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Shopping mall.

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INTRODUCTION, STANDARDS AND ONE SHOPPING MALL

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Shopping mall.

  1. 1. Architectural design – 801 MET, FOA, MORADABAD shopping mall. Alina asif. Ramanpreet kaur Rohit kumar. Saurabh kumar. Arshi warsi.
  2. 2. SHOPPING MALL... INTRODUCTON Greek Agora... The Agora was a central spot in ancient Greek city-states. The Agora was an open ‘‘place of assembly’’ in ancient Greek city-states. Mumford (1961) states that the most important function of the agora was place for daily communications and formal and informal assembly. The word Agora is Greek for 'open place of assembly’ and, early in the history of Greece, designated the area in the city where free-born citizens could gather to hear civic announcements, muster for military campaigns or discuss politics. Later the Agora defined the open-air, often tented, marketplace of a city (as it still does in Greek) where merchants had their shops and where craftsmen made and sold their wares. The original Agora of Athens was located below the Acropolis near the building. 1.
  3. 3. SHOPPING MALL... INTRODUCTON Forum (Roman)... The Roman Forum is a small open rectangle surrounded by the ruins of ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this marketplace as the Forum, a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls. A stoa is a public space protected from the sun and rain, it was an ideal place for social life of Mediterranean cities; sometimes also meet business functions, staying trading posts. 2.
  4. 4. SHOPPING MALL... INTRODUCTON 19th century shops... For wealthy women shopping was a popular pastime in the 19th century. In the late 19th century shopping arcades were built in many British towns. Also in the late 19th century department stores became common. In the early 20th century chain stores also became common although many shops were still family owned. Modern time shops... A shopping mall is a term, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. 3.
  5. 5. SHOPPING MALL... INTRODUCTON First shopping mall in India... Type – shopping mall and commercial offices. Architectural style – Modernism. Location – anna salai, chennai, INDIA. Constructed started – 1863. Total floor – 8. Floor area – 1,068,000 sq ft (99,000 sq m). ARCHITECT – C.R. Narayana Rao & co. Developer – Mangal tirth. SPENCER PLAZA, CHENNAI... 4.
  6. 6. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 5. INDEX :- COLUMN SPACING, STORE DEPTHS CLEAR HEIGHTS,PARKING AND TRAFFIC SHOP SIZES & LAYOUTS SHOW CASES AND SHELVING DATA PLANNING GUIDELINES CIRCULATION ESCALATORS AND PASSENGER CONVEYORS AND LIFT LIFE SAFETY SANITARY INSTALLATIONS AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION WATER REUIREMENTS BARRIER FREE PARAMETERS
  7. 7. SHOPPING MALL... 6. COLUMN SPACING Significant dimension is along the mall as this involves the widths, i.e. , frontages, of stores. Often used spaces are 20, 25 and 30 ft., with the last the most flexible . STORE DEPTHS Buildings are usually 120 to 140 ft deep, sometimes more to accommodate larger stores . If there are basements or mezzanines, the depth dimension usually can be reduced 20 to 25 percent CLEAR HEIGHTS These vary from 10 to 14 ft. or more, with 12 Ft. a good average . Above this clear height, there must be adequate space for air conditioning ducts, recessed lights, structural e system, etc. PARKING AND TRAFFIC A ratio of between 5 and 6 car spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of leasable store area is mandatory. In the matter of parking layout, car stalls can be set at angles (say, 70‘ to the lanes, which then requires one-way traffic; or stalls can be at 90' to the lanes, permitting two-way traffic. EFFECT OF DEPTH ON STORES
  8. 8. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 7. DIFFERENT LEVELS OF A MALL WHEN SAME LEVEL WHEN MEZZANINE FLOOR WHEN BASEMENT ADVERTISEMENT
  9. 9. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 8. SHOP SIZES & LAYOUTS 12 to 15 ft wide by 50 to 60 ft long in large cities ; and 15 to 18 ft. wide by 60 to 80 ft long in smaller cities . These dimensions apply particularly to shops in 100 percent retail districts . Basements 8 to 9 ft high, in the clear, permit economical stock storage . Ground floors are preferably approximately 12 ft high If no mezzanine is included ; mezzanines at least 7 ft6 inch above floor level will accommodate most fixture heights. Height from mezzanine floor to ceiling may be as low as 6 ft6 in . if used for service space only ; 7 ft is the preferred minimum for public use .
