Zhou Conquers Shang• 1027- around this time, Zhou replaced Shang Dynasty• Zhou defended their attack on the Shang said the Shang lost the Mandate of Heaven• Mandate of Heaven: idea that the emperor, the son of Heaven, has the support of the gods, as long as he rules correctly
Mandate of Heaven• Chinese myth- • China’s first ruler thought to be son of the sky god and an earthly mother • His kids= Sons of Heaven • Became an important theory about the right of rulers to rule theory= rulers gained power by heaven, and kept power by governing properly Natural disasters, famine, war= ruler lost Mandate of Heaven
Feudal State• Feudal state similar to Shang • Land divided into territories, that were ruled by lords
China Grows• Zhou extended Chinese boundaries through central China • As far south as Chang Jiang River
Social Classes• Two classes: upper and lower • Upper class: kings and lords • Lower class: peasants, merchants, and artisans• Monarchs acted as priest • Ancestor worship, important agricultural ceremonies
Culture• Adopted Shang culture, but not as skilled • But because of Zhou Dynasty’s long rule, Chinese culture and technology developed to new heights
Public Works• Ambitious public works projects • Irrigation projects= increased food grown • Roads & canals= easier travel • Wall across north= protection from nomadic people • Bronze making= changes in design • Iron use= introduced and used for agricultural tools & military weapons • Money use= introduced • Writing= improved; took on its modern character; first Chinese books written
Political Unrest• Zhou gradually lost control of the kingdom • Lords rebelled against king • 770 B.C.E- king fled east & established new capital at Luoyang • Zhou kings eventually lost political and military control • Stayed on as priests• Lords fought each other, trying to increase territories • 481- 256 B.C.E.- Warring States period • Three important schools of thought develop• Zhou kept power until 256 B.C.E.