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Research
Methods
Basic Concepts & Methods
SBCM#19

Dr. Ahme-Refat AG Refat 2013
Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat

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Learning Objectives
By the end of this presentation you will able to:

1-Define and explain the concept of scientific research, deduction
and induction reasoning , theory, hypothesis and empiricism.
2- Clarify the Sources of knowledge/truth
3 - Identify and explain the features and application of different
categories and sub- categories of research methods
4- Characteristics of good topic.
5- Steps in conducting a research .
6- Application and exercises ( identification of the research type).
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Basic Concepts and
Terms
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Definition of Research
Research is a scientific way
of answering questions and
testing hypothesis

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Definition of Research
Research is the systematic and
objective analysis and recording of
controlled observations that may lead
to the development of generalizations,
principles, or theories, resulting in
prediction and possible control of
events .
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Definition of Scientific Research

Key Words
 Systematic,
Controlled,
 Empirical, , Critical Investigation
 Hypothetical Propositions
 Presumed Relations , Observed Phenomena
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Approaches to Knowledge
Five sources of evidence in the pursuit of truth:

1. Authority
2. Custom and tradition
3. Personal experience
4. Deductive reasoning
5. Scientific inquiry
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Deductive Reasoning
A.k.a., Logic. ‫االستنباطي/ القياسي‬
Thinking proceeds from general assumption
to specific application
GENERAL  SPECIFIC

Inductive Reasoning
‫االستداللي/ االستقرائي‬
Conclusions about events (general) are based on
information generated through many individual and
direct observations (specific).
SPECIFIC  GENERAL
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Inductive Reasoning
Researchers observe an individual or group of individuals
from a larger population  based on these observations,
generalizations are made back to the larger population
• Two kinds of induction:

– Perfect

• Conclusions based on observations made
from ALL members of a group or
population

– Imperfect

• Conclusions based on observations made
from a random sample of members of a
population

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Deductive vs. Inductive
Reasoning
• Deductive:
– Every mammal has lungs. All rabbits are mammals.
Therefore, every rabbit has lungs.
• Inductive:
– Every rabbit that has been observed has lungs.
Therefore, every rabbit has lungs.

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• Sometimes we acquire knowledge through the use of
logic. Here is an example of a logical deduction:
• All birds have feathers.
This animal has feathers.
Therefore, this animal is a bird.
• Many times, as in the case above, logic leads us to the
truth. However, sometimes using logic alone leads us
to incorrect conclusions.
• Consider the example below:
• (Almost) all birds can fly.
This animal can fly.
Therefore, this animal is a bird.
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Logical Steps of Scientific Method
• Systematic; cyclic; series of logical steps.
– Identifying the problem
– Formulating a hypothesis
– Developing the research plan
– Collecting and analyzing the data
– Interpreting results and forming conclusions

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Theory vs. Hypothesis
Hypothesis

– A belief or prediction of the final outcome of the
research
– A concrete, specific statement about the
relationships between phenomena
– Based on deductive reasoning

Theory

– A belief or assumption about how things relate
to each other
– A theory establishes a cause-and-effect
relationship between variables with a purpose
of explaining and predicting phenomena
– Based on inductive reasoning

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Empiricism
• Acquiring information and facts through the
observation of our world

Pragmatic observations
– Developing theory through experience and
observation

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TYPES OF
RESEARCH
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Research Classifications
• System #1:
– Basic research
– Applied research
–
• System #2:
– Quantitative research
– Qualitative research
–
• System #3:
– Experimental research
– Nonexperimental research
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Research Classifications
1. Application of research study
- pure research and
- applied research

2. Objectives in undertaking the research
-descriptive

-correlational
-explanatory
-exploratory

3. Inquiry mode employed
- Structured approach
- Unstructured approach
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1. Application of research
study
From the point of view of application, there are two broad
categories of research: Pure & Applied Research.

.

