Ancient China Overview


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  • The temple is today shared by people of all three faiths.
  • Ancient China Overview

    1. 1. Ancient China
    2. 2. River Valley Civilizations
    3. 3. Satellite View of China
    4. 4. China’s Geography Huang He Yangtze Yellow Sea <ul><li>Huang He - The Yellow River, aka China’s sorrow because of frequent flooding. </li></ul><ul><li>Yangtze River </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Sea </li></ul><ul><li>North China Plain - between two major rivers. Most populated area of China. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Shang Dynasty: 1523-1028 BCE
    6. 6. Shang Dynasty <ul><li>Developed out of Neolithic settlements in Huang-He River Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich upper-class land owners ruled, mostly military leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief priest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocracy constantly at war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital city moved several times, finally established at Anyang, north of the Huang He; built mostly of wood </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Political and Social Structure <ul><li>Shang King ruled from his palace at Anyang </li></ul><ul><li>Split territory up among different generals </li></ul><ul><li>Could appoint and remove generals </li></ul><ul><li>Shang frequently waged war on the fringes of the kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>When a Shang king died, the servants were buried in the tomb with the king, along with riches for the afterlife </li></ul>
    8. 8. Religion and Culture <ul><li>Strong belief in life after death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practiced human sacrifice to win the favor of the gods or give the king company in the afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ancestor Veneration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestors seen as a link between the present world and the spiritual world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could bring good or bad fortune to a family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offerings of food and drink </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oracle Bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Way to communicate with ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal bones carved with questions, then heated or broken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priest interpreted the breaks </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Shang Bronze </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang were master bronze makers. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Oracle Bones
    11. 11. Oracle Bones Calendar
    12. 12. Evolution of Chinese Writing During Shang
    13. 13. <ul><li>Axe Scepter – 1100 BCE - jade </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonial Dagger – 1028 BCE </li></ul>
    14. 14. Shang Urn
    15. 15. Zhou Dynasty <ul><li>1045-256 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted almost 900 years, longest lasting dynasty in Chinese history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 aristocrats from western region of Zhou lead successful rebellion against last Shang ruler </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head was king who ruled over an imperial bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King link between heaven and earth and had divine-like powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers of different provinces were aristocrats, similar to Shang Dynasty </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Mandate of Heaven/Dynastic Cycle <ul><li>Mandate of Heaven : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Zhou used the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heaven, the law of nature, kept order in the universe by choosing the king. The king was responsible for being a good ruler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gods’ permission could be revoked and given to another family if the current rulers misused their authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tao : The Way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The King was responsible to rule by the Dao , he had to keep the gods happy to protect people from natural disaster, or bad harvest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If he didn’t do this he would lose power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The mandate of heaven was used to explain the rise and fall of different dynasties. </li></ul><ul><li>When a ruler took over they claimed they had earned the mandate of heaven, or they would not have been able to win. This was closely tied to the Dynastic Cycle </li></ul>
    17. 17. Life Under the Zhou <ul><li>Economic and Technological Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made major advancements during this period that improved life for the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrigation and Water Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began to control the flow of rivers to water crops. Farming could be more reliable without dependence on rains. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farming Advancements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron plows, increase arable land. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in Warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Weapons were developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infantry (foot soldiers) and Cavalry (soldiers on horseback) became more prevalent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began to use the crossbow </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Life Under the Zhou <ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An agricultural surplus led to an increase in trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most important trade item was silk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s secret was closely guarded. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing the secret of silk was punishable by death. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silk is made from the cocoons of silkworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These worms feed on Mulberry leaves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cocoons are boiled to kill the silkworm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then the cocoons are unwound and combined to make silk thread </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Life Under the Zhou <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an agricultural society families had to work together to survive. Family, and extended families, were very important. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filial Piety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family members were responsible to obey the needs and wants of the male head of the family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone had to know their place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children were expected to provide for their parents in old age. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient China was a patriarchal, or male dominated, society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some women had power, but this was generally looked down upon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women were expected to raise children and work in the home. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Decline of Zhou <ul><li>Later Zhou rulers began to become corrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>Warring States Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war broke out between the kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the end of this the emperor Qin Shihuangdi unified China under a single leader, becoming the first Emperor of China. </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Dynastic Cycle <ul><li>A new dynasty comes to power. </li></ul><ul><li>Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. increases spending; corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts, floods, famines occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor loose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. </li></ul><ul><li>Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor is defeated !! </li></ul><ul><li>The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Start here  </li></ul>
    22. 22. Confucianism
    23. 23. Confucius <ul><li>551 – 479 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Born in the feudal state of Liu. </li></ul><ul><li>Failed as a politician </li></ul><ul><li>Became a teacher and editor of books. </li></ul>To store up knowledge in silence, to remain forever hungry for learning, to teach others without tiring – all this comes naturally for me.