  10. 10. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 9. AISLE WIDTHS Aisle Widths For clerks, min . = 1 ft8 inch. Desirable 2 ft to 2 ft3 inch For main public aisles, min .= 4 ft6 inch Avg.5 ft6 inch to 7 ft; Usual max., 1 1 ft. Secondary public aisles, 3 ft to 3 ft6 inch.
  11. 11. SHOPPING MALL... 10. HIGH RETAIL SHOP MEDIUM RETAIL SHOP PLAN RETAIL STORE PLAN MEDIUM DIFFERENT STORE UTILITY SHELVES MECHANICAL SYSTEMS SUPER SHELVING
  12. 12. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 11. SHOW CASES AND SHELVING DATA The ratio of sales to ancillary space ranges from about 45:55 in small shops and departmental stores to 60:40 in supermarkets. Planning Halls are usually designed to give a large-span open space having natural roof lighting, good ventilation and service connections. One-floor trading is preferred. Perimeter stalls and other grouped layouts have service corridors. Fish, meat and food stalls are sited in zoned areas with more sophisticated ventilation, drainage and services. Key considerations: Access and linkage to car parks, shopping areas, goods delivery and parking bays.  Mix of traders.  Risk of fire (incombustible materials, fire-resistant construction smoke evacuation)and means of escape. Net areas Gross areas Staff facilities 10–15 per cent 25–30 per cent Offices 5–8 per cent Additions to the net sales area METRIC HANDBOOK
  13. 13. SHOPPING MALL... 12. 1.Structural models Width (m) Notes Small shops 5.3 to 6.0 Mostly 5.4 m Depending on beam depth. Single-storey buildings –larger spans Large-space users 7.3 to 9.2 2.Clear ceiling Height(m) To underside of beams Small shops 3.3 to 3.8 Sales area 3.2 to 3.6 Non-sales area Large-space users 3.6 min. With floor: floor spacing 4 to 5 m PLANNING GUIDELINES 4.Typical floor loading kN/m2 Shop sales area 5 Shop storage 10 Design load for service yard 20 3.Car parking Car spaces per 100 m2 gross retail area Supermarkets, superstores 10-12 Shopping centres 4-5 5.Goods and service docks m Notes Typical provision for large-space user Two 15 m articulated lorries: width 10.7 Allowing 1.5 m each side Minimum clearance height 4.7 Approach road – 5.00 m type sales area sales:ancillary area small shops (less than 280 m2 sales area) 45:55 Department stores 10000-20 000 m2 45:55. Variety stores 500 to 15 000 m 50:50 Supermarkets The sales areas of large-space users range from 1000 to 2500 m2 60:40, Superstores 5000 – 10 000 m2 of selling space. Hypermarkets at least 2500 m2 sales floor 60:40, Shopping centers 25 000 and 50 000 m2 GLA Retail parks at least 4500 m2 Staff facilities (general guide only) Staff numbers: net sales areas, 1: 50 m2 to 1: 80 m2 METRIC HANDBOOK - david alder
  14. 14. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 13. CIRCULATION:- Occupancy Area per person (m2 ) Overall allowance for public areas in public-handling buildings 2.3 to 2.8 Waiting areas, 100 per cent standing, no cross-flows (e.g. lift lobby) 0.5 to 0.65 Circulating people in corridors, reduced to halt by Obstruction. 0.2 Occupancy Area per person (m2 ) Assembly halls (closely seated) .46 @450mm c/c movable seats .60@500mm c/c fixed seats Dance halls .55 to 0.90 Restaurants (dining areas) .90 to 1.1 Retail shops and showrooms 4.6 to 7.0 Department stores, bazaars 0.9 (including counters, etc.) bargain sales areas 0.46 (gangway areas only) Offices 9.3 (excluding stairs and lavatories) Minimum area per person in various types of buildings Area per person to be allowed in various circulation areas Occupancy Area per person (m2 ) General design purposes 0.8 People moving at good walking pace (1.3 m/s) 3.7 People moving at a shuffle (0.4 to 0.9 m/s). 0.27 - 0.37 People at a standstill due to obstruction 0.2 Flow capacities of corridors and staircases METRIC HANDBOOK - david alder