Pure/ Basic research:
Involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses
that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but
may or may not have practical application at the present
time or in the future. The knowledge produced through

pure research is sought in order to add to the existing
body of research methods.
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Applied research
Applied Research is done to solve specific, practical
questions; for policy formulation, administration and
understanding of a phenomenon. It can be exploratory,
but is usually descriptive. It is almost always done on the
basis of basic research

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2. Objectives of the research
a-Descriptive
b-Correlational
c-Explanatory

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a-Descriptive
Descriptive research attempts to describe systematically
a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or
programme, or provides information about , say, living
condition of a community, or describes attitudes towards
an issue.
Descriptive research refers to research that provides an
accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular
individual, situation, or group.
Descriptive research, also known as statistical research.
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Descriptive studies are a means of
 discovering new meaning,
 describing what exists,
 determining the frequency with which something
occurs, and categorizing information.
Descriptive research deals with everything that can be
counted and studied, which has an impact of the lives of
the people it deals with.
For example, finding the most frequent disease that
affects the children of a town. The reader of the research
will know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more
people will live a healthy life.
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Advantages:
• The people individual studied are unaware so they act
naturally or as they usually do in everyday situation;
• It is less expensive and time consuming than
quantitative experiments;
• Collects a large amount of notes for detailed studying;
• As it is used to describe and not make any conclusions
it is to start the research with it;
Disadvantages
• Descriptive research requires more skills.
• Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon
• Response rate is low in this research.
• Results of this research can change over the period of
time.
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b- Correlational research
Correlational research refers to the systematic
investigation or statistical study of relationships among
two or more variables, without necessarily determining
cause and effect.
For example, to test the hypothesis “ Listening to music
lowers blood pressure levels” there are 2 ways of
conducting research
• Experimental – group samples and make one group
listen to music and then compare the Bp levels
• Survey – ask people how they feel ? How often they
listen? And then compare
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Advantages:
1) Can collect much information from many subjects at
one time.
2) Can study a wide range of variables and their
interrelations.
3) Study variables that are not easily produced in the
laboratory.
Disadvantages:
1. Correlation does not indicate causation( cause and
effect).
2. Problems with self-report method .
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c- Explanatory research
Explanatory research attempts to clarify why and how
there is a relationship between two or more aspects of a
situation or phenomenon.

Exploratory research is undertaken to explore an area

where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of
undertaking a particular research study (feasibility study

/ pilot study).

In practice most studies are a combination of the first
three categories

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3- Inquiry Mode:
a- Structured approach & b- Unstructured approach
a- Structured approach:
The structured approach to inquiry is usually classified as
-Quantitative research.
Here everything that forms the research processobjectives, design, sample, and the questions that you
plan to ask of respondents- is predetermined
It is more appropriate to determine the extent of a
problem, issue or phenomenon by quantifying the
variation.
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b- Unstructured approach:
The unstructured approach to inquiry is usually classified
as qualitative research.
This approach allows flexibility in all aspects of the
research process.
It is more appropriate to explore the nature of a problem,
issue or phenomenon without quantifying it.
Main objective is to describe the variation in a
phenomenon, situation or attitude.
In many studies you have to combine both qualitative and
quantitative approaches.
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Common
approaches in
qualitative research
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1- Ethnography
 Ethnography: is an approach relying on the collection
of data in the natural environment.
 Ethnographers are interested in how the behavior of
individuals is influenced or mediated by culture in
which they live.
 So, human behavior can only be understood if studied
in the setting in which it occurs. As people can
influence and be influenced by the groups they live in.
• The purpose of ethnographic research is to attempt to
understand what is happening naturally in the setting
and to interpret the data gathered to see what
implications could be formed from the data.
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2- Phenomenology
Phenomenology: It focuses on individuals' interpretation
of their experience and the ways in which they express
them.
The researchers task is to describe phenomena as
experienced and expressed by individuals.
Phenomenological research an inductive, descriptive
research approach developed from phenomenological
philosophy; its aim is to describe an experience as it is
actually lived by the person
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3- Discourse analysis
Discourse is a term used to describe the systems we use
in communication with others. These include verbal, nonverbal and written material.
What we say, how we say it, our choice of words, tone,
timing are full of values, meanings and intentions.
So, analysis of discourse increases our understanding
of human behavior through language and interaction.