    24. 24. <ul><li>Li --> Traditions, rules, ritual decorum (Binding force of an enduring stable society) </li></ul><ul><li>Ren --> humaneness, benevolence, humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Shu --> Reciprocity, empathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not do unto others what you would not want others to do unto you. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yi --> Righteousness </li></ul><ul><li>Xiao --> Filial Piety (Respect your elders!) </li></ul>Major Confucian Principles
    25. 25. 1. Ruler Subject 2. Father Son 3. Husband Wife 4. Older Brother Younger Brother 5. Older Friend Younger Friend 5 Principle Relationships
    26. 26. Organizing Principles <ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul>
    27. 27. Confucian Temple Complex
    28. 28. The Analects <ul><li>The single most important Confucian work. </li></ul><ul><li>In Chinese, it means “conversation.” </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on practicalities of interpersonal relationships and the relationship of the role of rulers and ministers to the conduct of government. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know is characteristic of the person who knows. </li></ul><ul><li>Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others. </li></ul><ul><li>To go too far is as wrong as to fall short. </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>When you see a worthy man, seek to emulate him. When you see an unworthy man, examine yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever the Master saw someone in mourning, or in ceremonial dress, or when he saw a blind man, he always stood up and respectfully moved aside. </li></ul><ul><li>What you do not wish for yourself, do not impose on others. </li></ul><ul><li>Firmness, resolution, simplicity, silence – these bring us closer to humanity. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Stones Engraved with Confucius' Life Stories
    32. 32. The Tomb of Confucius
    33. 33. Mencius <ul><li>372 - 289 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Disciple of Confucius. </li></ul><ul><li>Starts off with the assumption that “people are basically good.” </li></ul><ul><li>If someone does something bad, education, not punishment, is the answer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good people will mend their ways in accordance to their inherent goodness. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Social Cohesion is Paramount! <ul><li>The emperor is the example of proper behavior --> “big daddy” </li></ul><ul><li>Social relationships are based on “rites” or “rituals.” </li></ul><ul><li>Laws bring out the worst in people when they try to find a way around the law. Rituals, however, bring people together. Religious rituals are important for SOCIAL, not religious reasons. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Legalism
    36. 36. Han Fei <ul><li>280? - 233 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Lived during the late Warring States period. </li></ul><ul><li>Legalism became the political philosophy of the Qin Dynasty. </li></ul>
    37. 37. 1. Human nature is naturally selfish. 2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged. 3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality. 4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand . 5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power. Major Legalist Principles
    38. 38. One who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom. The ruler , therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects! Authoritarian
    39. 39. Taoism <ul><ul><li>(Daoism) </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Not sure when he died. [604 B.C.E. - ?] </li></ul><ul><li>His name means “Old Master” </li></ul><ul><li>Was he Confucius’ teacher? </li></ul>Lao-Tsu [Lao Zi ]
    41. 41. 1. Tao [Dao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. [Think of “The Force” from Star Wars – Controversy over the Mystical] 2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Tao ; one with nature. 3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” --> “The art of doing nothing.” --> “Go with the flow!” 4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature. Major Taoist Principles
    42. 42. 1. Reject formal knowledge and learning. 2. Rely on the senses and instincts. 3. Discover the nature and “rhythm” of the universe. 4. Ignore political and social laws. The “Tao&quot; [Dao] To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps” of life, one must:
    43. 43. Yin <ul><li>Masculine </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Heaven; Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul><ul><li>Weak </li></ul><ul><li>Earth; Moon </li></ul>The Opposites in Nature: Find the Balance! Yang
    44. 44. The Tao Te Ching <ul><li>The basic text of Taoism. </li></ul><ul><li>In Chinese, it means The Classic in the Way and Its Power . </li></ul><ul><li>According to legend, Lao Tsu saw that society was crumbling and decided to ride away alone into the desert. However, at the mountain pass leading to the desert, he was stopped by the gatekeeper who knew of Lao Tsu’s reputation for wisdom. The gatekeeper begged Lao Tsu to write down the essence of his teachings. Thus was the wisdom contained in the Tao Te Ching preserved. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Sayings from the Tao Te Ching <ul><li>The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao. </li></ul><ul><li>The Name that can be named is not the eternal name. </li></ul>In dwelling, be close to the land. In meditation, go deep in the heart. In dealing with others, be gentle and kind. In speech, be true. In ruling, be just. In daily life, be competent. In action, be aware of the time and the season. No fight, no blame Empty yourself of everything, let the mind become still. Ten thousand things rise and fall while the Self watches their return. Those who talk do not know. Those who talk do not know.
    46. 46. More Sayings from the Tao Te Ching <ul><li>He who is attached to things will suffer much </li></ul><ul><li>He who saves will suffer heavy loss. </li></ul><ul><li>A contented man is never disappointed. </li></ul>Give up learning and put an end to your troubles… In the pursuit of learning, every day something is acquired. In the pursuit of Tao, every day something is dropped. Keep your mouth shut, guard the senses, and life is ever full. Open your mouth, always be busy, and life is beyond hope. Achieve results, but never glory in them. Achieve results, but never boast. Achieve results, but never be proud.
    47. 47. HENGSHAN MONASTERY <ul><li>Hengshan Monastery is located on the cliffs of Mt. Hengshan, which is one of the five sacred mountains of Taoism. In the Shanxi province of China, near the city of Datong. </li></ul>
    48. 48. The gravity defying Hanging Monastery was built on extremely sheer cliffs above Jinlong Canyon 1400 years ago.
    49. 49. Bridges and corridors connect the pavilions and caves in which dozens of bronze, iron, stone and clay statues are enshrined.
    50. 50. The mythical creatures on the eaves serve to protect the monastery from evil spirits.
    51. 51. In the Three Religions Hall, Buddha, Confucius and Lao-tsu are all enshrined together. This is because in present day the three faiths co-exist in the temple.
    52. 52. Three Chinese Philosophies How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity?? Confucianism --> Moral order in society. Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order. Taoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.
    53. 53. What's Your Philosophy of Life?