Do Now1- Take a note sheet from the back table2- Answer the following question on a scrap piece of paper:What would you do: You know that you are failing a class. You know you will be in trouble when your parents find out. How would you handle this situation?
Enduring Understanding• Analyze how philosophy, religion, and technology molded Chinese society and government • Describe how Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism (Daoism), and Legalism influenced Chinese society
Philosophy doctrine: a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school The rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics Any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation; "self-indulgence was his only philosophy"; "my fathers philosophy of child-rearing was to let mother do it"
Three Doctrine and Legalism Philosophies which influenced the development and execution of government in China. Each dynasty used a different philosophy to guide decision making
Confucius Says: “He who learns butdoes not thinkis lost; he who thinks butdoes not learn is in danger”
Confucianism vs. Buddhism: Why Buddhism? Confucianism is a belief system based on the ideas of Confucius- A scholar who taught moral virtues and ethics
Confucianism A belief system that was practiced by Chinese dynasties and their subjects Confucius believed that there was a basic order in the Universe that should be reflected in human relationships. The family unit being the central relationship Confucianism emphasized the importance of education
Confucianism Confucianism 5 Confucian emphasized the following Relationships: principles: Ruler to Subject Use the right relationships Husband to Wife to produce social order Parent to Child Respect for family and Elder brother to younger older generations brother Educate individuals and Friend to friend society Each role had clearly defined Act in morally correct ways duties
Confucianism in Government Since the family unit is seen as the primary social unit China’s government would be a monarchy with it’s structure based on the structure of the family The ruler was seen to be the son of heaven and the father of the people The role of the government was as protector of the people’s welfare
Confucianism in Government Confucian political theory emphasized conflict resolution through mediation rather than the application of complex rules Civil service in which all officials were to be selected for their moral qualities that would allow them to govern by example and their status was measured by their scores on the civil-service examination
How did Confucianism influence Chinese life? Confucius taught that people could advance themselves through education. An emphasis on education helped produce an efficient, well- trained set of government officials known as Scholar-Leaders
Buddhism Buddhism- A religion that started in India in the 6th century by Siddhartha Gautama also known as “The Buddha” or “Enlightened One”
Buddhism Emphasized the “Four Basic Truths” Suffering is part of life The reason people suffer is that they are too attached to material possessions and selfish ideas Suffering has an end By living in a wise, moral, and thoughtful way, people can eventually learn to escape suffering
Not sure when hedied.[604 B.C.E. - ?]His name means“Old Master”Was he Confucius’teacher?
The basic text of Daoism.In Chinese, it means The Classic in the Way and Its Power.“Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent.” These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words?
1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life.2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Dao; one with nature. [“The butterfly or the man?” story.]3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” --> “The art of doing nothing.” --> “Go with the flow!”4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature.
To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps”of life, one must escape by: 1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning. 2. Relying on the senses and instincts. 3. Discovering the nature and “rhythm” of the universe. 4. Ignoring political and social laws.
Feminine MasculinePassive ActiveDarkness LightCold WarmthWeak StrongEarth; Heaven;Moon Sun
Daoism or Taoism: “The Way” or “The Path” A belief system that seeks harmony with nature and inner feelings “The only human actions that make sense are those which are in accord with the flow of nature Denounced violence as reflecting the ultimate ignorance of the way of nature Opposed Confucianism
Taoism Taoism rejects any human ideas or standards which might lead to: An overly assertive mode of behavior Too strong a commitment to the achievement of worldly goals Denounce violence as reflecting the ultimate ignorance of the way of nature No one should have excessive desires Wu-wei- “non-action”- does not mean doing absolutely nothing, but don nothing unnatural
The Uncarved Block Taoist favor the spontaneous and the simple which is reflected in their favorite image- “The Uncarved Block” The block which is uncut and uncrafted is associated with an original simplicity and wholeness which is purely natural
280? - 233 B.C.E.Han Fe Zi.Lived during thelate Warring Statesperiod.Legalism becamethe politicalphilosophy of theQin [Ch’in] Dynasty.
Legalism Guiding Principles Human nature is naturally selfish Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged Law is supreme authority and replaces morality The ruler must rule with a strong authoritative hand War is the means for increasing a leader’s power
How is a man to live in a world dominated bychaos, suffering, and absurdity??Confucianism --> Moral order in society.Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order.Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.
More to Know Daoism Buddhism “8 Fold A clever mind is not a heart There is more to knowing Path” than just being correct. To know the truth The wise know their To intend to resist evil limitations; the foolish do To not say anything to hurt others not. To respect life, property, and morality To work at a job that does not injure others To try to free ones mind from evil To be in control of ones feelings and thoughts To practice appropriate forms of concentration