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U peace peacebuilding_slideshare

  1. 1. Civil-Political Rights and Peoples’ Participation Peacebuilding and Related Concepts: A Peace Practitioner’s Overview 1. Definition of Peace - CPE Diagramof the Galtung Model - John Paul Lederach’s Integrated Approach to Peacebuilding 2. Peacebuilding Concepts Collective: Self Determination Peoples’ Participation Right to Self Determination (Art 1, ICESCR/ICCPR) Self Determination Self Determination Struggles Worldwide  Peacebuilding Diagram (Lederach, et.al, 2007) Peacekeeping: Conflict Management Peacemaking: Conflict Resolution Peacebuilding: Conflict Transformation 2.1. Peacekeeping  relating to the preservation of peace, especially the supervision by international forces of a truce between hostile nations.  is a military third-party intervention to assist the transition from violent conflict to stable peace. (American Heritage Dictionary, n.d.)  A traditional peacekeeping operation is established when parties to a conflict, typically two states, agree to the interposition of UN troops to uphold a ceasefire. (SAIS, n.d.)  Limited numbers of lightly armed troops are introduced and situated between the combatants, and they provide a symbolic guarantor of the peace. Peacekeeping Characteristics of Interposition:  neutrality (remains impartial in the dispute and does not intervene in the fighting);  light military equipment;  use of force only in self-defense;  consent of the parties to the dispute;
  2. 2.  prerequisite of a ceasefire agreement; and  contribution of contingents on a voluntary basis. 2.2. Peacemaking  is a form of conflict resolution  which focuses on establishing equal power relationships  that will be robust enough to forestall future conflict,  and establishing some means of agreeing on ethical decisions within a community that has previously had conflict.  focuses primarily on the negotiation process, as it forms the basis for mediation, conciliation, and arbitration  is the diplomatic effort intended to move a violent conflict into nonviolent dialogue,  A peace agreement is the desired end result of negotiations; such an agreement can be comprehensive or limited.  To be sustainable, peace agreements have to include all key players of the conflict, end destructive violence, which is often established through a ceasefire agreement, and address the root causes of the conflict. 2.3. Peacebuilding  Peacebuilding, or post-conflict reconstruction, is a process that facilitates the establishment of durable peace,  and tries to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing root causes and effects of conflict through reconciliation, institution building and political as well as economic transformation.  Peacebuilding is complex and results materialize only in the medium and long-term.  A great number of agents engage in a wide variety of reconstruction efforts.  These efforts include addressing the functional and emotional dimensions of peacebuilding in specified target areas, such as civil society and legal institutions, among others. Evaluating the success and failure of peacebuilding efforts is therefore especially challenging. Peacebuilding Tasks (Perez, 2007)  Create an environment conducive to self-sustaining and durable peace: Resolve the problems of unwillingness to cooperate. Social and economic transformation is paramount for the establishment of durable peace.  Conciliate opposing forces  Prevent a re-escalation of the conflict  Create mechanisms that enhance cooperation and dialogue among different identity groups in order to manage conflict of interests with peaceful means.  Direct efforts towards transformation of the [structural] conditions that caused the conflict.
