Chinese Philosophies


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Chinese Philosophies

  1. 2. Chinese Philosophies & Ethical Codes By Mrs. Agosta, Mrs. Hassett & Ms. Susan M. Pojer
  2. 3. 1. Confucianism
  3. 4. a. Based on Confucius’ philosophy – beliefs about how to live b. He believed social order and good gov’t were need b/c of chaos in society
  4. 5. c. He believed men were basically good natured d. The best leader rules by example
  5. 6. <ul><li>- lesser ranking person </li></ul><ul><li>inferior owes obedience and respect to superior </li></ul><ul><li>Superior owes love and respect </li></ul>Subordinate
  6. 7. <ul><li> - respect for parents </li></ul><ul><li>Your Family is the training grounds for life </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: be good subjects to the emperor </li></ul>
  7. 8. 1. Ruler and Subject 2. Father and Son 3. Husband and Wife 4. Older Brother and Younger Brother 5. Friend and Friend 5 Basic Relationships
  8. 9. <ul><li>If people know what is expected, they behave correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism was the official philosophy in China for 2,000 years </li></ul>Confucius' Tomb
  9. 10. The Analects <ul><li>Book Confucius wrote containing his philosophy DON’T WRITE! </li></ul><ul><li>In Chinese, it means “conversation.” Focus on practicalities of interpersonal relationships and the relationship of the role of rulers and ministers to the conduct of government. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Confucian Temple Complex
  11. 12. 2. Legalism
  12. 13. A. Legalism is the philosophy of Hanfeizi B. It is concerned with maintaining social order through strict laws and strict punishments C. Men are naturally evil but learn goodness
  13. 14. 3. Daoism
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>His name means “Old Master” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. He was concerned with living in harmony with yin and yang </li></ul>A. Philosophy of Lao Zi
  15. 16. <ul><li>C. Tao is “the way” of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Tao is present everywhere. It’s in all things. </li></ul><ul><li>Man is naturally good but society corrupts men b/c it forces them to live by rules </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>F. The best gov’t governs the least </li></ul><ul><li>G. Yielding = giving way to or avoiding conflict </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Dao De Jing <ul><li>The basic text of Daoism. </li></ul><ul><li>In Chinese, it means The Classic in the Way and Its Power . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent.” These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words? </li></ul>
  18. 19. 1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. 2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Dao ; one with nature. [“The butterfly or the man?” story.] 3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” --> “The art of doing nothing.” --> “Go with the flow!” 4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature. Major Daoist Principles
  19. 20. 1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning. 2. Relying on the senses and instincts. 3. Discovering the nature and “rhythm” of the universe. 4. Ignoring political and social laws. The &quot;Dao&quot; [Tao] To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps” of life, one must escape by:
  20. 21. Yin <ul><li>Masculine </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Heaven; Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul><ul><li>Weak </li></ul><ul><li>Earth; Moon </li></ul>The Universe of Opposites: Find the Balance! Yang
  21. 22. The Uniqueness of Daoism How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity?? Confucianism --> Moral order in society. Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order. Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.
  22. 23. What's Your Philosophy of Life?