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  1. 1. Generally used research methods <br />
  2. 2. 1. Quantitative Methods<br />Quantitative methods as they are commonly conceived derive from experimental and statistical methods in natural science. <br />The main focus is on measuring 'how much is happening to how many people'.<br />The main tools are large scale surveys analyzed using statistical techniques. <br />
  3. 3. Questionnaires are then conducted for a random sample or stratified random sample of individuals, often including a control group.<br />Causality is assessed through comparison of the incidence of the variables under consideration between main sample and control group and/or the degree to which they co-occur.<br />in large-scale research projects teams are composed of a number of skilled research designers and analysts assisted by teams of local enumerators.<br />
  4. 4. Examples of Quantitative Researches<br />Descriptive Survey Research <br />Experimental Research<br />Single - Subject Research<br />Causal - Comparative Research <br />Correlational Research <br />Meta-analysis <br />
  5. 5. 2.Qualitative Methods<br />Qualitative research uses data which is descriptive in nature. Tools that educational researchers use in collecting qualitative data include: observations, conducting interviews, conducting document analysis, and analyzing participant products such as journals, diaries, images or blogs.<br />
  6. 6. Different sampling methods are combined: different purposive sampling techniques, identification of key informants and also 'random encounters.<br /><ul><li>questions are broad and open-ended and change and develop over time to fill in a 'jigsaw' of differing accounts of 'reality', unraveling which may be said to be generally 'true' and which are specific and subjective and why.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> Causality and attribution are directly investigated through questioning as well as qualitative analysis of data. Computer programmes are used to deal systematically with large amounts of data.
  7. 7. Typically requires long-term immersion of a skilled researcher in the field who engages in a reflexive process of data collection and analysis.</li></li></ul><li>Examples of Qualitative research<br />Case study<br />Ethnography<br />Phenomenological Research <br />Narrative Research <br />Historical Research<br />
  8. 8. 3. Participatory Methods<br />Participatory methods have their origins in development activism: NGOs and social movements. <br />The participatory process may involve small focus groups, larger participatory workshops or individual diaries and diagrams which are then collated into a plenary discussion.<br />
  9. 9. <ul><li>Participatory research typically uses and adapts diagram tools from farmer-led research, systems analysis and also oral and visual tools from anthropology, though many commonly used tools have also been developed by NGOs and participants in the field. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Examples of participatory methods
  10. 10. Action Research
  11. 11. Program Evaluation</li></li></ul><li>The phases of a research<br />
  12. 12. Idea-generating phase<br />Problem-definition phase<br />Procedures-design phase<br />Observation phase<br />Data-analysis phase<br />Interpretation phase<br />Communication phase<br />
  13. 13. Idea-generating phase<br />In this phase the researcher(s) starts by brainstorming of topics that maybe presented based upon the goals of the researcher.<br />
  14. 14. Problem-definition phase<br />This phase is where a certain problem will be presented. The problem will determine the hypotheses of the research.<br />
  15. 15. Procedures-design phase<br />This phase would tell what kind of methodologies are to be used in the research to be conducted.<br />
  16. 16. Observation phase<br /><ul><li>Data-analysis phase</li></ul>This is the actual conduction or the so called data gathering phase of the study.<br />As how its name implies , it is where the given data are analyzed or further studied by the researcher(s).<br />Data-analysis phase<br />
  17. 17. Interpretation phase<br />Also known as conclusion phase. It is when the results of the research are formulated and when conclusions are given.<br />
  18. 18. Communication phase<br />The phase wherein the results and conclusions on the research are presented into a panel or to a certain agent that will provide the researcher his primary goal in the research.<br />
  19. 19. Prepared by:<br />Christian L. Chua<br />