  3. 3.  Consolidate civil society peace initiatives  Creation of mechanisms addressing issues of justice “Strategic Peacebuilding”  Kapag ang mga likas yaman, aktor, at mga istratehiya ay alinsunod sa pagkamit ng mga mithiin at matugunan ang mga isyung pangmatagalan.  Isang permanenteng proseso na sumasaklaw sa lahat ng mga gawaing masusi sa pagbuo at pagpapalawig ng kapayapaan at pagsugpo sa karahasan  A permanent process that encompasses all activities that are key in building and broadening peace and minimizing (or eradicating) violence  Resources, actors, and strategies are in synchronicity and synergy toward addressing long-term issues 1. Civil Society Peacebuilding 1.1. What is Civil Society? In its modern form, civil society means the active and organized formations and associations (CADI, 1999) . For the purposes of this study, the term CSOs is used to include organization ns, institutions and other collectivities working and organized autonomously from the state to respond to societal and political issues. Peace CSOs refer specifically to a segment of this broad range of Philippine CSOs who have adopted a focused peace agenda – meaning they frame their campaigns, services and other activities within a peace perspective or advocacy for peace, or at the least undertake peace-related activities and consider themselves peace organizations (Ferrer, 2005). Civil society, composed of people’s organizations, non-government organizations and sectoral/major groups representation… These shall include the following major groups: women, youth, farmers, fisherfolks, indigenous people, Moro and Cordillera people, urban poor, persons with disabilities, academe, professionals, media, religious groups, and NGOs (EO 370) Civil society refers to the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. In theory, its institutional forms are
  4. 4. distinct from those of the state, family and market, though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family and market are often complex, blurred and negotiated. Civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors and institutional forms, varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and power. Civil societies are often populated by organisations such as registered charities, development non- governmental organisations, community groups, women's organisations, faith-based organisations, professional associations, trades unions, self- help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy group. (LSE, 2001) Civil society is most commonly defined by what it is not. Unlike the private business sector, it is not motivated by the accumulation of wealth. And unlike the state and political parties, it is not interested in seizing or consolidating political power (Velasco, 2004) Civil society is the voluntary, rule-abiding, politically active sector of society, autonomous from the state. It encompasses masses of citizens engaged in public protest, social movements, and NGOs acting in the public sphere. (Noble and Silliman, 1998) Why Define Civil Society? - Economy and Political spheres are overly emphasized. The role of citizens in the larger social and cultural spheres are often downgraded. Filipino Concepts: Basis for Civil Society - Pakikipagkapwa (holistic interaction with others) - Kapwa (shared inner self) - Damayan (assistance of peers in periods of crisis) - Pagtutulungan (mutual self help) - Pagpapakatao (essence of being human: dignity) (ADB, 2007) 1.2. Civil Society Roles in Peacebuilding (Ferrer, 2005) 1. Service Provider Examples of CSO response as service provider include: Relief and Reconstruction, Training, Program Development, and other forms of assistance.
  5. 5. 2. Watchdog of State and NSAG Engagement, Campaigns and Mediation are some CSO responses as watchdog of the state and Non-state armed groups. The institutionalization of the third-party monitoring called “ Bantay Ceasefire”, a community-based ceasefire monitoring mechanism, is an example of this civil society role as a watchdog. 3. Advocates of Alternative Policies, Programs or Paradigms This role pertains to policy advocacies, peace education and interfaith dialogues. Advocating for alternatives is geared towards policy changes, reforms and a growth in the culture of peace. The Six Paths to Peace, NAPC and NCIP laws are examples of CSO advocacy for alternatives. Peace research and studies are also included under this CSO role. 1.3. Peacebuilding Responses/Interventions (Ferrer, 1997) 1. Peace Constituency Building Advocacy work, campaigns, organizing, networking , peace education, inter-faith dialogues and other activities aimed a promoting a peace agenda, and/or culture of peace, and organizing constituencies united or mobilized along these goals. 2. Conflict-reduction efforts Activities aimed a de-escalating the level of political violence and addressing the negative impact of violence on affected communities and individuals, with the end of view of enhancing the conditions for sustainable peace, seeking respite from violence, receiving justice and reparation for human rights violations, and healing wounds of war inflicted on war-torn communities. 3. Conflict-settlement efforts Activities geared toward achieving a non-military solution to the major armed conflicts, including facilitating, mediating and advocating political negotiations and meaningful reconciliation.
