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Re + Search = Research
Research – Research is a process to discover new knowledge. Part of
research process involves testing hypothesis, and then examining results of
the tests as they relate to both hypothesis and world around you. When a
researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through research study.
Research Methodology – is a way to systematically solve
a research problem. It is a science of studying how research is done
scientifically. Essentially it is the procedure by which researchers go about
their work of describing, evaluating and predicting phenomenon. It aims to
give the work plan of research.
Meaning and Definition of Research
• Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or use of
existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new
concepts, methodologies and understandings.
An example is a project where scientists try to find a cure for AIDS.
• Research is a careful and organized study or gathering of information about
a specific topic.
An example is the information a high school student tracks down for a
Objectives of Research
• Defining and redefining problems
• Research discovers solutions to problems
• Collecting, organising, analysing and evaluating data
• Carefully testing conclusions to determine whether
they fit the formulating hypotheses
• To accurately describe characteristics of a specific
individual OR a group of situations/problems
Characteristics of Research Objective
Research objective should be Relevant, Feasible, Logical, Observable, Unequivocal
(very clear) & Measurable.
Importance of Research
• A tool for building knowledge and for facilitating learning
• Means to understand various issues and increase public awareness
• An aid to business success
• A way to prove lies and to support truths
• Means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities
• A seed to love reading, writing, analysing, and sharing valuable information
• Nourishment and exercise for the mind
Motivation in Research
What makes people undertake research?
• Desire to get research degree along
with its consequential benefits.
• Desire to face challenges in solving
unsolved problems. i.e. concern over
practical problems initiates research.
• Desire to get intellectual joy doing
some creative work
• Desire to be of service to the society
• Desire to get responsibility
Types of Research
• Descriptive Research: Means description of the state of affairs as it exists
at present. Researcher only reports what has happened and what is
• Applied Research: Amis at finding solutions for an immediate problem
facing a society or an industry/business organisation.
• Quantitative Research: Based on the measurement of quantity or
Applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.
• Conceptual Research: Related to some abstract ideas or theory. Used by
philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or re-interpret
• Empirical Research: Relies on experience or observations alone,
often without due regard for system and theory.
• Qualitative Research: Concerned with qualitative phenomenon,
i.e. phenomenon relating to or involving or kind.
• Fundamental Research: Mainly concerned with generalizations and
with the formulation of a theory.
• Analytical Research: Researchers has to use facts on information
already available and analyse these to make a critical evaluation of
Research Methods VS Research Methodology
“Research Methods refers to the tools and techniques researchers use in
undergoing a research.”
“Research methods are the tools and techniques by which you research a
subject or a topic.”
Research methodology: It may be understood as a science of studying how
research is done scientifically. In it we study various steps adopted by
researcher in studying research problem along with logic behind them.
Research methodology involves learning of various techniques to
conduct research and acquiring knowledge to perform tests, experiments,
surveys, and critical analysis.
Difference between Methods and Techniques
Type Method Technique
i. Analysis of historical
ii. Analysis of documents
Recording of notes, Contents analysis, Tape and
Statistical compilation and manipulations, references
and abstract guides, contents analysis.
Small groups study of
random behaviour, play
and role analysis
Small groups study of random behaviour, play and role
iii. Mass observation
iv. Mail questionnaire
vi. Personal interview
vii. Focused interview
ix. Case study and life
Observation of behavioural scales, use of score cards etc.
Interactional recording possible use of tape recorders, photo
graphic techniques. recording mass behaviour, interview
using independent observers in public places, identification
of social and economic background of respondents, use of
attitude scales, projective techniques, use of sociometric
scales, interviewer uses a detailed schedule with open and
Difference between Methods and Techniques
Criteria of a good research
1. Significance to the discipline
4. Administrative support
5. Peer support
6. Availability of subjects
7. Researcher’s comparability
8. Ethical considerations
12.Clear & unambiguous
A research problem is a statement about an
area of concern, a condition to be improved, a
difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling
question that exists in literature, in theory, or in
practice that points to the need for meaningful
understanding and deliberate investigation.
A research problem does not state how to do
something, offer a vague or broad proposition,
or present a value question.
i. Statement of the problem in a general way
i. Understanding nature of the problem
i. Surveying available literature
i. Developing ideas through discussions
i.Rephrasing the research problem into a
Techniques involved in defining a research problem