Peace Conflict and Development


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Links between peace, conflict and development. How conflict affects development, and development prevents conflicts

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Peace Conflict and Development

  1. 1. “There is no long-term<br />security without<br />development. There is<br />no development without<br />security.”<br />Kofi Annan, 2006<br />“Peace is a primary prerequisite<br />for development.”<br />Yasuo Fukuda, Prime Minister of Japan<br />(Davos 2008)<br /> ‘In Zaire rebellion is easy: all you need is ten thousand dollars and a<br />satellite phone’.<br />Laurent Kabilla <br />“9 out of the 10 lowest Human<br />Development Index countries<br />have experienced armed conflict<br />at some point since 1990.”<br />UNDP Human Development Report 2005<br />Development Perspectives<br />Peace, Conflict and Development<br />By Shivraj Singh Negi (HS07H022)<br />10/27/2009<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Why Conflict and Development<br />Second World War and UN. <br />Development after conflict.<br /> The template of peace and development activity. <br />Endemic conflicts and uneven international interventions.<br />Development must not avoid – or follow - conflict but engage with conflict.<br />10/27/2009<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Occurrence of <br />Lack of<br />Catch-22<br />Also, there are positive and negative effects of development on conflict. <br />10/27/2009<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Conflict Sensitive Development<br />Argument for conflict sensitive development, in order to maximize positive impacts and minimize negative impacts.<br />Two examples of Kenya and Nepal.<br /> Conflict Analysis (Who, What, Why, When, Where of conflict).<br />Profiles, causes, actors and dynamics. <br /> Costs and the benefits accruing from proper Conflict Analysis. <br />Leads to a positive circular relation between development and conflict. (Increasing development hits at roots of conflict, reduced conflict increases development). <br />10/27/2009<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Civil war as Development in Reverse.<br />Costs and causes.<br />Costs to other countries (Drugs, refugees etc).<br />Most important risk factors were three economic characteristics, the level of per capita income, its rate of growth, and its structure.<br />Reducing conflict through long term preventions (, solutions based on ending or shortening the duration of conflicts, post-conflict Interventions. <br />10/27/2009<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Three principle factors are often exacerbated by the presence of ethnic differences etc. <br />10/27/2009<br />6<br />Also, Securitization of Development, problems from conflict, poverty arising out of conflict, <br />
  7. 7. Mozambique<br />No Ethnic angle to conflict, primarily a result of cold war. <br />After collapse of apartheid regime and 1991, church brokered a peace deal, intervention by IMF.<br />Successful programme of land re-allocation and settlement of war refugees. <br />Largely carried by using using indigenous knowledge and local capacity, with no external assistance of any kind from government, donors or NGOs.<br />10/27/2009<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Sri Lanka<br />Many Parallel Conflicts.<br />Factors that exacerbated the conflict. <br />Conflict between LTTE and Govt., within Tamil groups, displaced people and hosts. <br />Perceived need for social and political change.<br />Human suffering due to conflict. <br />Distrust and animosity. <br />Conflict has caused militarization of society. <br />Costs of conflict.<br />Human development suffers due to above factors. <br />10/27/2009<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Colombia <br />History.<br />Causes of conflict: Unequal access to economic power and political power, poverty and Drug funding. <br />Impact of Violence on development: highest violence rates in world, marginal conflict to generalized violence, economic impacts of insecurity and violence, Brain Drain. <br />The judicial system and other government institutions have been debilitated and corruption has rocketed. <br />10/27/2009<br />9<br />