Civil-Political Rights and Peoples’ Participation
Peacebuilding and Related Concepts:
A Peace Practitioner’s Overview
1. Definition of Peace
- CPE Diagramof the Galtung Model
- John Paul Lederach’s Integrated Approach to Peacebuilding
2. Peacebuilding Concepts
Collective: Self Determination
Right to Self Determination (Art 1, ICESCR/ICCPR)
Self Determination Struggles Worldwide
(Lederach, et.al, 2007)
Peacekeeping: Conflict Management
Peacemaking: Conflict Resolution
Peacebuilding: Conflict Transformation
relating to the preservation of peace, especially the supervision by international forces of a
truce between hostile nations.
is a military third-party intervention to assist the transition from violent conflict to stable peace.
(American Heritage Dictionary, n.d.)
A traditional peacekeeping operation is established when parties to a
conflict, typically two states, agree to the interposition of UN troops
to uphold a ceasefire. (SAIS, n.d.)
Limited numbers of lightly armed troops are introduced and
situated between the combatants, and they provide a symbolic
guarantor of the peace.
Peacekeeping Characteristics of Interposition:
neutrality (remains impartial in the dispute and does not intervene in
light military equipment;
use of force only in self-defense;
consent of the parties to the dispute;
prerequisite of a ceasefire agreement; and
contribution of contingents on a voluntary basis.
is a form of conflict resolution
which focuses on establishing equal power relationships
that will be robust enough to forestall future conflict,
and establishing some means of agreeing on ethical decisions within
a community that has previously had conflict.
focuses primarily on the negotiation process, as it forms the basis
for mediation, conciliation, and arbitration
is the diplomatic effort intended to move a violent conflict into
A peace agreement is the desired end result of negotiations; such an
agreement can be comprehensive or limited.
To be sustainable, peace agreements have to include all key players
of the conflict, end destructive violence, which is often established
through a ceasefire agreement, and address the root causes of the
Peacebuilding, or post-conflict reconstruction, is a process that facilitates the
establishment of durable peace,
and tries to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing root
causes and effects of conflict through reconciliation, institution
building and political as well as economic transformation.
Peacebuilding is complex and results materialize only in the medium
A great number of agents engage in a wide variety of reconstruction
These efforts include addressing the functional and emotional
dimensions of peacebuilding in specified target areas, such as civil
society and legal institutions, among others. Evaluating the success
and failure of peacebuilding efforts is therefore especially
Peacebuilding Tasks (Perez, 2007)
Create an environment conducive to self-sustaining and durable
peace: Resolve the problems of unwillingness to cooperate. Social
and economic transformation is paramount for the establishment of
Conciliate opposing forces
Prevent a re-escalation of the conflict
Create mechanisms that enhance cooperation and dialogue among
different identity groups in order to manage conflict of interests with
Direct efforts towards transformation of the [structural] conditions
that caused the conflict.
Consolidate civil society peace initiatives
Creation of mechanisms addressing issues of justice
Kapag ang mga likas yaman, aktor, at mga istratehiya ay alinsunod
sa pagkamit ng mga mithiin at matugunan ang mga isyung
Isang permanenteng proseso na sumasaklaw sa lahat ng mga
gawaing masusi sa pagbuo at pagpapalawig ng kapayapaan at
pagsugpo sa karahasan
A permanent process that encompasses all activities that are key in
building and broadening peace and minimizing (or eradicating)
Resources, actors, and strategies are in synchronicity and synergy toward
addressing long-term issues
1. Civil Society Peacebuilding
1.1. What is Civil Society?
In its modern form, civil society means the active and organized formations
and associations (CADI, 1999) .