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4-Grounded theory:
"Theory arises from the data"
GT is an inductive approach to research whereby
hypotheses and theories emerge out or are grounded in
data.
GT research is a research approach designed to discover
what problems exist in a given social environment and
how the persons involved handle them; it involves
formulation, testing, and reformulation of propositions
until a theory is developed.
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GT is a research method that operates almost in a
reverse fashion from traditional research and at first may
appear to be in contradiction to the scientific method.
Four stages:
1. Codes-Identifying anchors that allow the key points
of the data to be gathered
2. Concepts-Collections of codes of similar content
that allows the data to be grouped
3. Categories-Broad groups of similar concepts that
are used to generate a theory
4. Theory-A collection of explanations that explain the
subject of the research (hypotheses)
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The above 4 approaches are similar in that they place
emphasis on interpretation rather than objective
empirical observations. They are different in that;
 Ethnography focuses on …………………..culture,
 Phenomenology on ……………….consciousness,
 Discourse analysis on………………. language and
 Ground theory’s aim is the development of theory
through induction.

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The Critique of Qualitative
Research
1. Qualitative research is too subjective
2. Difficult to replicate
3. Problems of generalization
4. Lack of transparency

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Action research
Action research is a style of research, rather than a
specific methodology. In action research, the
researchers work with the people and for the people,
rather than undertake research on them. The focus of
action research is on generating solutions to problems
identified by the people who are going to use the results
of research. Action research is not synonymous with
qualitative research. But it typically draws on qualitative
methods such as interviews and observations.
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Experimental
vs.
Nonexperimental
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Experimental research is an objective, systematic,
controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and
controlling phenomena and examining probability and
causality among selected variables
Advantages
• Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships
Disadvantages
• Feasibility
• Ethical Issues
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Experimental Design
The simplest experimental design includes two variables
and two groups of participants.
The two variables(IV &DV).
• The IV is the predictor variable whereas the DV is the
outcome variable.
• Researchers manipulate and control the IV to study it's
effect on the DV.
The two groups (Control versus Experimental group).
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• Before beginning the experiment, the researcher
(randomly) assigns his/her sample to two different
groups: the control group and the experimental
(treatment group or clinical group).

• The control group receives no manipulation of the IV
(no treatment), whereas the experimental group
receives the manipulation of the IV

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l

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Experimental Design
1.

Pre Experimental

2.

Quasi Experimental

3.

True Experimental

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A- Pre-experimental designs
Pre-experimental designs are so named because they
follow basic experimental steps but fail to include a
control group. In other words, a single group is often
studied but no comparison between an equivalent nontreatment group is made.
Examples include the following:
A.1- One Group Pretest Posttest Study
A.2-The One-Shot Case Study
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A.1- The One-Shot Case Study.
In this arrangement, subjects are presented with some
type of treatment, such as a semester of college work
experience, and then the outcome measure is applied,
such as college grades. Like all experimental designs,
the goal is to determine if the treatment had any effect on
the outcome. Without a comparison group, it is
impossible to determine if the outcome scores are any
higher than they would have been without the treatment.
And, without any pre-test scores, it is impossible to
determine if any change within the group itself has taken
place.
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A.2- One Group Pretest Posttest Study.
A benefit of this design over the previously discussed
design is the inclusion of a pretest to determine baseline
scores. To use this design in our study of college
performance, we could compare college grades prior to
gaining the work experience to the grades after
completing a semester of work experience. We can now
at least state whether a change in the outcome or
dependent variable has taken place. What we cannot say
is if this change would have occurred even without the
application of the treatment or independent variable. It is
possible that mere maturation caused the change in
grades and not the work experience itself.
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B-Quasi-Experimental Design
Quasi designs fair better than pre-experimental studies in
that they employ a means to compare groups. They fall
short, however on one very important aspect of the
experiment: randomization.
B.1- Pretest Posttest Nonequivalent Group. With this
design, both a control group and an experimental group
is compared, however, the groups are chosen and
assigned out of convenience rather than through
randomization. This might be the method of choice for our study on work experience as it would be difficult to
choose students in a college setting at random and place them in specific groups and classes. We might ask students to participate in a
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one-semester work experience program. We would then measure all of the students’ grades prior to the start of the program and then
again after the program. Those students who participated would be our treatment group; those who did not would be our control group.

