Ancient American Pre-Columbian Civilization

16,063 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
11 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
16,063
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
112
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,108
Comments
0
Likes
11
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ancient American Pre-Columbian Civilization

  1. 1. Pre-Columbian Civilizations In America By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer, Mrs. Hassett and Mrs. Agosta
  2. 2. Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations Aztecs Mayas Incas
  3. 3. The Mayans 1500 B.C.E. – 1546 C.E.
  4. 4. 1. Location: <ul><li>Northern part of Central America, the Yucatan Peninsula (Present day Mexico and Guatemala) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Religion: <ul><li>polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>human sacrifice practiced </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. Achievements: <ul><li>writing and number systems </li></ul><ul><li>use of zero </li></ul><ul><li>accurate 365 day calendar </li></ul><ul><li>art- flat topped pyramid, palaces, and temples </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mayan Glyphs Mayan Mathematics sky king house child city
  8. 8. Mayan Glyphs
  9. 9. Chichen-Itza - Pyramid
  10. 11. Chichen-Itza - Observatory
  11. 12. 4. Possible Reasons for decline: <ul><li>warfare between neighboring tribes </li></ul><ul><li>overpopulation  overfarming </li></ul><ul><li>heavy taxes may have caused peasant revolts </li></ul>
  12. 13. Quetzalcoatl: The God of Wisdom & Learning
  13. 14. Chichen-Itza - Ball Court
  14. 15. Tikal Jungle View at Sunset
  15. 16. Tikal: Temple of the Masks
  16. 17. Tikal - Wall Mask of the Rain God
  17. 18. Mayan Drinking Cup for Chocolate
  18. 19. The Aztecs 1200 CE – 1521 CE
  19. 20. 1. Location: <ul><li>Central Valley of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Tenochtitlan was the capital </li></ul>
  20. 21. Aztec View of Tenochtitlan
  21. 22. Tenochtitlan: The “Venice” of the Americas
  22. 23. Ruins of the City Center, Tenochtitlan
  23. 24. Wall of Skulls, Tenochtitlan
  24. 25. The Aztecs Were Fierce Warriors
  25. 26. Heart Sacrifice on an Aztec Temple Pyramid
  26. 27. Aztecs Sacrifice Neighboring Tribes to the Sun God
  27. 28. 2. Religion: <ul><li>polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sun God- most important, needed human blood to help rise everyday, massive number of sacrifices. </li></ul><ul><li>Used captured warriors and Aztecs for sacrifices </li></ul>
  28. 29. 3. Achievements: <ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics-counting system </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Floating gardens (chinampas) used to make up for lack of farmland, could harvest 2-3 crops per year </li></ul>
  29. 30. Aztec Chinampa or Floating Garden: 15ft. to 30ft. wide
  30. 31. Tenochtitlan - Chinampas
  31. 32. Aztec Math Aztec Writing
  32. 33. Aztec Sun Stone -- Calendar
  33. 34. 4. Possible Reasons for decline: <ul><li>Spanish Conquistador Hernan Cortes mistaken for Aztec god. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish take control of Aztecs, their gold, their land </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish had superior weapons (guns) </li></ul>
  34. 35. Aztec Gold
  35. 36. The Incas 1200 CE – 1550 CE
  36. 37. 1. Location: <ul><li>Andes Mountains and Pacific coast of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Cuzco was the capital (Present day Peru) </li></ul>
  37. 38. 2. Religion: <ul><li>polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Gods linked to the forces of nature (Sun God = Inti) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion tied to routines of life </li></ul><ul><li>Sapa Inca (emperor) performed religious rituals </li></ul>
  38. 39. 3. Achievements: <ul><li>Built road systems through Andes that stretched over 12,000 miles (made of stone) </li></ul><ul><li>Roads united the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering allowed them to build massive stone buildings, no cement. </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Terrace farming on the side of the Andes Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>used llamas </li></ul><ul><li>grew 700 varieties of potatoes </li></ul>
  40. 41. Machu Picchu
  41. 42. Machu Picchu
  42. 43. Incan Terrace Farming
  43. 44. Incan Suspension Bridges
  44. 45. 4. Possible Reasons for decline: <ul><li>Superior military technology of the Spanish (Francisco Pizarro) </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions and discontent among Indians the Incas ruled over </li></ul><ul><li>Disease brought by Europeans weakened the Inca </li></ul>
  45. 46. Incan Mummies
  46. 47. The Quipu : An Incan Database
  47. 48. Inca Gold & Silver
  48. 49. Incan Ceramic Jars Peanut Potato Squash Cacao God Cacao Pod

×