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Introduction to research methodology



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Introduction to research methodology

  1. 1. Introduction Re + Search = Research Research – Research is a process to discover new knowledge. Part of research process involves testing hypothesis, and then examining results of the tests as they relate to both hypothesis and world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through research study. Research Methodology – is a way to systematically solve a research problem. It is a science of studying how research is done scientifically. Essentially it is the procedure by which researchers go about their work of describing, evaluating and predicting phenomenon. It aims to give the work plan of research.
  2. 2. Meaning and Definition of Research • Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. An example is a project where scientists try to find a cure for AIDS. • Research is a careful and organized study or gathering of information about a specific topic. An example is the information a high school student tracks down for a school report.
  3. 3. Objectives of Research • Defining and redefining problems • Research discovers solutions to problems • Collecting, organising, analysing and evaluating data • Carefully testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypotheses • To accurately describe characteristics of a specific individual OR a group of situations/problems
  4. 4. Characteristics of Research Objective Research objective should be Relevant, Feasible, Logical, Observable, Unequivocal (very clear) & Measurable. Importance of Research • A tool for building knowledge and for facilitating learning • Means to understand various issues and increase public awareness • An aid to business success • A way to prove lies and to support truths • Means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities • A seed to love reading, writing, analysing, and sharing valuable information • Nourishment and exercise for the mind
  5. 5. Motivation in Research What makes people undertake research? • Desire to get research degree along with its consequential benefits. • Desire to face challenges in solving unsolved problems. i.e. concern over practical problems initiates research. • Desire to get intellectual joy doing some creative work • Desire to be of service to the society • Desire to get responsibility
  6. 6. Types of Research • Descriptive Research: Means description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. Researcher only reports what has happened and what is happening. • Applied Research: Amis at finding solutions for an immediate problem facing a society or an industry/business organisation. • Quantitative Research: Based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. • Conceptual Research: Related to some abstract ideas or theory. Used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or re-interpret existing ones.
  7. 7. • Empirical Research: Relies on experience or observations alone, often without due regard for system and theory. • Qualitative Research: Concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e. phenomenon relating to or involving or kind. • Fundamental Research: Mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. • Analytical Research: Researchers has to use facts on information already available and analyse these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
  8. 8. Research Methods VS Research Methodology “Research Methods refers to the tools and techniques researchers use in undergoing a research.” “Research methods are the tools and techniques by which you research a subject or a topic.” Research methodology: It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study various steps adopted by researcher in studying research problem along with logic behind them. Research methodology involves learning of various techniques to conduct research and acquiring knowledge to perform tests, experiments, surveys, and critical analysis.
  9. 9. Difference between Methods and Techniques Type Method Technique Library Research i. Analysis of historical records ii. Analysis of documents Recording of notes, Contents analysis, Tape and listening analysis. Statistical compilation and manipulations, references and abstract guides, contents analysis. Laboratory Research Small groups study of random behaviour, play and role analysis Small groups study of random behaviour, play and role analysis
  10. 10. Field Research i. Non-participant direct observation ii. Participant observation iii. Mass observation iv. Mail questionnaire v. Opinionative vi. Personal interview vii. Focused interview viii.Telephonic survey ix. Case study and life history Observation of behavioural scales, use of score cards etc. Interactional recording possible use of tape recorders, photo graphic techniques. recording mass behaviour, interview using independent observers in public places, identification of social and economic background of respondents, use of attitude scales, projective techniques, use of sociometric scales, interviewer uses a detailed schedule with open and closed questions. Difference between Methods and Techniques
  11. 11. Criteria of a good research 1. Significance to the discipline 2. Originality 3. Feasibility 4. Administrative support 5. Peer support 6. Availability of subjects 7. Researcher’s comparability 8. Ethical considerations 9. Solvable/Researchable 10.Current 11.Interesting 12.Clear & unambiguous
  12. 12. A research problem is a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in literature, in theory, or in practice that points to the need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation. A research problem does not state how to do something, offer a vague or broad proposition, or present a value question. Research Problem
  13. 13. i. Statement of the problem in a general way i. Understanding nature of the problem i. Surveying available literature i. Developing ideas through discussions i.Rephrasing the research problem into a working proposition. Techniques involved in defining a research problem