B.2- Time Series Designs. Tim series designs refer to the
pretesting and posttesting of one group of subjects at
different intervals. The purpose might be to determine
long term effect of treatment and therefore the number of
pre- and posttests can vary from one each to many.
Sometimes there is an interruption between tests in order
to assess the strength of treatment over an extended time
period. When such a design is employed, the posttest is
referred to as follow-up.
B.3- Nonequivalent Before-After Design. This design is
used when we want to compare two groups that are likely
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to be different even before the study begins. In other
words, if we want to see how a new treatment affects
people with different psychological disorders, the
disorders themselves would create two or more
nonequivalent groups. Once again, the number of
pretests and posttests can vary from one each to many.

Whenever subjects are chosen for groups based on
convenience rather than randomization, the reason for
inclusion in the study itself confounds our results.

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Diagrams of Quasi Experimental Designs

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C- True Experimental Design
The true experiment is often thought of as the only
research method that can adequately measure the cause
and effect relationship.
C.1- Posttest Equivalent Groups Study. Randomization
and the comparison of both a control and an experimental
group are utilized in this type of study. Each group,
chosen and assigned at random is presented with either
the treatment or some type of control. Posttests are then
given to each subject to determine if a difference
between the two groups exists. While this is approaching
the best method, it falls short in its lack of a pretest
measure.
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C.2.-Pretest Posttest Equivalent Groups Study.
This method is the most effective in terms of
demonstrating cause and effect but it is also the most
difficult to perform. The pretest posttest equivalent
groups design provides for both a control group and a
measure of change but also adds a pretest to assess any
differences between the groups prior to the study taking
place.

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: Diagrams of True Experimental Designs

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Final Word

Research Methodology:
1. Quantitative methods
2. Qualitative methods
3. Mixed methods
•

The methodological history can be summarized as

three waves
 The dominance of quantitative methods as wave ..1
 The emergence of qualitative methods as wave ….2

The growth of mixed methods as wave ……………..3
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The scientific approach
includes the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Identify an area of interest/research question-RQ.
Generate a hypothesis from your RQ.
Design a study to test your hypothesis.
Formulate predictions based on your hypothesis.
Collect data/information.
Analyze and interpret the data to test predictions.
Accept or reject the hypothesis.
Communicate your results .
Refine your hypothesis based on the results.
Replicate the study.

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Criteria for a good
research topic
A good research topic should be feasible (can be done),
interesting, novel, ethical and relevant (has an
implication). These criteria have been collectively called
the

F.I.N.E.R

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Feasibility
The following are examples of factors to be considered,
depending on the category of research.
• It should be possible to recruit the number of subjects
required to provide the answer to the research question
within the timeframe of the planned research.
• The research facility available to the investigators
should have the equipment, supplies and other
requirements to undertake the research.
• The investigators must have the required expertise.
• The cost of doing the research must be affordable and
the financial resources available.
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Interest
The research topic must be of interest to the investigators
and to the scientific community. If the investigators are
not excited about the topic, or cannot get colleagues
interested in it, the project is probably not worth doing.
Novelty
It is essential that the investigator is familiar with the upto-date literature on the planned topic for the research.
The research must be expected to contribute new
information.

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Novel does not necessarily mean that the research has
not been done before. The prefix “re” in the word
research implies searching again.
Most good studies are neither original nor simple
duplication of other studies.
The progress of science is incremental, with knowledge
gradually building up from different studies. The question
should not be about whether the study has been done
before, but whether it will add to the existing body of
knowledge.