  15. 15. SHOPPING MALL... National Building Code- 2005 CORRIDORS AND PASSAGEWAYS Where stairways discharge through corridors and passageways, the height of corridors and passageways shall be not less than 2.4 m. All means of exit including staircases lifts lobbies and corridors shall be adequately ventilated. Internal staircase minimum width shall be 2.0m in all group F building. Pressurization of Staircases (Protected Escape Routes) Pressurization is a method adopted for protected escape routes against ingress of smoke, especially in high-rise buildings. In pressurization, air is injected into the staircases, lobbies or corridors, to raise their pressure slightly above the pressure in adjacent parts of the building. As a result, ingress of smoke or toxic gases into the escape routes will be prevented. The pressurization of staircases shall be adopted for high rise buildings and building having mixed occupancy/ multiplexes having covered area more than 500 m2. ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS Exits shall be so located that the travel, distance on the floor shall not exceed the distance of 30m. In case of all mercantile building. NOTE:- For fully sprinklered building, the travel distance may be increased by 50 percent of the values specified EXTERNAL STAIRS External stairs, when provided shall comply the following: External stairs shall always be kept in sound operable conditions. Ail external stairs shall be directly connected to the ground. The external stairs shall be constructed of noncombustible materials, No external staircase, used as a fire escape, shall be inclined at an angle greater than 45° from the horizontal. External stairs shall have straight flight not less than 1250 mm wide with 250 mm treads and risers not more than 190 mm. The number of risers shall be limited to 15 per flight. Handrails shall be of a height not less than 1000 mm and not exceeding 1200 mm. There shall be provisions of balusters with maximum gap of 150 mm. The use of spiral staircase shall be limited to low occupant load and to a building not exceeding 9 m in height. A spiral stair case shall be not less than 1500 mm in diameter and shall be designed to give adequate headroom. HORIZONTAL EXITS For buildings more than 24 m in height, refuge area of 15 m2 or an area equivalent to 0.3 m2 per person to accommodate the occupants of two consecutive floors, The refuge area shall be provided on the periphery of the floor or preferably on a cantilever projection and open to air at least on one side protected with suitable railings. a)For floors above 24 m and Up to 39 m — One refuge area on the floor immediately above 24 m.
  16. 16. STANDARDS TURNING SPACE Most wheelchairs require a space 1.4 m square to turn around. This determines the minimum size of lift cars and circulation spaces in rooms. ESCALATORS AND PASSENGER CONVEYORS For floors above 39 m — One refuge area on the floor immediately above 39 m and so on after every 15 m. Refuge area provided in excess of the requirements shall be counted towards FAR. Where there is a difference in level between connected areas for horizontal exits, ramps, not more than 1 in 10 m slope shall be provided; steps shall not be used. Doors in horizontal exits shall be openable at all times from both sides METRIC HANDBOOK - david alder SHOPPING MALL... 15.
  17. 17. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 16. LIFT Quality Service or Acceptable Interval 20 to 25 seconds Excellent 30 to 35 seconds Good 34 to 40 seconds Fair 45 seconds Poor Over 45 seconds Unsatisfactory NOTE— For residential buildings longer intervals should be permissible. METRIC HANDBOOK - david alder
  18. 18. NOTES- 1 The total overhead dimension has been calculated on the basis of car height of 2.3 m. 2 In case of manually operated doors, clear entrance will be reduced by the amount of projection of handle on the landing door. 3 All dimensions given above for lifts having centre opening power operated doors with counterweight at rear, are recommended dimensions primarily for architects and building planners. Any variations mutually agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser are permitted. However, variation in: a) Car inside dimensions shall be within the maximum area limits specified in accordance with accepted standards. b) Entrance width on higher side is permitted. c) Entrance width on lower side is permitted up to 100mm subject to minimum of 700 mm. 4 Dimensions of pit depth and overhead may differ in practice as per individual manufacturer’s design depending upon load, speed and drive. Recommended dimensions for pit depth, overhead and machine-room for different lift speeds are given in Table 1A. However, the pit depth and overhead shall be such as to conform to the requirements of bottom clearance and top clearance in accordance with the accepted standards. METRIC HANDBOOK - david alder SHOPPING MALL... 15.
