SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 27
UNIT 2 RESEARCH PROCESS
Dr. Pallawi Bulakh
M.Sc. M.Phil. Ph.D.NET with JRF
Contents
 2.1 Model of research process
 2.2 Evaluating the research process
Evaluating the research process
 The following diagram gives a model for
research process.
Personal experiences and motivation
 You need to think about why you are doing research.
 Personal motivation
 Personal experiences, likes, dislikes, strengths,
weaknesses and so on will help you think about
possible research questions that you could address.
Literature review
 All academic researchers have to review the literature in their
chosen area of study.
 books, journal articles and conference papers that have already
been written on the topic
 for digital designers and creators, any related computer artifacts
that have previously been produced.
 By studying the literature you can find out what has been done
before, and what topics remain to be addressed.
 The literature review should help provide the conceptual
framework for your research
Research question
 Yourself: what motivates you, the kind of research
you would like to do and the kind of knowledge
outcome you would like to achieve.
 What others propose: suggestions in the literature
of where more research is needed, and calls for
papers for conferences and journals on a particular
topic.
Conceptual framework
 A conceptual framework makes explicit how you structure your
thinking about your research topic and the process undertaken.
 The different factors that comprise your topic;
 Your way of thinking about the topic (for example, via a particular
theory such as Actor network theory or semiotics, or via a
particular technology such as web services);
 Your way of tackling your research question(s) (that is, the
combination of strategies And methods you adopt - often called
your research methodology);
 Your approach to analyzing any generated data (for example,
quantitative analysis,
 Which uses mathematics and statistics, or qualitative analysis,
which uses thematic Approaches)
Conceptual framework
 your approach to designing and creating any
new IT product
 your approach to evaluating your research
Strategies
 Strategy is your overall approach to answering
your research question.
 There are various strategies to solve the research
problem
 Survey
 Design and creation
 Experiment
 Case study
 Action research
 Ethnolgraphy
Survey
 Focuses on obtaining the
same kinds of data from a
large group of people in a
standardized and
systematic way.
 You then look for patterns
in the data using statistics
so that you can generalize
to a larger population than
the group you targeted.
Design and creation:
 focuses on developing new IT products, or
artefacts.
 Often the new IT product is a computer-based
system, but it can also be some element of the
development process such as a new construct,
model or method.
Experiment:
 Focuses on investigating cause and effect
relationships, testing hypotheses and
seeking to prove or disprove a causal link
between a factor and an observed
outcome.
 There is ‘before’ and ‘after’ measurement,
and all factors that might affect the results
are carefully excluded from the study,
other than the one factor that is thought
will cause the ‘after’ result.
Case study:
 focuses on one instance of the ‘thing’
that is to be investigated: an
organization, a department, an
information system, a discussion
forum, a systems developer, a
development project, a decision and
so on.
 The aim is to obtain a rich, detailed
insight into the ‘life’ of that case and
its complex relationships and
processes.
Action research:
 focuses on research into action.
 The researchers plan to do something in a real-
world situation, do it, and then reflect on what
happened or was learnt, and then begin another
cycle of plan-act-reflect.
Ethnography:
 focuses on understanding the culture and ways
of seeing of a particular group of people.
 The researcher spends time in the field, taking
part in the life of the people there, rather than
being a detached observer.
Data generation methods
 A data generation method is the means by
which you produce empirical (field) data or
evidence.
 Data can be either quantitative or qualitative.
 Quantitative data is numeric data, for example,
number of website hits, number of employees,
annual turnover, last year’s profit.
 Qualitative data is all other types of data: words,
images, sounds and so on.
Interview:
 particular kind of conversation between people
where, at least at the beginning of the interview
if not all the way through, researcher controls
both the agenda and the proceedings and will
ask most of the questions.
 One-to-one and group interviews are possible.
Observations:
 watching and paying attention to what people
actually do, rather than what they report they
do. Often involves looking, but it can involve
the other senses too: hearing, smelling,
touching and tasting.
Questionnaire:
 Pre-defined set of questions assembled in a pre-
determined order.
 Respondents are asked to answer the questions,
often via multiple choice options,
 Thus providing the researcher with data that
can be analyzed and interpreted.
Documents:
 documents that already exist prior to the research (for
example, policy documents, minutes of meetings and job
descriptions) and documents that are made solely for the
purposes of the research task.
 Also includes ‘multimedia documents’: visual data
sources (for example, photographs, diagrams, videos and
animations), aural sources (for example, sounds and
music) and electronic sources (for example, websites,
computer games and electronic bulletin boards).
Method Triangulation
 The use of more than one data generation
method to corroborate findings and enhance
their validity is called method triangulation.
Types of method triangulation
 Method triangulation: the study uses two or more data generation methods.
 Strategy triangulation: the study uses two or more research strategies.
 Time triangulation: the study takes place at two or more different points in
time.
 Space triangulation: the study takes place in two or more different countries or
cultures to overcome the parochialism of a study based in just one country or
culture.
 Investigator triangulation: the study is carried out by two or more researchers
who then compare their accounts.
 Theoretical triangulation: the study draws on two or more theories rather than
one theoretical perspective only.
Data analysis
 After data generation, the data need to be
analysed.
 The relationship between the data needs to be
found.
 Quantitative data analysis uses mathematical
approaches such as statistics to examine and
interpret the data.
 Qualitative data analysts looks for themes
 and categories within the words people use or
the images they create.
Evaluating the Research Process
 Do the researchers make clear their research question(s)?
 Do the researchers explain the theory(ies) they use to conceptualize the
research topic!
 Do the researchers make clear both their strategy and the data generation
method(s) within that strategy?
 Do the researchers indicate their criteria for judging the success or usefulness
of their work?
 Is there a clear process summarized, from the original motivation and literature
review through to final outcome(s)? If not, how does that affect your
confidence in the research and its reporting?
Research Methodology UNIT 2.pptx