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Ethics
Ethical issues must be addressed at the early stage of
selecting the research topic.
Other ethical issues will need to be addressed in planning
the research. Some ethical problems may indicate that
the research should not be considered from the
beginning.
If the research topic involves experimentation on human
subjects, the following issues should be considered.
• If the topic is about testing a new therapy or procedure,
evidence should already be available to suggest that it
can be superior to currently available alternatives.
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• Adequate data must be available from animal studies
and from studies on a small number of human subjects to
confirm safety and to suggest effectiveness, before
subjecting patients to a new drug or procedure
It is unjustifiable to do clinical trials on therapies that are
unlikely to become available to people in the country or
community.
• The research should not conflict with the society’s
cultural, moral, religious and legal values.

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Relevance
This criterion can be called: the “so-what?” test. For the
research to be considered relevant, it must have the
potential to advance scientific knowledge, influence
clinical management, influence health policy, or guide
further research

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Further Reading & Cited Sources
1- Research Methods and Writing Research Proposals
( Pdf file 135 pages, well organized textbook) - By: Prof. Dr. Samy Tayie
http://www.pathways.cu.edu.eg/subpages/training_courses/Research%20Methods%208/C31%20Research%20Methods%20and%20Writing%20Research%20Proposals.pdf

2- A Practical Guide for Health Researchers
( Pdf file 235 page , Comprehensive text, from WHO)- Mahmoud F. Fathalla .
http://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/dsa237.pdf
3- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
http://www.ihmctan.edu/PDF/notes/Research_Methodology.pdf

4- Research Methods Knowledge Base:
The Research Methods Knowledge Base is a comprehensive web-based textbook that
addresses all of the topics in a typical introductory undergraduate or graduate course in
social research methods. It covers the entire research process
http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/contents.php
5- Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
( Web site from University of Southern California USA)
The purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the
social sciences

http://libguides.usc.edu/content.php?pid=83009&sid=818072
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Thank You
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Thank You
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Research Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods

