Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×


Upcoming SlideShare
Lm descriptive research
Lm descriptive research
Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 38 Ad

More Related Content

Similar to introtoresearch.pdf (20)


Recently uploaded (20)


  1. 1. Quantitative Methods of Research
  2. 2. Once a researcher has written the research question, the next step is to determine the appropriate research methodology necessary to study the question. The three main types of research design methods are qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods.
  3. 3.  What is Research  Types of research  Thesis or dissertations  Parts of thesis  Research problem  Sources of research problem
  4. 4. Research  Research is a process of investigation -- an examination of a subject from different points of view.  It’s not just a trip to the library to pick up a stack of materials, or picking the first five hits from a computer search.  Research is a hunt for the truth.  It is getting to know a subject by reading up on it, reflecting, playing with the ideas, choosing the areas that interest you and following up on them.  Research is the way you educate yourself.
  5. 5. Research  Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
  6. 6. Research  Research is the collection and evaluation of information about a particular subject. The overarching purpose of research is to answer questions and generate new knowledge.
  7. 7. Research  Research is a process to discover new knowledge.  Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.
  8. 8. Scientific Method  The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world.  A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining
  9. 9. Scientific Method  When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment).  With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.
  10. 10. Scientific Method
  11. 11. Types of Research Two broad approaches to research are commonly recognized, though these different approaches may overlap. - Quantitative - Qualitative
  12. 12. Types of Research  Quantitative research involves the systematic collection and analysis of data.  Qualitative research involves "the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials," which may include "case study, personal experience, introspection, life story, interviews, artifacts, [and] cultural texts and productions" (The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 2005).  Finally, mixed-method research (sometimes called triangulation) has been defined as the incorporation of various qualitative and quantitative strategies within a single project.
  13. 13. Other types of research…  Sociology Professor Russell Schutt observes that "deductive research begins at the point of theory, inductive research begins with data but ends with theory, and descriptive research begins with data and ends with empirical generalizations"  [Investigating the Social World, 2012]
  14. 14. Types of Research  In the words of psychology professor Wayne Weiten, "No single research method is ideal for all purposes and situations. Much of the ingenuity in research involves selecting and tailoring the method to the question at hand" (Psychology: Themes and Variations, 2014).
  15. 15. Types of Quantitative Research There are four (4) main types of quantitative designs:  Descriptive  Correlational  quasi-experimental, and  experimental. tresearch/approaches
  16. 16. A Descriptive Design seeks to describe the current status of a variable or phenomenon. The researcher does not begin with a hypothesis, but typically develops one after the data is collected. Data collection is mostly observational in nature.
  17. 17. A Correlational Design explores the relationship between variables using statistical analyses. However, it does not look for cause and effect and therefore, is also mostly observational in terms of data collection.
  18. 18.  A Quasi-Experimental Design (often referred to as Causal-Comparative) seeks to establish a cause-effect relationship between two or more variables. The researcher does not assign groups and does not manipulate the independent variable. Control groups are identified and exposed to the variable. Results are compared with results from groups not exposed to the variable.
  19. 19.  Experimental Designs, often called true experimentation, use the scientific method to establish cause-effect relationship among a group of variables in a research study. Researchers make an effort to control for all variables except the one being manipulated (the independent variable). The effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are collected and analyzed for a relationship.
  20. 20. When deciding on the appropriate approach or design, the Decision Tree below may be helpful.
  21. 21. More on Quantitative research…  Quantitative methods are used to examine the relationship between variables with the primary goal being to analyze and represent that relationship mathematically through statistical analysis.  This is the type of research approach most commonly used in scientific research problems.
  22. 22. Following is a list of characteristics and advantages of using quantitative methods:  The data collected is numeric, allowing for collection of data from a large sample size.  Statistical analysis allows for greater objectivity when reviewing results and therefore, results are independent of the researcher.  Numerical results can be displayed in graphs, charts, tables and other formats that allow for better interpretation.
  23. 23.  Data analysis is less time-consuming and can often be done using statistical software.  Results can be generalized if the data are based on random samples and the sample size was sufficient.  Data collection methods can be relatively quick, depending on the type of data being collected.  Numerical quantitative data may be viewed as more credible and reliable, especially to policy makers, decision makers, and administrators.
  24. 24. Examples of research questions where quantitative methods may be appropriately applied:  How often do Principals consults the internet for reference when making decisions?  What is the difference in the number of hours spent in studying between male and female high school students?  What percentage of elementary teachers are having Outstanding performance?  What are the top 5 factors that influence a student’s choice of college or university?
  25. 25. Main Types of Qualitative Research Case study Attempts to shed light on a phenomena by studying in-depth a single case example of the phenomena. The case can be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution. Grounded theory To understand the social and psychological processes that characterize an event or situation. Phenomenology Describes the structures of experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines
  26. 26. Main Types of Qualitative Research… Ethnography Focuses on the sociology of meaning through close field observation of sociocultural phenomena. Typically, the ethnographer focuses on a community. Historical Systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events. (Gay, 1996)
  27. 27. What’s a thesis? An undergraduate thesis? A Master’s thesis?
  28. 28. Basic Thesis and Dissertation Differences  The main difference between a thesis and a dissertation is when they are completed.  The thesis is a project that marks the end of a master's program, while the dissertation occurs during doctoral study.  The two are actually quite different in their purpose, as well.
  29. 29. Basic Thesis and Dissertation Differences  A thesis is a compilation of research that proves you are knowledgeable about the information learn throughout your graduate program.  A dissertation is your opportunity during a doctorate program to contribute new knowledge, theories or practices to your field. The point is to come up with an entirely new concept, develop it and defend its worth.
  30. 30. Parts of a thesis  The problem  Review of literature  Methodology  Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data  Findings  Conclusions  Recommendations  Bibliography
  31. 31. The problem includes…  Rationale (introduction or background of the study)  Conceptual framework  Statement of the problem  Hypothesis  Significance of the study  Scope and delimitation  Significance of the study  Operational Definitions
  32. 32. Methodology includes…  Research design  Respondents or participants of the study  Locale of the study  Sampling techniques  Statistical tools or treatment  Data gathering tools  Data gathering procedures
  33. 33. Research problem  A research problem is a definite or clear expression or statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved upon, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory, or within existing practice that points to a need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation.  A research problem does not state how to do something, offer a vague or broad proposition, or present a value question.
  34. 34. Research problem  A research problem is a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory, or in practice that points to the need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation.  In some social science disciplines, the research problem is typically posed in the form of a question.
  35. 35. Sources of a research problem  Personal or professional experience  Theory or intellelctual claim  Literature and the media  Specialization  Program being pursued  Analysis of an area or existing needs  Offshoot from studies  Existing practices and needs (work-related)  Completed studies
  36. 36. Exercises  Visit the library  Scan thesis and dissertations  Evaluate whether one employed the quantitative design or approach  Find out what is it? Descriptive, experimental, quasi- experimental or correlational?  Choose 1 study and be ready to report in class your evaluation.