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Conflict Theories by Abid Zafar

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Conflict Theories by Abid Zafar

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Conflict Theories by Abid Zafar

  1. 1. Conflict Theories Lecture#2 Abid Zafar
  2. 2. What is Conflict? • Conflict is a relationship between two or more parties (individuals or groups) who have, or think they have, incompatible goals, needs and interests
  3. 3. What do we mean by peace? • Peace= non-violence + creativity (PJ) • Peace= victory + ceasefire (WJ)
  4. 4. Conflict Theories & Terminologies • The term ‘Conflict Analysis’ and ‘Peace Research’ cover a multitude of theories and approaches- different explanations for conflict, different practical tools to use in responding to conflict and different ways of overcoming conflict 1. Explanations for Conflict 2. Responding to Conflict 3. Overcoming Conflict
  5. 5. 1- Explanations for Conflict I. Communications Theory • Community Relations Theory • Intercultural Miscommunication Theory II. Human Needs Theory III. Negotiations Theory IV. Identity Theory V. Abuse of Power or Denial of Human
  6. 6. 2- Responding to Conflict I. Conflict Management II. Conflict Prevention III. Bridge-Building IV. Mediation V. Peace Agreement VI. Peace Keeping VII.Reconciliations Reconstruction
  7. 7. 3- Overcoming Conflict I. Conflict Resolution II. Conflict Settlement III. Peace-building IV. Conflict Transformation
  8. 8. 1- Explanations for Conflict I. Communications Theory • Community Relations Theory This theory assumes the conflict is caused by mistrust between the parties. Responses therefore include building tolerance, improving communications and an acceptance of diversity • Intercultural Miscommunication Theory This theory assumes the conflict is caused by incompatibility between different styles and systems of cultural communications. Work focuses on understanding ‘the other’, by breaking down stereotypes, exploring each other’s culture, and improving communication.
  9. 9. Cont… II. Human Needs Theory This theory assumes that the conflict is based on unmet human needs (physical, social and psychological). It helps parties on all sides to identify and meet these needs III. Negotiation Theory This theory assumes that the conflict is about incompatible demands. It attempt to uncover the deeper goals of the parties and bring them to an agreement that offers mutual gain for all
  10. 10. Cont… IV. Abuse of Power or Denial of Human Rights This theory is recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Right adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948 as a minimum guarantee for each human being on the planet. The declaration is an accepted global standard for justice, and a cause of conflict when violated; the intended response being to restore and protect human rights
  11. 11. 2- Responding to Conflict • Conflict Management Strategies to limit further violence when resolution of a conflict is assumed to be idealistic/impractical/unrealistic • Conflict Prevention Strictly speaking, a non-sequitur, but is widely used by policy-makers, especially in western governments. It really means ways of preventing a conflict from turning to violence • Bridge-building To build trust and communication between different parties in a conflict
  12. 12. Cont… • Mediation It promotes dialogue between parties in a conflict. It doesn’t have to be face to face: a mediator can meet with groups/parties separately- or the parties can have one mediator each • Peace Agreement To sign peace agreement between political leaders • Peace Keeping An enforcement action, usually by troops either sent or mandated by the UN to maintain physical security after an agreement has been signed
  13. 13. Cont…. • Reconciliation Restoration of workable relations after violence • Reconstruction Rebuilding of a society’s systems and structures, both physical and institutional
  14. 14. 3. Overcoming Conflict • Conflict Resolution A mediated dialogue process to deal with the causes of a conflict and build constructive relations between opposing parties • Conflict Settlement To sign a peace agreement between political leaders. It is often seen, not as the ‘final act’, but as an important stage in the process
  15. 15. Cont… • Peace-building A complex and extensive process of helping a society recover from collective violence • Conflict Transformation It embraces all the processes required to bring about peace with justice, in both the short and long term. It transforms underlying issues in to sources of unity, not division

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