  • 1. Research Methods Basic Concepts & Methods SBCM#19 Dr. Ahme-Refat AG Refat 2013 Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives By the end of this presentation you will able to: 1-Define and explain the concept of scientific research, deduction and induction reasoning , theory, hypothesis and empiricism. 2- Clarify the Sources of knowledge/truth 3 - Identify and explain the features and application of different categories and sub- categories of research methods 4- Characteristics of good topic. 5- Steps in conducting a research . 6- Application and exercises ( identification of the research type). Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 2
  • 3. Basic Concepts and Terms Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 3
  • 4. Definition of Research Research is a scientific way of answering questions and testing hypothesis Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 4
  • 5. Definition of Research Research is the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possible control of events . Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 5
  • 6. Definition of Scientific Research Key Words  Systematic, Controlled,  Empirical, , Critical Investigation  Hypothetical Propositions  Presumed Relations , Observed Phenomena Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 6
  • 7. Approaches to Knowledge Five sources of evidence in the pursuit of truth: 1. Authority 2. Custom and tradition 3. Personal experience 4. Deductive reasoning 5. Scientific inquiry Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 7
  • 8. Deductive Reasoning A.k.a., Logic. ‫االستنباطي/ القياسي‬ Thinking proceeds from general assumption to specific application GENERAL  SPECIFIC Inductive Reasoning ‫االستداللي/ االستقرائي‬ Conclusions about events (general) are based on information generated through many individual and direct observations (specific). SPECIFIC  GENERAL Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 8
  • 9. Inductive Reasoning Researchers observe an individual or group of individuals from a larger population  based on these observations, generalizations are made back to the larger population • Two kinds of induction: – Perfect • Conclusions based on observations made from ALL members of a group or population – Imperfect • Conclusions based on observations made from a random sample of members of a population Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 9
  • 10. Deductive vs. Inductive Reasoning • Deductive: – Every mammal has lungs. All rabbits are mammals. Therefore, every rabbit has lungs. • Inductive: – Every rabbit that has been observed has lungs. Therefore, every rabbit has lungs. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 10
  • 11. • Sometimes we acquire knowledge through the use of logic. Here is an example of a logical deduction: • All birds have feathers. This animal has feathers. Therefore, this animal is a bird. • Many times, as in the case above, logic leads us to the truth. However, sometimes using logic alone leads us to incorrect conclusions. • Consider the example below: • (Almost) all birds can fly. This animal can fly. Therefore, this animal is a bird. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 11
  • 13. Logical Steps of Scientific Method • Systematic; cyclic; series of logical steps. – Identifying the problem – Formulating a hypothesis – Developing the research plan – Collecting and analyzing the data – Interpreting results and forming conclusions Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 13
  • 15. Theory vs. Hypothesis Hypothesis – A belief or prediction of the final outcome of the research – A concrete, specific statement about the relationships between phenomena – Based on deductive reasoning Theory – A belief or assumption about how things relate to each other – A theory establishes a cause-and-effect relationship between variables with a purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena – Based on inductive reasoning Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 15
  • 17. Empiricism • Acquiring information and facts through the observation of our world Pragmatic observations – Developing theory through experience and observation Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 17
  • 18. TYPES OF RESEARCH Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 18
  • 19. Research Classifications • System #1: – Basic research – Applied research – • System #2: – Quantitative research – Qualitative research – • System #3: – Experimental research – Nonexperimental research Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 19
  • 20. Research Classifications 1. Application of research study - pure research and - applied research 2. Objectives in undertaking the research -descriptive -correlational -explanatory -exploratory 3. Inquiry mode employed - Structured approach - Unstructured approach Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 20
  • 21. 1. Application of research study From the point of view of application, there are two broad categories of research: Pure & Applied Research. . Pure/ Basic research: Involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but may or may not have practical application at the present time or in the future. The knowledge produced through pure research is sought in order to add to the existing body of research methods. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 21
  • 22. Applied research Applied Research is done to solve specific, practical questions; for policy formulation, administration and understanding of a phenomenon. It can be exploratory, but is usually descriptive. It is almost always done on the basis of basic research Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 22
  • 24. 2. Objectives of the research a-Descriptive b-Correlational c-Explanatory Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 24
  • 25. a-Descriptive Descriptive research attempts to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or programme, or provides information about , say, living condition of a community, or describes attitudes towards an issue. Descriptive research refers to research that provides an accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular individual, situation, or group. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 25
  • 26. Descriptive studies are a means of  discovering new meaning,  describing what exists,  determining the frequency with which something occurs, and categorizing information. Descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied, which has an impact of the lives of the people it deals with. For example, finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 26