  19. 19. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 17. National Building Code- 2005 It is recommended that smoke exhaust equipment should have a minimum capacity of 12 air changes per hour. NOTE— The total occupants from a particular floor must evacuate within 2 1/2 minutes for Type 1 construction, Any mercantile building having area more than 500 m2 on each floor shall have a minimum of two staircases. One is may be enclosed type and another one is directly open to external surface of building block LIFE SAFETY General Exit Requirements An exit may be a doorway; corridor passageway(s) to an internal staircase, or external staircase or horizontal landing. Lifts and escalators shall not be considered as exits. Every exit, exit access or exit discharge shall be continuously maintained free of all obstructions. Exits shall be clearly visible and the route to reach the exits shall be clearly marked and signs posted to guide the occupants of the floor concerned. Fire doors with 2 h fire resistance shall be provided at appropriate places along the escape route. Fire doors with 2 h fire resistance shall be provided at appropriate places along the escape route
  20. 20. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 18. Group F Mercantile Buildings These shall include any building or part of a building, which is used as shops, stores, market, for display and sale of merchandise, either wholesale or retail. Mercantile buildings shall be further sub-divided As follows: Sub-division F-1 Shops, stores, departmental stores markets with area up to 500 sqmt. Sub-division F-2 Shops, stores, departmental stores markets with area more than 500 sqmt. Sub-division F-3 Underground shopping centres. Fire Zone No. 1 — This shall comprise areas having residential (Group A), educational (Group B), institutional (Group C), and assembly (Group D), small business (Subdivisions E-1 ) and retail mercantile (Group F) buildings, or mess which are under development for such occupancies. Restrictions on the Type of Construction for New Buildings. Buildings erected in Fire Zone No. 1 shall conform to construction of Type 1, 2, 3 or 4. For buildings 15 m in height or above non-combustible materials should be used for construction and other material of construction with minimum of 2 h rating. A high rise building during construction shallbe provided with the following fire protection measures, which shall be maintained in good working condition at all the times: a. Dry riser of minimum 100 mm diameter pipe with hydrant outlets on the floors constructed with a fire service inlet to boost the water in the dry riser and maintenance should be as per the requirements laid down in good practice. b. Drums tilled with water of 2000 litres capacity with two fiie buckets on each floor; and c. A water storage tank of minimum 20000 litres capacity, which may be used for other construction purposes also. National Building Code- 2005
  21. 21. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 19. National Building Code- 2005
  22. 22. SHOPPING MALL... STANDARDS 20. R — Required NR — Not Required 2. Required to be installed in basement if area of basement exceed s200 sqmt. 4 .Additional value given in parenthesis shall be added if basement area exceeds200sqmt. National Building Code- 2005
  23. 23. SHOPPING MALL... 21. SANITARY INSTALLATIONS METRIC HANDBOOK - david alder Sanitary facilities for customers in shops and shopping malls having a net sales area more than 1000 m2 and assuming equal numbers of male and female customers.
  24. 24. SHOPPING MALL... 22. The ratio of fittings in male and female toilets shall be 3:5, for example, 1 WC and 2Urinals for male: 5 WC.s for female which is in accordance to the NEA’s COPEH. Urinals Individually wall-hung urinal units shall be at least 300mm wide and the lip of the collection area shall project from the wall by at least 300mm. A urinal should not be set closer than 450mm from its centre to any side wall, partition, vanity or other obstruction, or closer than 900mm centre-to-centre between adjacent fixtures. There should be at least a 900mm clearance in front of the urinal to any wall, fixture or door. Urinals should be separated by modesty boards of not less than 300mm x 1800mm (Height) to act as a visual barrier between urinals. Wash Basins Wash basins should be substantial in size. The basins should have a minimum size of 500mm in length and 400mm in width. Water Closets (WCs) A WC should not be set closer than 450mm from its centre to any side wall, partition, vanity or other obstruction. There should be at least a 900mm clearance in front of the WC to any wall, fixture or door. supply a predetermined quantity of not more than 4.5 litres of water per flush after each use. (a) Mechanical Ventilation Where mechanical means are used for ventilation, there should be cross ventilation and the air exchange rate should have a minimum of 15 air changes per hour. The exhaust air should be discharged to the exterior of the building at a position at least 2 m above the pavement level and at least 5 m from any window or fresh air intake. (b) Natural Ventilation For natural ventilation, suitable fresh air inlet grilles shall be provided to ensure an air exchange rate of 5 air changes per hour.  Examples of good materials for toilets: - (a) Floor Non-slip ceramic tiles, natural stone, homogeneous tiles, terrazzo. (b) Wall Ceramic tiles, natural stone, homogeneous tiles, stainless steel, enamelled steel panels, glass block, aluminium panels, phenolic cladding. (c) Ceiling Mineral fibre board, fibrous plaster board, Aluminium panels or strips -A Guide to Better Public Toilet Design and Maintenance Third Edition 2013