  6. 6. 4. Peace Research and Training Programs Research efforts and studies on impact of war, peace, conflict resolution, etc, and training in skills important to peace-building, thereby supporting and building capacities for peace action. 5. Social Development Work Economic, livelihood/development, environmental projects and implementation of actual social and economic reforms aimed at reconstruction and bringing about social redistribution of wealth, popular empowerment and sustainable development. 1.4. Peacebuilding Interventions according to Aims (Fisher, et.al. 2000 in Palm-Dalupan 2000) 1. Intervening directly in the conflict Prevent conflict from escalating Enable a settlement (e.g. confidence building, facilitating dialogues, negotiation, mediation) Maintaining a presence (unarmed protection, monitoring, etc.) 2. Addressing the consequences of the conflict/violence Post-war reconstruction, psychosocial intervention, reconciliation, DDR initiatives, etc. 3. Working on the social fabric institutional reforms, good governance, education, culture of peace, etc. 2. Peace Initiatives Chigas (2003) 2. 1. Multi-track Diplomacy:
  7. 7. Track 1: Formal Peace Negotiations Track 2: Civil Society Track 3: Grassroots Communities 2.2. Expanded Tracks (IMTD,n.d.) 1. governments 2. professional organisations 3. the business community 4. private citizens 5. training, research and educational institutions 6. activists 7. church organisations 8. funding 9. media 2.3 Lederach’s Multi-Track Peacebuilding Nexus of Peacebuilding and Governance Democracy as delivery systems of human rights (Koenig, 2008) References: ADB (2007) Overview of NGOs and Civil Society in the Philippines. NGO and Civil Society Center. Retrieved July 7, 2010 from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Civil-Society- Briefs/PHI/CSB-PHI.pdf CADI. Civil Society. Center for Alternative Development Initiatives. Retrieved 08 June 2010 from <http://www.cadi.ph/civil_society.htm> Castro and Galace (2008) Peace Education. Miriam College Publication. Centre for Civil Society (2004) What is Civil Society? The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved 08 June 2010 from <http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/what_is_civil_society.htm>
  8. 8. Chigas, D. (2003) Track II (Citizen) Diplomacy. Beyond Intractability. Retrieved 08 June 2010 from <http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/track2_diplomacy/> Coronel Ferrer, M. (2005) Institutional Response: Civil Society. Background paper submitted to Human Development Network Foundation, Inc. Delfin, N (2009) Human Rights: A Preliminary Discussion, lecture workshop presented at Global and Effective Youth Projects for Intercultural Dialogue on December 2009 in Strasbourg, France. Executive Order 370 (1996) Presidential Executive Order: “Strengthening the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development.” Section 2. Also seen in Philippine Agenda 21. Galtung (1996) Peace By Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization, as referenced in Castro and Galace (2008) Peace Education. Miriam College Publication. GenPeace (2009) Generation Peace Youth Network Organizational Paper, adopted by General Assembly December 2009. IMTD (n.d.) What is Multi-track Diplomacy? The Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy. Retrieved 08 June 2010 from <http://imtd.server295.com/?page_id=119> Koenig, Shulamith (2008) The Nature of Human Rights Learning. For the 60th Anniversary of the UDHR. Retrieved July 6, 2010 from <http://www.pdhre.org/shula-vienna.pdf> Lederach, Neufeldt, Culbertson. (2007) Reflective Peacebuilding: A Planning, Monitoring, and Learning Toolkit. Catholic Relief Services and The Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies. Retrieved July 5, 2010 from http://crsprogramquality.org/pubs/peacebuilding/reflective_peacebld g.pdf LSE (2004) “What is Civil Society?” London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved July 6, 2010 from <http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/what_is_civil_society.htm> Noble and Silliman, ed. (1998) Organizing for Democracy: NGOs, Civil Society and the Philippine State. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved July 7, 2010 http://www.google.com/books? id=0kUA0vs63KkC&printsec=copyright&hl=tl&source=gbs_pub_info_s &cad=3#v=onepage&q&f=false
  9. 9. Palm-Dalupan, M.L. (2000) “A Proposed Framework for Documentation and Assessment of the Peace Process in the Philippines” Working paper for the UNDP. 20 February. Perez, J (2007) Strategic Peacebuilding. Gaston Z Ortigas Peace Institute. (Presented in the Indigenous Peoples Women Workshop on Peacebuilding) In Filipino SAIS (n.d.) Conflict Management Toolkit. John Hopkins University. Retrieved July 7, 2010 from http://www.sais- jhu.edu/cmtoolkit/approaches/peacekeeping/definitions.htm Sakhong, L. (2004) A Struggle of Self Determination in Burma: Ethnic Nationalities Perspectives. Burma Library. Retrieved July 6, 2010 from <http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs/Struggle_for_S-D.htm> Velasco, D. (2004) “Kompil II: A Study of Civil Society’s Political Engagements”, Philippine Sociological Review. Vol 52 January- December 2004 .