The Arctic has numerous definitions, including theregion north of the Arctic Circle currently (Epoch 2010at 66°3344" N), or the region north of 60°north latitude, or the region from the North Pole southto the timberline.The Antarctic is usually defined as south of 60°south latitude, or the continent of Antarctica. The1959 Antarctic Treaty uses the former definition.
Distributions of permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere.purple region : permafrostblue regions : seasonally frozen ground (the soil is frozen for 15daysor more per year )pink regions : intermittently frozen ground ( the soil is frozen forfewerthan 15 days per year )solid line : the average maximum extent of the seasonal snow cover
ClimatePolar region receive less intensive solar radiation because the suns energy arrivesat an oblique angle, spreading over a larger area, and also travels a longer distancethrough the Earths atmosphere in which it may be absorbed, scattered orreflected, which is the same thing that causes winters to be colder than the rest ofthe year in temperate areas.The axial tilt of the Earth has a major effect on climate of the polar regions. Sincethe polar regions are the farthest from the equator, they receive the least amountof sunlight and are therefore frigid. The large amount of ice and snow also reflectsa large part of what little sunlight the Polar regions receive, contributing to thecold. Polar regions are characterized by the polar climate, extremely coldtemperatures, heavy glaciation wherever there is sufficient precipitation to formpermanent ice, and extreme variations in daylight hours, with twenty-four hoursof daylight in summer, and complete darkness at mid-winter.
While the Sun doesnt rise above the horizon, it does come close to doing so.Instead of the pitch black many imagine it to be like, you get a blue lightmuch of the time during the days of the polar night.
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon occurring in summer months atlatitudes north and nearby to the south of the Arctic Circle, and south and nearbyto the north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun remains visible at the localmidnight. Given fair weather, the sun is visible for a continuous 24 hours, mostlynorth of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle. The number of days peryear with potential midnight sun increases the farther pole ward one goes from theequator.
When to see the midnight sunAccording to Visit Norway the midnight sun is visible atthe Arctic Circle from June 12 until July 1. The further northone goes the longer this period extends.At North Cape, Norway, known as the northernmost pointof Continental Europe this period extends approximately fromMay 14 to July 29. On the Svalbard archipelago further norththis period extends from April 20 to August 22.
Polar ice caps form because high latitude regions receive lessenergy in the form ofsolar radiation fromthe sun than equatorial regions, resulting in lower surfacetemperatures.
Sea ice is largely formed from seawater that freezes. Becausethe oceans consist of saltwater, this occurs below the freezing point ofpure water, at about -1.8 °C (28.8 °F).
clothingThis Inunait or Inuit parka/anorak is typical of an Inuitwomans parka from the early 1900s and was made fromthe thin skins of summer caribou (the summer skin isshort, mostly consisting of tight under wool). The parkahas 2 extra layers to provide additional warmth to itsuser.Clothing consisted ofcoat, trousers, stockings, shoes or boots.