedure • Most widely used and involves – Recording the time for performing a certain job / its elements under specified conditions – Analyse data – Obtain time necessary for an operator for the job at a defined performance rate • Steps-preliminary – Identify job and operation to be timed – Use improved procedure – Select worker and brief him and his superior about study – Collect equipments, arrange machine, jigs , fixtures etc
  28. 28. Work study- advantages • • • • • • • • • Uniform & improved production flow Higher productive efficiency Reduced manufacturing cost Fast & accurate delivery dates Better employee-employer relations Better service to customers Job security & job satisfaction to workers Better working & other conditions Higher wages to workers
  29. 29. Work Study - Limitations • Always looked upon by the supervisor & workers or unions with suspicion • Sudden change is not appreciated
  30. 30. References • • • • Production Operations Management : Dr. B. S. Goel Work Study (Motion & Time Study) : O.P.Khanna Productivity Techniques : Gondhlekar / Salunke Production and Operations Management : Aswathappa / Bhat
  31. 31. Thank You
  32. 32. WORK SAMPLING • TECHNIQUE IN WHICH – LARGE NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS ARE MADE OVER A PERIOD OF TIME OF ONE OR A GROUP OF MACHINES, PROCESSES OR WORKERS – RECORD WHAT IS HAPPENING AT THAT INSTANT • PERCENTAGE OF OBSERVATIONS RECORDED FOR A PARTICULAR ACTIVITY OR DELAY IS A MEASURE OF THE PERCENTAGE OF TIME DURING WHICH ACTIVITY OR DELAY OCCURS
  33. 33. PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS) • PRE-DETERMINED TIME STANDARD IS A WORK MEASUREMENT WHEREBY TIMES ESTABLISHED FOR BASIC HUMAN MOTIONS ( CLASSIFIED AS PER THE NATURE OF THE MOTIONS AND CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THESE ARE MADE ) ARE USED TO BUILD UP THE TIME FOR THE JOB AT A DEFINED LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE ( B.S. 3138: 1969 ) • MACROMOTION TIME MEASURED IN SEVERAL SECONDS • MICRO MOTION –ELEMENTS OF THE JOB ARE BASIC HUMAN MOTION WITH DURATION OF 0.1 SECONDS AND LESS • OPERATIONS ARE RECORDED ON A MOVIE FILM
  34. 34. METHOD TIME MEASUREMENT (M-T-M ) • M-T-M ASSOCIATION GOT RECOGNITION IN 1948 • BASIC HUMAN MOVEMENTS ARE ANALYSED IN MORE DETAILS • TIME MEASURED IN TERMS OF TMUs (TIME MEASUREMENT UNITS) • 1 TMU = 0.0006 MINUTES
  35. 35. STRUCTURED ESTIMATION • A TECHNIQUE WHICH USES PAST DATA TO PREDICT FUTURE VALUES • STEPS INVOLVED ARE: – BREAK THE JOB INTO ELEMENTS – USE STANDARD DATA TO GET TIME VALUES OF ELEMENTS FOR WHICH SUCH INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE – MEASURE THE TIME VALUES OF ELEMENTS WHICH ARE WORTH THE EFFORT • TECHNIQUE IS A COMBINATION OF INFORMATION FROM STANDARD DATA, TIME STUDY AND ESTIMATION • OVERALL TIME FOR THE JOB WILL BE WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
  36. 36. STRUCTURED ESTIMATION • COMPARATIVE ESTIMATION – RELIES ON IDENTIFICATION & MEASUREMENT OF BENCHMARK JOBS OF KNOWN WORK CONTENT AGAINST WHICH ALL OTHER JOBS TO BE MEASURED ARE COMPARED – STEPS INVOLVED ARE • BENCHMARK JOBS ARE SELECTED TO REPRESENT THE WHOLE RANGE OF WORK INVOLVED AND TO REPRESENT INTERMEDIATE POINTS ON THE OVERALL SCALE OF THE JOB • BENCHMARK POINTS ARE MEASURED WITH SOME PRECISION USING AN ESTABLISHED WORK MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE • IDENTIFY TIME BANDS OR SLOTS, DETERMINED BY STATISTICAL ANALYSIS WHICH MAY NOT BE OF EQUAL WIDTH, WITH EACH SLOT BEING ALLOCATED A BASIC OR STANDARD TIME EQUIVALENT TO ITS MID POINT