  25. 25. SHOPPING MALL... 23. Provision of Facilities (a) Soap Dispensers (b) Litterbins (c) Electronic Hand-Dryers/Paper Towel Dispensers (d) Toilet Paper Dispensers (e) Toilet Seat Sanitizers/Covers (f) Water Tap Points within Cubicles (g) Air Fresheners (h) WC / Urinal Sanitizers (i) Coat Hooks (j) Cleaning Attendant’s Sink & Equipment StorageSpace For toilets, the provision of the following user-friendly features is strongly recommended. (a) Accessible Toilet (b) Toilet for the Ostomates. (c) Baby Seats (d) Diaper Changing Stations (e) Urinals and WC’s for Children (g) Signages for cubicle doors (h) Full-Length Mirrors (i) Waiting Areas Looscaping The ambience of public toilets can be enhanced further by: (a) Introducing plants which can be easily maintained inside the toilets as well as surrounding the public toilets. (b) Placing of wall pictures and illuminated with delicate lighting. The pictures or wallpapers should be waterproof (e.g. made of impervious material). (c) Placing of ornaments or sculptures at the ‘dead’ corners of the toilets. Off-set entrance maze without doors Directional signage -A Guide to Better Public Toilet Design and Maintenance Third Edition 2013
  26. 26. SHOPPING MALL... 24. -A Guide to Better Public Toilet Design and Maintenance Third Edition 2013
  27. 27. SHOPPING MALL... 25. AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION PLANNING DESIGN CRITERIA (Fundamental Requirements) The object of installing ventilation and air conditioning facilities in buildings shall be to provide conditions under which people can live in comfort, work safely and efficiently. Ventilation and air conditioning installation shall aim at controlling and optimizing following factors in the building: a) Air purity and filtration, b) Air movement, c) Dry-bulb temperature, d) Relative humidity, e) Noise and vibration, f) Energy efficiency, and g) Fire safety. DUCT SYSTEMS Classification : Low pressure systems: Velocity ≤ 10 m/s, static pressure ≤ 5 cm HO (g) . Medium pressure systems: Velocity ≤ 10 m/s, static pressure ≤ 15 cm HO (g). High pressure systems: Velocity > 10 m/s, static pressure 15<p ≤ 25 cm HO (g). Recommended air velocities depend mainly on the application And the noise criteria. Residences: 3 m/s to 5 m/s Theatres: 4 to 6.5 m/s Restaurants: 7.5 m/s to 10 m/s
  28. 28. SHOPPING MALL... 26. Chilled Beam Chilled beams are predominantly used for cooling and ventilating spaces, where a good indoor environment and individual space control is valued. Chilled beams use water to remove heat from a room and are located in the room space. Chilled beams are primarily used in locations where the humidity can be controlled. Chilled beam also supplement the flexible use of available space, at the same time as the high temperature cooling and low temperature heating maximizing the opportunity for free cooling and heating. Operation of the chilled beams is used where the internal humidity loads are moderate, the primary air is dehumidified and any infiltration through the building is limited and controlled. HANDBOOK OFFICE BUILDING - CPWD Chilled Beam
  29. 29. SHOPPING MALL... 27. National Building C ode- 2005 10. To be installed in entire building. “ 11. TO be installed in all floors at appropriate places and in consultation with local fire authorities. 12. Building above 30m in height not to be permitted for Group B, Group C, Group D and Group F occupancies. 13. All underground shopping areas should be fully air-conditioned. General Requirements of All Individual Occupancies Exceptions and Deviations Occupation of Buildings under Construction Maximum Height Floor Area Ratio Open Spaces Mixed Occupancy Openings in Separating Walls and Floors Vertical opening Fire Stop or Enclosure of Openings Electrical Installations Air-conditioning and Ventilation Smoke Venting Glazing
  30. 30. SHOPPING MALL... 28. Rain Water Harvesting Since June 2001, the Ministry of Urban affairs and Poverty Alleviation has made rainwater harvesting mandatory in all new buildings with a roof area of more than 100 sq m and in all plots with an area of more than 1000 sq m, that are being developed BARRIER FREE PARAMETERS To accommodate the persons with disabilities and elderly. Few integral components of the building design can be planned following these considerations. Kerb Ramp • Width should not be less than 1200mm • Useful for a smooth transition. • Footpath flushed with roadway, at a gradient not exceeding that 1:12. • Warning strip to be provided on the kerb side edge of the slope. Foothpath • Obstruction-free for the convenience of all users. • Height of the footpath not to be more than 150 mm form the road level. • Change in level on the footpath should be made clearly visible. • Width of the footpath should 1800 mm and minimum clear unobstructed path should be 1200 mm. • Street furniture should be placed outside the path of travel. • Resting Places should be provided along travel routes. • Protruding elements should be avoided. • Bollards should be 1000 mm high, painted in contrasting colour stripes with clear minimum gap of 1200 mm. Parking • Parking should be within 30 meters of the main entrance the building. • Two accessible parking lots with dimension 3600mm X 5000mm. • International symbol of accessibility painted on the ground and also on a signpost/board. • Directional signs guiding people to the accessible parking. • Wheel stoppers to be provided, to HANDBOOK OFFICE BUILDING - CPWD Rain Water Harvesting tank