  • 27. Advantages: • The people individual studied are unaware so they act naturally or as they usually do in everyday situation; • It is less expensive and time consuming than quantitative experiments; • Collects a large amount of notes for detailed studying; • As it is used to describe and not make any conclusions it is to start the research with it; Disadvantages • Descriptive research requires more skills. • Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon • Response rate is low in this research. • Results of this research can change over the period of time. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 27
  • 28. b- Correlational research Correlational research refers to the systematic investigation or statistical study of relationships among two or more variables, without necessarily determining cause and effect. For example, to test the hypothesis “ Listening to music lowers blood pressure levels” there are 2 ways of conducting research • Experimental – group samples and make one group listen to music and then compare the Bp levels • Survey – ask people how they feel ? How often they listen? And then compare Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 28
  • 29. Advantages: 1) Can collect much information from many subjects at one time. 2) Can study a wide range of variables and their interrelations. 3) Study variables that are not easily produced in the laboratory. Disadvantages: 1. Correlation does not indicate causation( cause and effect). 2. Problems with self-report method . Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 29
  • 30. c- Explanatory research Explanatory research attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two or more aspects of a situation or phenomenon. Exploratory research is undertaken to explore an area where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of undertaking a particular research study (feasibility study / pilot study). In practice most studies are a combination of the first three categories Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 30
  • 31. 3- Inquiry Mode: a- Structured approach & b- Unstructured approach a- Structured approach: The structured approach to inquiry is usually classified as -Quantitative research. Here everything that forms the research processobjectives, design, sample, and the questions that you plan to ask of respondents- is predetermined It is more appropriate to determine the extent of a problem, issue or phenomenon by quantifying the variation. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 31
  • 32. b- Unstructured approach: The unstructured approach to inquiry is usually classified as qualitative research. This approach allows flexibility in all aspects of the research process. It is more appropriate to explore the nature of a problem, issue or phenomenon without quantifying it. Main objective is to describe the variation in a phenomenon, situation or attitude. In many studies you have to combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 32
  • 34. Common approaches in qualitative research Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 34
  • 35. 1- Ethnography  Ethnography: is an approach relying on the collection of data in the natural environment.  Ethnographers are interested in how the behavior of individuals is influenced or mediated by culture in which they live.  So, human behavior can only be understood if studied in the setting in which it occurs. As people can influence and be influenced by the groups they live in. • The purpose of ethnographic research is to attempt to understand what is happening naturally in the setting and to interpret the data gathered to see what implications could be formed from the data. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 35
  • 36. 2- Phenomenology Phenomenology: It focuses on individuals' interpretation of their experience and the ways in which they express them. The researchers task is to describe phenomena as experienced and expressed by individuals. Phenomenological research an inductive, descriptive research approach developed from phenomenological philosophy; its aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the person Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 36
  • 37. 3- Discourse analysis Discourse is a term used to describe the systems we use in communication with others. These include verbal, nonverbal and written material. What we say, how we say it, our choice of words, tone, timing are full of values, meanings and intentions. So, analysis of discourse increases our understanding of human behavior through language and interaction. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 37
  • 38. 4-Grounded theory: "Theory arises from the data" GT is an inductive approach to research whereby hypotheses and theories emerge out or are grounded in data. GT research is a research approach designed to discover what problems exist in a given social environment and how the persons involved handle them; it involves formulation, testing, and reformulation of propositions until a theory is developed. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 38
  • 39. GT is a research method that operates almost in a reverse fashion from traditional research and at first may appear to be in contradiction to the scientific method. Four stages: 1. Codes-Identifying anchors that allow the key points of the data to be gathered 2. Concepts-Collections of codes of similar content that allows the data to be grouped 3. Categories-Broad groups of similar concepts that are used to generate a theory 4. Theory-A collection of explanations that explain the subject of the research (hypotheses) Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 39
  • 40. The above 4 approaches are similar in that they place emphasis on interpretation rather than objective empirical observations. They are different in that;  Ethnography focuses on …………………..culture,  Phenomenology on ……………….consciousness,  Discourse analysis on………………. language and  Ground theory’s aim is the development of theory through induction. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 40
  • 41. The Critique of Qualitative Research 1. Qualitative research is too subjective 2. Difficult to replicate 3. Problems of generalization 4. Lack of transparency Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 41
  • 42. Action research Action research is a style of research, rather than a specific methodology. In action research, the researchers work with the people and for the people, rather than undertake research on them. The focus of action research is on generating solutions to problems identified by the people who are going to use the results of research. Action research is not synonymous with qualitative research. But it typically draws on qualitative methods such as interviews and observations. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 42
  • 44. Experimental research is an objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables Advantages • Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships Disadvantages • Feasibility • Ethical Issues Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 44