More Related Content

What's hot

CR Kothari - Research Methodology.pdf
CR Kothari - Research Methodology.pdfCR Kothari - Research Methodology.pdf
CR Kothari - Research Methodology.pdfjassayash
 
Research Types & Characteristicsch types & characteristics
Research Types & Characteristicsch types & characteristicsResearch Types & Characteristicsch types & characteristics
Research Types & Characteristicsch types & characteristicsmamuntaj
 
1.a brief introduction to reserach methodlogy
1.a brief introduction to reserach methodlogy1.a brief introduction to reserach methodlogy
1.a brief introduction to reserach methodlogySurjya Kumar Saikia
 
Review of literature
Review of literature Review of literature
Review of literature JomilyJoyson1
 
How to write a Research proposal?
How to write a Research proposal?How to write a Research proposal?
How to write a Research proposal?Neha Deo
 
Development of hypothesis
Development of hypothesisDevelopment of hypothesis
Development of hypothesisMxize
 
What is a Research design and its types
What is a Research design and its typesWhat is a Research design and its types
What is a Research design and its typesShivangiVerma51
 
Literature review in research
Literature review in researchLiterature review in research
Literature review in researchRiddhi Bhatt
 
Writing research proposal
Writing research proposal Writing research proposal
Writing research proposal Kaimrc_Rss_Jd
 
How to write a research proposal
How to write a research proposalHow to write a research proposal
How to write a research proposalThanavathi C
 
Introduction to Research
Introduction to ResearchIntroduction to Research
Introduction to ResearchDr-Dipali Meher
 
Research Methodology - Introduction
Research  Methodology - IntroductionResearch  Methodology - Introduction
Research Methodology - IntroductionMANISH T I
 

What's hot (20)

CR Kothari - Research Methodology.pdf
CR Kothari - Research Methodology.pdfCR Kothari - Research Methodology.pdf
CR Kothari - Research Methodology.pdf
 
Research Types & Characteristicsch types & characteristics
Research Types & Characteristicsch types & characteristicsResearch Types & Characteristicsch types & characteristics
Research Types & Characteristicsch types & characteristics
 
1.a brief introduction to reserach methodlogy
1.a brief introduction to reserach methodlogy1.a brief introduction to reserach methodlogy
1.a brief introduction to reserach methodlogy
 
Review of literature
Review of literature Review of literature
Review of literature
 
research methodology
 research methodology  research methodology
research methodology
 
Literature review
Literature reviewLiterature review
Literature review
 
Research idea generation
Research idea generationResearch idea generation
Research idea generation
 
Rsearch design
Rsearch designRsearch design
Rsearch design
 
How to write a Research proposal?
How to write a Research proposal?How to write a Research proposal?
How to write a Research proposal?
 