  31. 31. SHOPPING MALL... 29. Ramps • Gentle slope: 1:12 max. 1800 x 1800 landing after 9m of travel distance. • Width: 1800mm or more. • Handrails to be on both sides and at two levels – 760mm and 900mm. Extend 300mm beyond top and bottom of ramp. • Warning tile should be placed at 300mm before and the ramp edges. Steps and Stairs • Uniform risers : 150mm and tread: 300mm. • Stair edges should have 50mm wide, bright/ contrast colour band. • Maximum height of a flight between landings to be 1200mm. • Landing should be 1200mm clear of any door swing. • The steps should have an unobstructed width of at least 1200mm. • Continuous handrails on both sides including the wall (if any) and at two levels – 760mm and 900mm. • Warning tile to be placed 300mm at the beginning and at the end of all stairs. • Nosing should be avoided. Handrails Handrails/ Grab bars are extremely important features and must be designed to be easy to grasp and to provide a firm and comfortable grip so that the hand can slide along the rail without obstruction. Handrails should be circular with a diameter of 38mm, at least 50mm clear two levels – 760mm and 900mm form the finished floor, extend by at least 300mm. Grab bars should: - • Be slip-resistant with round ends; • Have a circular section of 38-50 mm in diameter; • Be free of any sharp or abrasive elements; • Have continuous gripping surfaces, without interruptions or obstructions that can break a hand hold; HANDBOOK OFFICE BUILDING - CPWD
  32. 32. SHOPPING MALL... 30.  Have a minimum clear space of 50 mm from the wall;  Be installed at a height of 760 mm to 900 mm Tactile Surface:- Line-type blocks (Guiding tile): indicate the correct path/ route to follow. Dot-type blocks (Warning Tile): indicate warning signal, to screen off obstacles, drops– offs or other hazards, to discourage movement in an incorrect direction and to warn of a corner or junction.  These tiles shall be placed 300mm at the beginning and end of the ramps, stairs and entrance to any door. HANDBOOK OFFICE BUILDING
  33. 33. SHOPPING MALL... 31. HANDBOOK OFFICE BUILDING Circulation Area • Corridors should have an unobstructed width of 1800mm. • Level differences should be beveled. • Thresholds and gratings should not be more that 10mm. • Protruding objects (more that 100mm form the wall) to be placed either in a niche or above 2100mm form the floor. • Open spaces below ramps, escalator and stairs should be blocked out completely by protective guard rails, raised curbs or marked with a tactile surface. Door • Should provide a clear opening of 900mm. • Be fitted with lever action locks and D shape handles of circular section, between 800mm and 1000mm form floor level. • Also be fitted with vision panels at least between 900mm and 1500mm form floor level. • Be colour contrasted with the surrounding walls and should not be heavier than 22N to open. • A distance of 400mm to 600mm should be provided beyond the leading edge of door to enable a wheelchair user to maneuver and to reach the handle. • Kick plates are recommended 300mm form the bottom, to resist wear and tear. Accessible Toilet A minimum of one toilet compartment with minimum size of 2000 x 1750mm is required on each floor having all barrier free provisions. Accessible Lift A minimum of one 13 passenger lift is required having all barrier free provision. HANDBOOK OFFICE BUILDING - CPWD
  34. 34. SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... LITERATURE STUDY Architect: Aflalo and Gasperini Architects Location:Caraguatatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil Built Area: 30,3033 sqm. Site Area: 119,000 sqm. Year ; November, 2011 This shopping mall is all accommodated on one floor. This is important to note since shoppers and mall visitors have a tendency to avoid vertical movements and hence facilities/shops on upper levels do not get as much use as those in the lower levels. This also removes the challenge of disabled visitors having to be accommodated on the upper levels. INTRODUCTION The proposal was to develop a mall to meet tourists and also the population of Caraguatatuba and neighboring cities in the north coast of São Paulo. The Serramar Shopping mall has ; • 100 stores, including anchors, megastores and satellite stores . • Hypermarket. • Home center. • food court with fast networks food and restaurants, •four movie theaters and • 1,000 parking spaces. To meet the clients needs, the mall has to be made sustainable shopping mall financially, i.e. with low maintenance cost. so, the architects opted for a ground floor location, no elevators or escalators. 32.
