Chinese philosophy


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Chinese philosophy

  1. 1. Do Now Answer the following question on a scrap piece of paper: What would you do: You know that you are failing a class. You know you will be in trouble when your parents find out. How would you handle this situation?
  2. 2. Enduring Understanding Analyze how philosophy, religion, and technology molded Chinese society and government Describe how Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism (Daoism), and Legalism influenced Chinese society
  3. 3. Philosophy    doctrine: a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school The rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics Any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation; "self-indulgence was his only philosophy"; "my father's philosophy of child-rearing was to let mother do it"
  4. 4. Three Doctrine and Legalism  Philosophies which influenced the development and execution of government in China. Each dynasty used a different philosophy to guide decision making
  5. 5. Philosophy in Ancient Chinese Government   When a dynasty came to power it’s first priority was to establish a strong central government When the government was established they relied on the guidance of a philosophy or way of looking at the world or thinking about knowledge, to guide them in making laws and regulations
  6. 6. Chinese Governments…  Relied on several philosophies:      Confucianism – Most influential – based on the teachings of Confucius Buddhism – A religion NOT a philosophy – based on the teachings of Buddha Taoism – based on the teachings of Lao Tzu Legalism – based on the teachings of Shang Yang Neo – Confucianism – Developed by Han Yu and Li Ao
  7. 7. Confucius Says: “He who learns but does not think is lost; he who thinks but does not learn is in danger”
  8. 8. Confucianism vs. Buddhism: Why Buddhism?  Confucianism is a belief system based on the ideas of Confucius- A scholar who taught moral virtues and ethics
  9. 9. Confucianism    A belief system that was practiced by Chinese dynasties and their subjects Confucius believed that there was a basic order in the Universe that should be reflected in human relationships. The family unit being the central relationship Confucianism emphasized the importance of education
  10. 10. 1. Ruler Subject 2. Father Son 3. Husband Wife 4. Older Brother Younger Brother 5. Older Friend Younger Friend
  11. 11. Confucianism  Confucianism emphasized the following principles:     Use the right relationships to produce social order Respect for family and older generations Educate individuals and society Act in morally correct ways  5 Confucian Relationships: Ruler to Subject  Husband to Wife  Parent to Child  Elder brother to younger brother  Friend to friend Each role had clearly defined duties 
  12. 12. Confucianism in Government    Since the family unit is seen as the primary social unit China’s government would be a monarchy with it’s structure based on the structure of the family The ruler was seen to be the son of heaven and the father of the people The role of the government was as protector of the people’s welfare
  13. 13. Confucianism in Government   Confucian political theory emphasized conflict resolution through mediation rather than the application of complex rules Civil service in which all officials were to be selected for their moral qualities that would allow them to govern by example and their status was measured by their scores on the civilservice examination
  14. 14. How did Confucianism influence Chinese life?  Confucius taught that people could advance themselves through education. An emphasis on education helped produce an efficient, welltrained set of government officials known as Scholar-Leaders
  15. 15. Buddhism  Buddhism- A religion that started in India in the 6th century by Siddhartha Gautama also known as “The Buddha” or “Enlightened One”
  16. 16. Buddhism  Emphasized the “Four Basic Truths”     Suffering is part of life The reason people suffer is that they are too attached to material possessions and selfish ideas Suffering has an end By living in a wise, moral, and thoughtful way, people can eventually learn to escape suffering
  17. 17. Buddhism in Government   Buddhism became popular in government during the Tang Dynasty - Tang emperors relied on Buddhist monks as counselors regarding war, law, etc. In 845 – The Tang Emperor Wu Tsang destroyed Buddhist temples and monasteries to replace belief in Buddhism with Confucianism and Taoism
  18. 18. Not sure when he died. [604 B.C.E. - ?] His name means “Old Master” Was he Confucius’ teacher?
  19. 19. The basic text of Daoism. In Chinese, it means The Classic in the Way and Its Power. “Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent.” These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words?
  20. 20. 1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. 2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Dao; one with nature. [“The butterfly or the man?” story.] 3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” --> “The art of doing nothing.” --> “Go with the flow!” 4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature.
  21. 21. To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps” of life, one must escape by: 1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning. 2. Relying on the senses and instincts. 3. Discovering the nature and “rhythm” of the universe. 4. Ignoring political and social laws.
  22. 22. Feminine Passive Darkness Cold Weak Earth; Moon Masculine Active Light Warmth Strong Heaven; Sun
  23. 23. Daoism or Taoism: “The Way” or “The Path”     A belief system that seeks harmony with nature and inner feelings “The only human actions that make sense are those which are in accord with the flow of nature Denounced violence as reflecting the ultimate ignorance of the way of nature Opposed Confucianism
  24. 24. Taoism  Taoism rejects any human ideas or standards which might lead to:      An overly assertive mode of behavior Too strong a commitment to the achievement of worldly goals Denounce violence as reflecting the ultimate ignorance of the way of nature No one should have excessive desires Wu-wei- “non-action”- does not mean doing absolutely nothing, but don nothing unnatural
  25. 25. Taoism in Government  During the Tang dynasty the emperors practiced Taoist beliefs and practiced  Focused on traditional beliefs and myths
  26. 26. How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity?? Confucianism --> Moral order in society. Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order. Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.
  27. 27. 280? - 233 B.C.E. Han Fe Zi. Lived during the late Warring States period. Legalism became the political philosophy of the Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty.
  28. 28. Neo-Confucianism  When China unified once again under the Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.), Confucian thinkers blended Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism to create a new form of Confucianism  Concerned with human behavior and a person’s relationship with the universe  Emphasized the following principles:    Morality is the highest goal a person can reach The morality can be reached through education Education can occur through books, observation, or interaction with others
  29. 29. Neo-Confucianism in Government  Developed during the Tang dynasty, but used in the Song dynasty   It was developed as a more rational form of thinking Confucianism had become bogged down with mythical beliefs associated with Taosim and Buddhism
  30. 30. Legalism  Believed in the following principals:     The law code must be clearly written and made public – All people are equal under the law – Laws should reward those who obey them and punish those who dare to break them Law runs the state not the ruler Special tactics and “secrets are to be employed by the ruler to make sure others don’t’ take control of the state The position of the ruler holds the power not the ruler
  31. 31. More to Know  Daoism    A clever mind is not a heart There is more to knowing than just being correct. The wise know their limitations; the foolish do not.  Buddhism “8 Fold Path”         To know the truth To intend to resist evil To not say anything to hurt others To respect life, property, and morality To work at a job that does not injure others To try to free one's mind from evil To be in control of one's feelings and thoughts To practice appropriate forms of concentration