Research design
Research designResearch design
Research design
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of research
 
Development of hypothesis
Development of hypothesisDevelopment of hypothesis
Development of hypothesis
 
What is a Research design and its types
What is a Research design and its typesWhat is a Research design and its types
What is a Research design and its types
 
Literature review in research
Literature review in researchLiterature review in research
Literature review in research
 
Research proposal
Research proposalResearch proposal
Research proposal
 
Writing research proposal
Writing research proposal Writing research proposal
Writing research proposal
 
How to write a research proposal
How to write a research proposalHow to write a research proposal
How to write a research proposal
 
Research Design
Research Design Research Design
Research Design
 
Introduction to Research
Introduction to ResearchIntroduction to Research
Introduction to Research
 
Research Methodology - Introduction
Research  Methodology - IntroductionResearch  Methodology - Introduction
Research Methodology - Introduction
 

Similar to Research Methodology UNIT 2.pptx

what is the research
what is the researchwhat is the research
what is the researchnarman1402
 
Qualitative Research 001.pdf
Qualitative Research 001.pdfQualitative Research 001.pdf
Qualitative Research 001.pdfCityComputers3
 
An introduction to research methods
An introduction to research methodsAn introduction to research methods
An introduction to research methodsteachner
 
Research Methods and Methodologies
Research Methods and MethodologiesResearch Methods and Methodologies
Research Methods and Methodologiesbikashtaly
 
research process in nursing nursing process.ppsx
research process in nursing  nursing process.ppsxresearch process in nursing  nursing process.ppsx
research process in nursing nursing process.ppsxlovedhaliwal1
 
Research methodology
Research methodologyResearch methodology
Research methodologyBalaji P
 
General research methodology mpharm
General research methodology  mpharmGeneral research methodology  mpharm
General research methodology mpharmAlkaDiwakar
 
Research design dr. raj agrawal
Research design dr. raj agrawalResearch design dr. raj agrawal
Research design dr. raj agrawalRavindra Sharma
 
Research methodology
Research methodology Research methodology
Research methodology Balaji P
 
research design sonal ppt
research design sonal pptresearch design sonal ppt
research design sonal pptVenu Goud
 
introtoresearch.pdf
introtoresearch.pdfintrotoresearch.pdf
introtoresearch.pdfobedcudjoe1
 
Rmsa1(1)
Rmsa1(1)Rmsa1(1)
Rmsa1(1)kongara
 
Research methodology - Process of Research
Research methodology - Process of ResearchResearch methodology - Process of Research
Research methodology - Process of ResearchThe Stockker
 
Quantitative Methods of Research
Quantitative Methods of ResearchQuantitative Methods of Research
Quantitative Methods of ResearchJan Ine
 
Research Ethics, IPR, Plagiarism
Research Ethics, IPR, PlagiarismResearch Ethics, IPR, Plagiarism
Research Ethics, IPR, PlagiarismDr. Prashant Vats
 
Types of Research
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
Types of ResearchNeha Bansal
 

Similar to Research Methodology UNIT 2.pptx (20)

what is the research
what is the researchwhat is the research
what is the research
 
INTRO1.ppt
INTRO1.pptINTRO1.ppt
INTRO1.ppt
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Qualitative Research 001.pdf
Qualitative Research 001.pdfQualitative Research 001.pdf
Qualitative Research 001.pdf
 
An introduction to research methods
An introduction to research methodsAn introduction to research methods
An introduction to research methods
 
Research Methods and Methodologies
Research Methods and MethodologiesResearch Methods and Methodologies
Research Methods and Methodologies
 
research process in nursing nursing process.ppsx
research process in nursing  nursing process.ppsxresearch process in nursing  nursing process.ppsx
research process in nursing nursing process.ppsx
 
Research methodology
Research methodologyResearch methodology
Research methodology
 
General research methodology mpharm
General research methodology  mpharmGeneral research methodology  mpharm
General research methodology mpharm
 
Research design dr. raj agrawal
Research design dr. raj agrawalResearch design dr. raj agrawal
Research design dr. raj agrawal
 
Research methodology
Research methodology Research methodology
Research methodology
 
research design sonal ppt
research design sonal pptresearch design sonal ppt
research design sonal ppt
 
introtoresearch.pdf
introtoresearch.pdfintrotoresearch.pdf
introtoresearch.pdf
 
Rmsa1(1)
Rmsa1(1)Rmsa1(1)
Rmsa1(1)
 
Research methodology - Process of Research
Research methodology - Process of ResearchResearch methodology - Process of Research
Research methodology - Process of Research
 
