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GENERAL BIOLOGY Unit 1 lesson 1 ppt

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GENERAL BIOLOGY Unit 1 lesson 1 ppt

  1. 2. <ul><li>Chapter 1 </li></ul>The Study of Life
  2. 3. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Life exists almost everywhere on the planet Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth possesses a great variety of diverse life forms. </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>All living things have certain characteristics in common. </li></ul><ul><li>All living things are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire materials and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are homeostatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow and develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the capacity to adapt </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Living Things are Organized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of biological organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms and molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living things cannot maintain their organization or carry on life without outside source of materials and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food provides nutrient molecules, cells use the nutrients as building blocks and as energy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Living Things Reproduce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life comes from life (biogenesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA allows organisms to reproduce (make more of themselves) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA contains hereditary information that directs the structure and metabolism of a cell </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Living Things Respond to Stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They react to internal and external events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Living Things Are Homeostatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostasis means “staying the same” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internally stay about the same despite changes in external environment </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Living Things Grow and Develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth – increase in size of an organism and often in the number of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development – includes all changes that take place between conception and death </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Living Things Have the Capacity to Adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species – a group of organisms that can successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection - individuals of a species that are better adapted to their environment tend to live longer and produce more offspring than other individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution – change in the frequency of traits in populations and species </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. The Classification of Living Things <ul><li>Living organisms are assigned to groups based upon their similarities. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematics is the discipline of identifying and classifying organisms. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Classification of Living Things <ul><li>Domains are the largest classification category. </li></ul><ul><li>Biologists assign organisms to one of three domains based on biochemical and genetic evidence. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Classification of Living Things <ul><li>Domain archaea </li></ul><ul><li>Archaea are single- celled organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaea can be found in environments that are too hostile for other life forms. </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Classification of Living Things <ul><li>Domain bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria are single- celled organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria are found almost everywhere on the planet Earth. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Classification of Living Things <ul><li>Domain eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>The cells of all eukaryotes have a membrane-bound nucleus. Members of the Domain Eukarya are further categorized into one of four Kingdoms. </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Classification of Living Things <ul><li>Categories of Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul></ul>Least inclusive Most inclusive
  16. 17. The Classification of Living Things <ul><li>Scientific Names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binomial (two name) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genus name, species name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pisum sativum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Felis domesticus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The Organization of the Biosphere <ul><li>Biosphere - the zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the Earth where living organisms are found. </li></ul><ul><li>Population - groups of individuals of a species in a given area </li></ul><ul><li>Community - populations of different species that interact </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem - interactions of communities plus the physical habitat </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Organization of the Biosphere <ul><li>Ecosystems are characterized by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy flow </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. The Organization of the Biosphere <ul><li>The Human Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans depend on healthy ecosystems for our own survival. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The human species modifies ecosystems for own purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation of ecosystems is important to ensure our continued existence. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. The Organization of the Biosphere <ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number of species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The variability in their genes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ecosystems in which they live </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth may be losing as many as 400 species per day due to human activities. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Science and Social Responsibility <ul><li>Technology is the application of knowledge for a practical purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology has both benefits and drawbacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical and moral issues surrounding the use of technology must be decided by everyone. </li></ul>

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