  35. 35. SERRAMAR PARK SHOPING... LITERATURE STUDY LOCATION BRAZIL CARAGUATATUBA SITE PLAN BUILDING VIEW WITH RESPECT TO SURROUNDING.  This shopping mall is located in Caraguatatuba, a seaside town in São Paulo state, Brazil  The proposal for this project was to develop a mall for tourists and also for the residents in the Northern Coast of Sao Paulo State.  Caraguatatuba being a coastal city, the first aspect considered in the design was its location. The land on which it is built was an undeveloped region of the city with front for a boulevard and an extra 600 meters offset from the sea.  The stream, located next to the project was expanded, making it a pleasant contemplation area to the green.  The fact of being in a seaside town with large arid, treeless area SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... SAO PAULO STATE 33.
  36. 36. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... SITE CONTEXT MOUNTAINS SEA SITE. •Climate : warm and humid. •Site : formerly an old farm house. •View : Mountains on N side & sea on S-E of the site stream on N-E side. •Wind direction : Southeast to North. •Future considerations : expansion of highway N •The mall was divided into blocks, with a dynamic deployment that creates gaps between buildings and ensures cross air circulation, making maximum use of natural ventilation and the sea breeze. •The stream, located next to the project was expanded, making it a pleasant contemplation area to the green. 34.
  37. 37. LITERATURE STUDY SITE PLAN •The provision of four entrances into the mall ensures that there is no congestion at anygiven entrance. •Most of the entrances face the parking, while only one faces the main road . •This is because of the fact that most people visit shopping mall in cars and hence, most of the traffic is •Expected the mall from the parking lot. Reduces the distance of walking from their car to the inside of the mall. •Visitors on foot don’t have to go all the way to the parking in order to access the mall, as they can branch off the main road and access it directly from here. SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... •An open space integrated with nature concept was adopted, different from the concept of a closed mall. •An opened ground floor mall with planted wooded courtyards was developed to compliment and highlight the beach climate. 35.
  38. 38. LITERATURE STUDY PARKING SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... All the parking for Serramar is provided on one lot only. There are more than 1000 parking spaces in this facility. it is not placed directly in front of the mall facing the main road, but rather has been planned such that, it is not fully visible from the main road. However, it is still near the entrance. 36.
  39. 39. •All the parking spaces are angled, set out at a 90o angle. •Yellow road paint has been used to demarcate parking spaces while a group of parking lots on the same stretch is separated by a planted curb that also holds the security lights.  The wood canopy provided for the pavement from the parking lot to the mall buildings makes the walk comfortable away from the suns heat.  The materials used on this piece (i.e. are wood and concrete), absorb the heat reflected by the parking lot’s asphalt and thus making this canopy comfortable. There is the use of signs to enhance quick flow of traffic and avoid accidents and confusion in the parking lot.  The security lights provided make the parking lot safe at night. Canopy providing shade for walk from parking to mall buildings. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... 37.
  40. 40. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... Three wooded courtyards were designed. In the pleasant outdoor space, courtyards also ensure thermal comfort within the blocks. PLAN 38.