For the purposes of this study, the term CSOs is used to include
organization ns, institutions
and other collectivities working and organized autonomously from the
state to respond to societal
and political issues. Peace CSOs refer specifically to a segment of this broad
range of Philippine
CSOs who have adopted a focused peace agenda – meaning they frame
their campaigns, services
and other activities within a peace perspective or advocacy for peace, or
at the least undertake
peace-related activities and consider themselves peace organizations
Civil society, composed of people’s organizations, non-government
organizations and sectoral/major groups representation… These shall
include the following major groups: women, youth, farmers, fisherfolks,
indigenous people, Moro and Cordillera people, urban poor, persons with
disabilities, academe, professionals, media, religious groups, and NGOs
Civil society refers to the arena of uncoerced collective action around
shared interests, purposes and values. In theory, its institutional forms are
distinct from those of the state, family and market, though in practice, the
boundaries between state, civil society, family and market are often
complex, blurred and negotiated. Civil society commonly embraces a
diversity of spaces, actors and institutional forms, varying in their degree
of formality, autonomy and power. Civil societies are often populated by
organisations such as registered charities, development non-
governmental organisations, community groups, women's organisations,
faith-based organisations, professional associations, trades unions, self-
help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and
advocacy group. (LSE, 2001)
Civil society is most commonly defined by what it is not. Unlike the private
business sector, it is not motivated by the accumulation of wealth. And
unlike the state and political parties, it is not interested in seizing or
consolidating political power (Velasco, 2004)
Civil society is the voluntary, rule-abiding, politically active sector of
society, autonomous from the state. It encompasses masses of citizens
engaged in public protest, social movements, and NGOs acting in the
public sphere. (Noble and Silliman, 1998)
Why Define Civil Society?
- Economy and Political spheres are overly emphasized. The role of
citizens in the larger social and cultural spheres are often
Filipino Concepts: Basis for Civil Society
- Pakikipagkapwa (holistic interaction with others)
- Kapwa (shared inner self)
- Damayan (assistance of peers in periods of crisis)
- Pagtutulungan (mutual self help)
- Pagpapakatao (essence of being human: dignity)
1.2. Civil Society Roles in Peacebuilding (Ferrer, 2005)
1. Service Provider
Examples of CSO response as service provider include: Relief and
Reconstruction, Training, Program Development, and other forms of
2. Watchdog of State and NSAG
Engagement, Campaigns and Mediation are some CSO responses
as watchdog of the state and Non-state armed groups. The
institutionalization of the third-party monitoring called “ Bantay
Ceasefire”, a community-based ceasefire monitoring mechanism, is
an example of this
civil society role as a watchdog.
3. Advocates of Alternative Policies, Programs or Paradigms
This role pertains to policy advocacies, peace education and
interfaith dialogues. Advocating for alternatives is geared towards
policy changes, reforms and a growth in the culture of peace. The
Six Paths to Peace, NAPC and NCIP laws are examples of CSO
advocacy for alternatives. Peace research and studies are also
included under this CSO role.
1.3. Peacebuilding Responses/Interventions (Ferrer, 1997)
1. Peace Constituency Building
Advocacy work, campaigns, organizing, networking , peace education,
inter-faith dialogues and other activities aimed a promoting a peace
agenda, and/or culture of peace, and organizing constituencies united
or mobilized along these goals.
2. Conflict-reduction efforts
Activities aimed a de-escalating the level of political violence and
addressing the negative impact of violence on affected communities
and individuals, with the end of view of enhancing the conditions for
sustainable peace, seeking respite from violence, receiving justice and
reparation for human rights violations, and healing wounds of war
inflicted on war-torn communities.
3. Conflict-settlement efforts
Activities geared toward achieving a non-military solution to the major
armed conflicts, including facilitating, mediating and advocating political
negotiations and meaningful reconciliation.
4. Peace Research and Training Programs
Research efforts and studies on impact of war, peace, conflict
resolution, etc, and training in skills important to peace-building, thereby
supporting and building capacities for peace action.
5. Social Development Work
Economic, livelihood/development, environmental projects and
implementation of actual social and economic reforms aimed at
reconstruction and bringing about social redistribution of wealth,
popular empowerment and sustainable development.
