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contributors of education in history

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  1. 1. Name : R.M. Vihari Vichakshana K. Rajaguru Topic : Confucius – Contributions to education
  2. 2. Who is Confucius ?  The most important philosopher in early Chinese history.  Confucius never wrote his ideas.  After his death, his students collected his sayings in The Analects.  His ideas did spread to many parts of the world.  Confucius is credited with establishing the content and methods of teaching, and
  3. 3. Introduction  Born - 551 BC Zou, Lu state  Died - 479 BC (aged 71– 72), Lu State  Nationality - Chinese  Era - Ancient philosophy  Region - Chinese philosophy  School - Founder of Confucianism  Main interests - Moral philosophy, Social
  4. 4. The life of Confucius  He was actually called “Kung fu tzu” by his people  Shuliang He, father of Confucius, was an officer of in the Lu military, he died when Confucius was 3 years old.  Yan Zhengai, mother of Confucius,  At age 19 he married his wife, Qui Quan and a year later the couple had their first child, Kong Li.  He has nine sisters and one brother and
  5. 5. Education background  He studied religion with Daoist Master Lao Dan.  Learn music with Chang Hong and music master Xiang.  Taoism (modernly Daoism) is a philosophical, ethical, and religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. Lao Dan
  6. 6. His philosophy  Confucius did not teach people about religion.  Instead, he taught people how to be good citizens.  Confucius thought it was important for people to live in harmony with each other.  The most important duty was filial piety. (Filial Piety means respect for your parents)  Confucius also stressed the importance of: honesty - hard work - concern for others.
  7. 7. Ideas about education  Confucius' view of education is based on the conviction that "man is born with uprightness."Even immoral persons have an upright essence. So, Confucius said, "By nature men are alike.“  He honored and respected all human beings, and for him all men were able to learn about the good and to do good. Therefore, "In education there should be no class distinction.  True education, according to Confucianism, is self-education. "Self-
  8. 8. Confucius's Educational Theory 1. Theory of Value: What knowledge and skills are worthwhile learning? What are the goals of education? - Since Confucius' goal was to reform the government, his goals for education were to produce men who were capable to serve in government in decisive roles. He attempted to produce chun tzu, which is quite similar to the English word, "gentleman." - Originally both Chinese and English words meant one born into a high social station, but both came to
  9. 9. 2. Theory of Knowledge: What is knowledge? How is it different from belief? What is a mistake? What is a lie? - To know Nature and the Way of Nature, one must observe. He is quoted as "I have no inborn knowledge. I love antiquity and I search for it [knowledge] assiduously." He also said, "Among three men who are walking together (myself being one of them), I am certain to find my teacher, a good one in order to emulate him, and a bad one in order [recognize in him what in myself I must] correct.“
  10. 10. - He is quoted as saying to a student "Do you think that my way of acquiring knowledge is simply to study many things and remember them?" The student said, "Yes, isn't that the case?" Confucius replied, "No, I have one principle which I use like a thread, upon which to string them all." This sounds like a rationalist who seeks to arrange his observations (the world's phenomena) according to the principle of his own mind.
  11. 11. 3. Theory of Human Nature: What is a human being? How does it differ from other species? What are the limits of human potential? - Confucius was much influenced by the philosophy of his much older contemporary, Lao tzu (b. 604 B.C.), who is reputedly the founder of Taoism. - Humans differ from other species in their tendency to meddle with Nature. - An individual human's potential is limited by: the individual's ability to recognize his/her true nature, the individual's ability to follow the way of his/her true nature, and by his/her true nature itself.
  12. 12. 4. Theory of Learning: What is learning? How are skills and knowledge acquired? Confucius said "Study without thought is labor lost; thought without study is dangerous." When referring to his own way of learning, he said -To hear much, select what is good, and follow it;" Thus he saw learning as a process of observation of some type of subject matter whether it be books, objects, or people, followed by reflection, that somehow changed one. He saw learning as a highly personal and therefore, highly individual activity. He seemed to feel once awakened by any kind of real learning, this process would be repeated by the student.
  13. 13. 5. Theory of Transmission: Who is to teach? By what methods? What will the curriculum be? - Confucius would have required that a teacher be one who has developed their own character. Confucius, himself was a teacher, and his methods were very informal, and tailored to the individual. He did not use structured classes or exan-dnations. - Instead he suggested to each student what they should study, and then discussed it with them and sometimes just listened. He is said to have taken the stock of each student, and then encouraged their strengths, and improved their weaknesses.
  14. 14. 6. Theory of Society: What is society? What institutions are involved in the educational process? - In the 2 books authored by Confucius, Genuine Living, and Great Wisdom he clearly states that society starts with the individual, and that one must first develop oneself, to develop one's family. - The family serves as a model for the community, the community as a model for the state, the state as a model for the country, and the country as a model for other countries. The educational process is first and most
  15. 15. 7. Theory of Opportunity: Who is to be educated? Who is to be schooled? A quote from Confucius' book Genuine Living says, "Developing in accordance with one's own nature is called "the way of self-realization." Proper pursuit of the way of self- realization is called "maturation"." In this quote, I believe Confucius proposes education for a but subject matter and form for that education would vary according to one's own nature. At Confucius' own school, he would not teach "dullards", and would "only teach those who were bursting with eagerness for enlightenment." However he
  16. 16. 8. Theory of Consensus: Why do people disagree? How is consensus achieved? Whose opinion takes precedence? - People disagree because they are focusing on themselves, and not Nature and the way of Nature. Confucius did not believe any one person was the possessor of the truth. He believed that through rational discussion the truth could be worked out between two people, and that the truth often was found somewhere between the two positions. - As far as consensus on a large scale, I think he believed that people would naturally gravitate to
  17. 17. The tomb of Confucius in Qufu, Shandong Province, China. Confucius Monument in Rizal Park, Manila, Philippines
  18. 18. References :  _Education_Confucius_and_John_Dewey   fucius   contribution-to-philosophy/  Chen Jinpan. Educational ideas of Confucianism. Wuhan, Hubei Educational Press, 1985  China Confucius Foundation. Selected papers at the symposium in commemoration of the 2,540th birthday of  Confucius. Shanghai, Sanlien Bookstore, 1992  Yang Bojun. Annotations of the analects. China Book