  37. 37. STRUCTURED ESTIMATION • EACH OF THE BENCHMARK JOBS IS ASSIGNED TO THE APPROPRIATE SLOT • WHEN ESTIMATING WORK SUBSEQUENTLY, THE ESTIMATOR REFERS TO THE BENCHMARK JOBS AND COMPARES THE JOB BEING MEASURED • A COMPARISON OF THE WORK CONTENT OF THE JOB TO BE ESTIMATED WITH A NUMBER OF THE BENCHMARK JOBS • ON BEING SATISFIED THAT THE CORRECT SLOT FOR THE JOB HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED, THE SLOT BASIC TIME IS ASSIGNED TO THAT JOB. – BECAUSE OF THE HIGH SETUP COST OF THIS SYSTEM, THIS TECHNIQUE IS MOST SUITABLE FOR SITUATIONS WHERE THERE IS A LOT OF LONG CYCLE, NON-REPETITIVE WORK e.g. MAINTENANCE WORK WHERE THE WORK IS SIMILAR BUT NO TWO JOBS MAY BE IDENTICAL
  38. 38. METHOD STUDY • DIAGRAMS – STRING DIAGRAM • STRING STRUNG TO FOLLOW PATH TAKEN BY MATERIAL • DEALS TO SOLVE COMPLEX MOVEMENT & PLANT LAYOUT – CYCLE GRAPH • INTRODUCED BY GILBERTH • PHOTOGRAPHIC METHOD • VERY ACCURATE • USED FOR RECORDING VERY FAST MOVEMENT NOT POSSIBLE FOR SEEING BY EYE • LITTLE LIGHT ATTACHED TO THE FINGER OR HAND OF OPERATOR TRACES THE PATH OF THE LIMB MOVEMENT ON A PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATE AS A CONTINUOUS LINE • DOES NOT INDICATE DIRECTION OR SPEED
  39. 39. METHOD STUDY • 3. EXAMINE CRITICALLY • EACH ACTIVITY CRITICALLY EXAMINED AFTER RECORDING ALL RELEVANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE SAME – ALL ACTIVITIES FALL INTO TWO CATEGORIES • VALUE ADDING ACTIVITIES: WHERE SOME WORK IS BEING DONE ON THE MATERIAL • NON VALUE ADDING ACTIVITY: WHERE NO WORK IS BEING DONE ON THE MATERIAL – EFFICIENCY CAN BE IMPROVED BY INCREASING THE PROPORTION OF THE VALUE ADDING ACITIVITIES BECAUSE THESE ARE THE PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES
  40. 40. METHOD STUDY • EXAMINE CRITICALLY contd… – TWO SETS OF DETAILED QUESTIONS ARE ASKED • PRIMARY – TO INDICATE FACTS AND THE REASONS UNDERLYING • SECONDARY – TO INDICATE ALTERNATIVES AND MEANS OF IMPROVEMENTS – QUESTIONING PATTERN • PURPOSE FOR WHICH, PLACE AT WHICH, SEQUENCE AT WHICH, PERSON BY WHOM, AND MEANS BY WHICH, THE ACTIVITIES ARE UNDERTAKEN • WITH A VIEW TO ELIMINATE , COMBINE, REARRANGE OR SIMPLIFY THOSE ACTIVITIES – TYPICALLY • PURPOSE: (P) WHAT IS DONE, (P) WHY IS IT DONE, (S) WHAT ELSE CAN BE DONE, (S) WHAT SHOULD BE DONE – BRAIN STORMING AND CREATIVE THINKING SESSION
  41. 41. METHOD STUDY • PROCEDURE ….contd • 4. DEVELOP AND EVALUATE THE BEST METHOD – RECORD METHOD PROPOSED – CONSULT MANAGEMENT & WORKERS FOR THEIR SUGGESTIONS – WORKOUT COST OF INSTALLING NEW METHOD – PREPARE NEW FLOW PROCESS CHART – PUT UP REPORT FOR MANAGEMENT APPROVAL
  42. 42. TIME STUDY - STEPS • • • • • • IDENTIFY JOB AND OPERATION TO BE TIMED USE IMPROVED PROCEDURE SELECT WORKER AND BRIEF HIM AND HIS SUPERIOR ABOUT STUDY COLLECT EQUIPMENTS, ARRANGE MACHINE, JIGS , FIXTURES ETC BREAK JOB INTO OPERATIONS / ELEMENTS DETERMINE NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS TO BE TIMED