1.4. Peacebuilding Interventions according to Aims (Fisher, et.al. 2000 in Palm-Dalupan
1. Intervening directly in the conflict
Prevent conflict from escalating
Enable a settlement (e.g. confidence building, facilitating
dialogues, negotiation, mediation)
Maintaining a presence (unarmed protection, monitoring, etc.)
2. Addressing the consequences of the conflict/violence
Post-war reconstruction, psychosocial intervention,
reconciliation, DDR initiatives, etc.
3. Working on the social fabric
institutional reforms, good governance, education, culture of
2. Peace Initiatives Chigas (2003)
2. 1. Multi-track Diplomacy:
Track 1: Formal Peace Negotiations
Track 2: Civil Society
Track 3: Grassroots Communities
2.2. Expanded Tracks (IMTD,n.d.)
2. professional organisations
3. the business community
4. private citizens
5. training, research and educational institutions
7. church organisations
2.3 Lederach’s Multi-Track Peacebuilding
Nexus of Peacebuilding and Governance
Democracy as delivery systems of human rights (Koenig, 2008)
ADB (2007) Overview of NGOs and Civil Society in the Philippines. NGO
and Civil Society Center. Retrieved July 7, 2010 from
CADI. Civil Society. Center for Alternative Development Initiatives.
Retrieved 08 June 2010 from <http://www.cadi.ph/civil_society.htm>
Castro and Galace (2008) Peace Education. Miriam College Publication.
Centre for Civil Society (2004) What is Civil Society? The London School of
Economics and Political Science. Retrieved 08 June 2010 from
Chigas, D. (2003) Track II (Citizen) Diplomacy. Beyond Intractability.
Retrieved 08 June 2010 from
Coronel Ferrer, M. (2005) Institutional Response: Civil Society. Background
paper submitted to Human Development Network Foundation, Inc.
Delfin, N (2009) Human Rights: A Preliminary Discussion, lecture workshop
presented at Global and Effective Youth Projects for Intercultural
Dialogue on December 2009 in Strasbourg, France.
Executive Order 370 (1996) Presidential Executive Order: “Strengthening
the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development.” Section 2. Also
seen in Philippine Agenda 21.
Galtung (1996) Peace By Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict,
Development and Civilization, as referenced in Castro and Galace
(2008) Peace Education. Miriam College Publication.
GenPeace (2009) Generation Peace Youth Network Organizational Paper,
adopted by General Assembly December 2009.
IMTD (n.d.) What is Multi-track Diplomacy? The Institute for Multi-Track
Diplomacy. Retrieved 08 June 2010 from
Koenig, Shulamith (2008) The Nature of Human Rights Learning. For the
60th Anniversary of the UDHR. Retrieved July 6, 2010 from
Lederach, Neufeldt, Culbertson. (2007) Reflective Peacebuilding: A
Planning, Monitoring, and Learning Toolkit. Catholic Relief Services
and The Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies. Retrieved
July 5, 2010 from
LSE (2004) “What is Civil Society?” London School of Economics and
Political Science. Retrieved July 6, 2010 from
Noble and Silliman, ed. (1998) Organizing for Democracy: NGOs, Civil
Society and the Philippine State. University of Hawaii Press.
Retrieved July 7, 2010 http://www.google.com/books?
Palm-Dalupan, M.L. (2000) “A Proposed Framework for Documentation
and Assessment of the Peace Process in the Philippines” Working
paper for the UNDP. 20 February.
Perez, J (2007) Strategic Peacebuilding. Gaston Z Ortigas Peace Institute.
(Presented in the Indigenous Peoples Women Workshop on
Peacebuilding) In Filipino
SAIS (n.d.) Conflict Management Toolkit. John Hopkins University.
Retrieved July 7, 2010 from http://www.sais-
Sakhong, L. (2004) A Struggle of Self Determination in Burma: Ethnic
Nationalities Perspectives. Burma Library. Retrieved July 6, 2010
Velasco, D. (2004) “Kompil II: A Study of Civil Society’s Political
Engagements”, Philippine Sociological Review. Vol 52 January-
December 2004 .