  41. 41. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... CIRCULATION •The external circulation at Serramar is dynamic and interesting, due to arrangement of the building blocks of the mall. •Decks are provided throughout the planted internal squares between the blocks for navigation and these decks are shaded by bamboo louvers. •Internally, each block houses a specific function, and thus circulation is provided specifically for that •block according to its function. Decks along the landscaping , shaded with louvers Decks provided for circulation in the planted areas •We opted for a nonclimate of the corridors, only mechanical ventilators to enhance air circulation. The only air-conditioned areas are the food court and shops. We use bamboo louvers to shade and protect better the circulation areas. The yellowish color of bamboo, along with the wood tones found in internal squares were inserted to have a more intimate Atmosphere. Recreational Facilities There are four cinemas, a food court and indoor play areas. Apart from these, the mall has a landscaped area where patrons can take walks, sit down and relax as they take in the views of the mountains and stream to the North of the mall. Several view areas have been provided as points to take in the views in the landscaped area. However, the indoor play areas and the cinemas don’t require the views and this explains their placement in the design. The recreational activity in these two areas takes place within only. Indoor play area at Serramar Parque Shopping 39.
  42. 42. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... •We opted for a nonclimate of the corridors, only mechanical ventilators to enhance air circulation. The only air-conditioned areas are the food court and shops. We use bamboo louvers to shade and protect better the circulation areas. The yellowish color of bamboo, along with the wood tones found in internal squares were inserted to have a more intimate Atmosphere. To favor the panoramic view of the mountains, the food court is open out of the mall, consisting of an enclosed area with transparent glasses and heated, and an outside deck that allows a pleasant contemplation of space to the mountains, and also to a stream. FOOD COURTS Food court outdoor deck sitting All the food areas have been set at the North end of the mall.This is because the best views of this site are towards this direction where the mountains and the stream are visible. Thus, one is able to relax in the food zone as they dine or drink and this doubles as a recreational activity. ducts 60 cm height in the center of the gardens capture the air as underground ducts carry air to each of the installed totems in courtyards. The design of these totems is designed so that the air flow does not reach the people at face level. The air movement speed is not high enough to cause discomfort, but sufficient to cause the cooling sensation of the body. In yards, the ventilation ducts are buried inside the concrete boxes with an opening for air intake above the ground level. NATURAL COOLING 40.
  43. 43. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... The area is prone to dengue, the breading ground for mosquitoes So they decided to remove the plants and ensure the peace of the customers. Bromeliad is the symbol of the city and for this reason was chosen by landscaping team. The plant in its natural environment , as the ecosystem that forms in plant tank does not allow the development of the larvae of the mosquito that transmits dengue. with bamboo roofs that make the shopping internal landscape and the wood on the decks of the squares and in the outer area of the food court. Considering the climatic conditions of the region, the architects provides These bamboo canopies have important functional characteristics as filter direct sunlight, ensuring a shaded area and minimizing the impact of discomfort in the case of more heavy rain as it avoids direct splashing in the corridors. COURT YARDS LANDSCAPING plants like bamboo orchids, ginger Shell, Screen Adam and Agapantos, Also used in the landscaping0 41.
  44. 44. SECTION -A SECTIONS Sun shading is provided by slanting of the faces of East and West facing facades such that they protrude past the wide windows. This keeps the form simple without clutter in sun-shading elements that would otherwise seem too much in the design of a shopping mall. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... 42.
  45. 45. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... ELEVATIONS MAIN ENTRY ROADSIDE VIEW The coatings of the blocks are simple, with textured pasta special and the details coated with brown corrugated sheet metal. 43.
  46. 46. MATERIAL USED Simple finish of the blocks with a textured monolithic mass and a brown metal plate. •A composition of bright materials is used in the design of this shopping mall to create a cozy ambience. • Yellow bamboo louvers are used to provide shade and protection to circulation areas. •Timber has also been used to cover walkways from the parking to the built up area. The use wood and bamboo compliments the wooden tones found in the inner squares of the mall. •The finish of the blocks that make up the mall is simple, consisting of textured monolithic mass and covered with a brown metal plate detail. •The use of transparent glass on the wide windows especially on the food court gives a good view to the Mountains and the stream. LITERATURE STUDY SERRAMAR PAQUE SHOPPING MALL... •Materials were chosen with a rustic look, linked to a more coastal language, but also be easy to maintain and present a long life. WOODEN PATHWAYS •The floor of malls will be in portuguese mosaic with polishing near the windows, and an exposed concrete ceiling. •Additional balcony, bamboo, giving a warm Aesthetic sense. •The food court will have a porcelain tile that mimics wood, decking cumaru wood will be integrated into the square and brings a viewpoint of the lake, • the bathrooms are in white Granite and the lining of the blocks will be a textured monocapa. PORCELAIN TILE MIMICS WOOD 44.

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