  43. 43. WORK SAMPLING • • • • TECHNIQUE IN WHICH – LARGE NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS ARE MADE OVER A PERIOD OF TIME OF ONE OR A GROUP OF MACHINES, PROCESSES OR WORKERS – RECORD WHAT IS HAPPENING AT THAT INSTANT PERCENTAGE OF OBSERVATIONS RECORDED FOR A PARTICULAR ACTIVITY OR DELAY IS A MEASURE OF THE PERCENTAGE OF TIME DURING WHICH ACTIVITY OR DELAY OCCURS NORMAL FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION AND CONFIDENCE LEVEL ARE ASSOCIATED WITH WORK SAMPLING A CONFIDENCE LEVEL OF 95.45% SIGNIFIES THAT THE WORK STUDY ENGINEER IS SURE THAT 95.45% OF THE TIMES, THE RANDOM OBSERVATIONS WILL REPRESENT THE TRUE FACTS
  44. 44. BELL SHAPED CURVE Standard Deviation σ 1.00 1.96 2.00 3.00 Confidence Level % 68.27 95.00 95.45 99.73 68.27 95.45 99.73 -1σ +1σ -2 σ +2 σ -3 σ +3 σ
  45. 45. WORK SAMPLING….contd • NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS TO BE MADE N = 4*p*(100 – p ) / L2 , WHERE N = NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS, p = PERCENTAGE OF OCCURANCE, L = LIMIT OF ACCURACY
  46. 46. PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS)….contd • COMPONENTS OF A BASIC PMTS ARE – REACH : MOVE HAND TO DESTINATION – GRASP : SECURE CONTROL OF OBJECT WITH FINGERS – MOVE : MOVE OBJECTS – POSITION: LINE UP & ENGAGE OBJECT – RELEASE : LET GO OF THE OBJECT – BODY MOTIONS : LEG / TRUNK MOVEMENT • PMTS TABLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR STANDARD TIMES FOR EACH TYPE OF MOTION UNDER GIVEN CIRCUMSTANCES
  47. 47. PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS)….contd • STEPS – IDENTIFY BASIC MOTIONS CONSTITUTING OPERATION – GET STANDARD TIME FROM PMTS TABLES FOR IDENTIFIED MOTIONS – ADD AND GET BASIC TIME – ADD ALLOWANCES TO GET STANDARD TIME FOR THE OPERATION • RATING NEED NOT BE DONE AS TABLES CONTAIN ALREADY RATED TIMES
  48. 48. PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS)….contd • APPLICATION – DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE MOTIONS USED BY THE WORKER – MENTAL VISUALISATION OF MOTIONS NEEDED FOR THE NEW METHOD – ANALYSIS OF A FILM / VIDEO TAKEN OF WORKER AT WORK PLACE • ADVANTAGES – USE OF PMT STANDARD AVOIDS RATING WHICH LEADS TO CONSISTENCY IN SETTING TIME STANDARDS – ENABLES DETERMINING STANDARD TIME FOR A PROCESS DURING DESIGN STAGE ITSELF FOR SUITABLE MODIFICATION – COST ESTIMATES ARE ALSO POSSIBLE – PMTS IS LESS TIME CONSUMING THAN OTHER METHODS – USEFUL FOR SHORT CYCLES
  49. 49. PRE-DETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS)….contd • LIMITATIONS – LOT OF PRACTICE REQUIRED TO APPLY CORRECTLY – DEALS ONLY WITH NORMAL MANUAL MOTIONS OF AN OPERATION – DIFFICULT FOR ABNORMAL MOTIONS – ALL CATEGORIES OF MOTIONS NOT CONSIDERED WHILE COLLECTING PMTS DATA
  50. 50. ANALYTICAL ESTIMATES • STEPS INVOLVED ARE: – BREAK THE JOB INTO ELEMENTS – USE STANDARD DATA TO GET TIME VALUES OF ELEMENTS FOR WHICH SUCH INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE – MEASURE THE TIME VALUES OF ELEMENTS WHICH ARE WORTH THE EFFORT • TECHNIQUE IS A COMBINATION OF INFORMATION FROM STANDARD DATA, TIME STUDY AND ESTIMATION • OVERALL TIME FOR THE JOB WILL BE WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
  51. 51. COMPARATIVE ESTIMATION • RELIES ON IDENTIFICATION & MEASUREMENT OF BENCHMARK JOBS OF KNOWN WORK CONTENT AGAINST WHICH ALL OTHER JOBS TO BE MEASURED ARE COMPARED • BECAUSE OF THE HIGH SETUP COST OF THIS SYSTEM, THIS TECHNIQUE IS MOST SUITABLE FOR SITUATIONS WHERE THERE IS A LOT OF LONG CYCLE, NON-REPETITIVE WORK e.g. MAINTENANCE WORK WHERE THE WORK IS SIMILAR BUT NO TWO JOBS MAY BE IDENTICAL

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