Quantitative Methods of Research
Quantitative Methods of ResearchQuantitative Methods of Research
Quantitative Methods of Research
 
research
researchresearch
research
 
Research Ethics, IPR, Plagiarism
Research Ethics, IPR, PlagiarismResearch Ethics, IPR, Plagiarism
Research Ethics, IPR, Plagiarism
 
Types of Research
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
Types of Research
 
Type research
Type researchType research
Type research
 

More from PallawiBulakh1

More from PallawiBulakh1 (17)

ch13.ppt
ch13.pptch13.ppt
ch13.ppt
 
Unit 6 SDET Web Services Testing.pptx
Unit 6 SDET Web Services Testing.pptxUnit 6 SDET Web Services Testing.pptx
Unit 6 SDET Web Services Testing.pptx
 
RM UNIT 6.pptx
RM UNIT 6.pptxRM UNIT 6.pptx
RM UNIT 6.pptx
 
RM UNIT 5.pptx
RM UNIT 5.pptxRM UNIT 5.pptx
RM UNIT 5.pptx
 
SDET UNIT 5.pptx
SDET UNIT 5.pptxSDET UNIT 5.pptx
SDET UNIT 5.pptx
 
SDET UNIT 4.pptx
SDET UNIT 4.pptxSDET UNIT 4.pptx
SDET UNIT 4.pptx
 
SDET UNIT 3.pptx
SDET UNIT 3.pptxSDET UNIT 3.pptx
SDET UNIT 3.pptx
 
UNIT 2.pptx
UNIT 2.pptxUNIT 2.pptx
UNIT 2.pptx
 
SDET UNIT 1.pptx
SDET UNIT 1.pptxSDET UNIT 1.pptx
SDET UNIT 1.pptx
 
Research Methodology UNIT 4.pptx
Research Methodology UNIT 4.pptxResearch Methodology UNIT 4.pptx
Research Methodology UNIT 4.pptx
 
Research Methodology UNIT 3.pptx
Research Methodology UNIT 3.pptxResearch Methodology UNIT 3.pptx
Research Methodology UNIT 3.pptx
 
Research Methodology UNIT 1.pptx
Research Methodology UNIT 1.pptxResearch Methodology UNIT 1.pptx
Research Methodology UNIT 1.pptx
 
Msword module 3
Msword  module 3Msword  module 3
Msword module 3
 
Ms word module 2
Ms word  module 2Ms word  module 2
Ms word module 2
 
Introduction to web technology
Introduction to web technologyIntroduction to web technology
Introduction to web technology
 
Ms word module 1
Ms word module 1Ms word module 1
Ms word module 1
 
How to write and publish good quality research paper
How to write and publish good quality research paperHow to write and publish good quality research paper
How to write and publish good quality research paper
 

Recently uploaded

ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxSayali Powar
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4MiaBumagat1
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataBabyAnnMotar
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemChristalin Nelson
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxHumphrey A Beña
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptxiammrhaywood
 
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1GloryAnnCastre1
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parentsnavabharathschool99
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsPooky Knightsmith
 
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...MerlizValdezGeronimo
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 

Recently uploaded (20)

prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
 
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
 
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 

Research Methodology UNIT 2.pptx

  • 1. UNIT 2 RESEARCH PROCESS Dr. Pallawi Bulakh M.Sc. M.Phil. Ph.D.NET with JRF
  • 2. Contents  2.1 Model of research process  2.2 Evaluating the research process
  • 3. Evaluating the research process  The following diagram gives a model for research process.
  • 4.
  • 5. Personal experiences and motivation  You need to think about why you are doing research.  Personal motivation  Personal experiences, likes, dislikes, strengths, weaknesses and so on will help you think about possible research questions that you could address.
  • 6. Literature review  All academic researchers have to review the literature in their chosen area of study.  books, journal articles and conference papers that have already been written on the topic  for digital designers and creators, any related computer artifacts that have previously been produced.  By studying the literature you can find out what has been done before, and what topics remain to be addressed.  The literature review should help provide the conceptual framework for your research
  • 7. Research question  Yourself: what motivates you, the kind of research you would like to do and the kind of knowledge outcome you would like to achieve.  What others propose: suggestions in the literature of where more research is needed, and calls for papers for conferences and journals on a particular topic.
  • 8. Conceptual framework  A conceptual framework makes explicit how you structure your thinking about your research topic and the process undertaken.  The different factors that comprise your topic;  Your way of thinking about the topic (for example, via a particular theory such as Actor network theory or semiotics, or via a particular technology such as web services);
  • 9.  Your way of tackling your research question(s) (that is, the combination of strategies And methods you adopt - often called your research methodology);  Your approach to analyzing any generated data (for example, quantitative analysis,  Which uses mathematics and statistics, or qualitative analysis, which uses thematic Approaches) Conceptual framework
  • 10.  your approach to designing and creating any new IT product  your approach to evaluating your research
  • 11. Strategies  Strategy is your overall approach to answering your research question.  There are various strategies to solve the research problem  Survey  Design and creation  Experiment  Case study  Action research  Ethnolgraphy
  • 12. Survey  Focuses on obtaining the same kinds of data from a large group of people in a standardized and systematic way.  You then look for patterns in the data using statistics so that you can generalize to a larger population than the group you targeted.
  • 13. Design and creation:  focuses on developing new IT products, or artefacts.  Often the new IT product is a computer-based system, but it can also be some element of the development process such as a new construct, model or method.
  • 14. Experiment:  Focuses on investigating cause and effect relationships, testing hypotheses and seeking to prove or disprove a causal link between a factor and an observed outcome.  There is ‘before’ and ‘after’ measurement, and all factors that might affect the results are carefully excluded from the study, other than the one factor that is thought will cause the ‘after’ result.
  • 15. Case study:  focuses on one instance of the ‘thing’ that is to be investigated: an organization, a department, an information system, a discussion forum, a systems developer, a development project, a decision and so on.  The aim is to obtain a rich, detailed insight into the ‘life’ of that case and its complex relationships and processes.
  • 16. Action research:  focuses on research into action.  The researchers plan to do something in a real- world situation, do it, and then reflect on what happened or was learnt, and then begin another cycle of plan-act-reflect.
  • 17. Ethnography:  focuses on understanding the culture and ways of seeing of a particular group of people.  The researcher spends time in the field, taking part in the life of the people there, rather than being a detached observer.
  • 18. Data generation methods  A data generation method is the means by which you produce empirical (field) data or evidence.  Data can be either quantitative or qualitative.  Quantitative data is numeric data, for example, number of website hits, number of employees, annual turnover, last year’s profit.  Qualitative data is all other types of data: words, images, sounds and so on.
  • 19. Interview:  particular kind of conversation between people where, at least at the beginning of the interview if not all the way through, researcher controls both the agenda and the proceedings and will ask most of the questions.  One-to-one and group interviews are possible.
  • 20. Observations:  watching and paying attention to what people actually do, rather than what they report they do. Often involves looking, but it can involve the other senses too: hearing, smelling, touching and tasting.
  • 21. Questionnaire:  Pre-defined set of questions assembled in a pre- determined order.  Respondents are asked to answer the questions, often via multiple choice options,  Thus providing the researcher with data that can be analyzed and interpreted.
  • 22. Documents:  documents that already exist prior to the research (for example, policy documents, minutes of meetings and job descriptions) and documents that are made solely for the purposes of the research task.  Also includes ‘multimedia documents’: visual data sources (for example, photographs, diagrams, videos and animations), aural sources (for example, sounds and music) and electronic sources (for example, websites, computer games and electronic bulletin boards).
  • 23. Method Triangulation  The use of more than one data generation method to corroborate findings and enhance their validity is called method triangulation.
  • 24. Types of method triangulation  Method triangulation: the study uses two or more data generation methods.  Strategy triangulation: the study uses two or more research strategies.  Time triangulation: the study takes place at two or more different points in time.  Space triangulation: the study takes place in two or more different countries or cultures to overcome the parochialism of a study based in just one country or culture.  Investigator triangulation: the study is carried out by two or more researchers who then compare their accounts.  Theoretical triangulation: the study draws on two or more theories rather than one theoretical perspective only.
  • 25. Data analysis  After data generation, the data need to be analysed.  The relationship between the data needs to be found.  Quantitative data analysis uses mathematical approaches such as statistics to examine and interpret the data.  Qualitative data analysts looks for themes  and categories within the words people use or the images they create.
  • 26. Evaluating the Research Process  Do the researchers make clear their research question(s)?  Do the researchers explain the theory(ies) they use to conceptualize the research topic!  Do the researchers make clear both their strategy and the data generation method(s) within that strategy?  Do the researchers indicate their criteria for judging the success or usefulness of their work?  Is there a clear process summarized, from the original motivation and literature review through to final outcome(s)? If not, how does that affect your confidence in the research and its reporting?