  • 45. Experimental Design The simplest experimental design includes two variables and two groups of participants. The two variables(IV &DV). • The IV is the predictor variable whereas the DV is the outcome variable. • Researchers manipulate and control the IV to study it's effect on the DV. The two groups (Control versus Experimental group). Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 45
  • 46. • Before beginning the experiment, the researcher (randomly) assigns his/her sample to two different groups: the control group and the experimental (treatment group or clinical group). • The control group receives no manipulation of the IV (no treatment), whereas the experimental group receives the manipulation of the IV Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 46
  • 48. Experimental Design 1. Pre Experimental 2. Quasi Experimental 3. True Experimental Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 48
  • 49. A- Pre-experimental designs Pre-experimental designs are so named because they follow basic experimental steps but fail to include a control group. In other words, a single group is often studied but no comparison between an equivalent nontreatment group is made. Examples include the following: A.1- One Group Pretest Posttest Study A.2-The One-Shot Case Study Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 49
  • 50. A.1- The One-Shot Case Study. In this arrangement, subjects are presented with some type of treatment, such as a semester of college work experience, and then the outcome measure is applied, such as college grades. Like all experimental designs, the goal is to determine if the treatment had any effect on the outcome. Without a comparison group, it is impossible to determine if the outcome scores are any higher than they would have been without the treatment. And, without any pre-test scores, it is impossible to determine if any change within the group itself has taken place. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 50
  • 51. A.2- One Group Pretest Posttest Study. A benefit of this design over the previously discussed design is the inclusion of a pretest to determine baseline scores. To use this design in our study of college performance, we could compare college grades prior to gaining the work experience to the grades after completing a semester of work experience. We can now at least state whether a change in the outcome or dependent variable has taken place. What we cannot say is if this change would have occurred even without the application of the treatment or independent variable. It is possible that mere maturation caused the change in grades and not the work experience itself. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 51
  • 52. B-Quasi-Experimental Design Quasi designs fair better than pre-experimental studies in that they employ a means to compare groups. They fall short, however on one very important aspect of the experiment: randomization. B.1- Pretest Posttest Nonequivalent Group. With this design, both a control group and an experimental group is compared, however, the groups are chosen and assigned out of convenience rather than through randomization. This might be the method of choice for our study on work experience as it would be difficult to choose students in a college setting at random and place them in specific groups and classes. We might ask students to participate in a Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 52
  • 53. one-semester work experience program. We would then measure all of the students’ grades prior to the start of the program and then again after the program. Those students who participated would be our treatment group; those who did not would be our control group. B.2- Time Series Designs. Tim series designs refer to the pretesting and posttesting of one group of subjects at different intervals. The purpose might be to determine long term effect of treatment and therefore the number of pre- and posttests can vary from one each to many. Sometimes there is an interruption between tests in order to assess the strength of treatment over an extended time period. When such a design is employed, the posttest is referred to as follow-up. B.3- Nonequivalent Before-After Design. This design is used when we want to compare two groups that are likely Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 53
  • 54. to be different even before the study begins. In other words, if we want to see how a new treatment affects people with different psychological disorders, the disorders themselves would create two or more nonequivalent groups. Once again, the number of pretests and posttests can vary from one each to many. Whenever subjects are chosen for groups based on convenience rather than randomization, the reason for inclusion in the study itself confounds our results. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 54
  • 55. Diagrams of Quasi Experimental Designs Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 55
  • 57. C- True Experimental Design The true experiment is often thought of as the only research method that can adequately measure the cause and effect relationship. C.1- Posttest Equivalent Groups Study. Randomization and the comparison of both a control and an experimental group are utilized in this type of study. Each group, chosen and assigned at random is presented with either the treatment or some type of control. Posttests are then given to each subject to determine if a difference between the two groups exists. While this is approaching the best method, it falls short in its lack of a pretest measure. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 57
  • 58. C.2.-Pretest Posttest Equivalent Groups Study. This method is the most effective in terms of demonstrating cause and effect but it is also the most difficult to perform. The pretest posttest equivalent groups design provides for both a control group and a measure of change but also adds a pretest to assess any differences between the groups prior to the study taking place. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 58
  • 59. : Diagrams of True Experimental Designs Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 59
  • 60. Final Word Research Methodology: 1. Quantitative methods 2. Qualitative methods 3. Mixed methods • The methodological history can be summarized as three waves  The dominance of quantitative methods as wave ..1  The emergence of qualitative methods as wave ….2  The growth of mixed methods as wave ……………..3 Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 60
  • 61. The scientific approach includes the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Identify an area of interest/research question-RQ. Generate a hypothesis from your RQ. Design a study to test your hypothesis. Formulate predictions based on your hypothesis. Collect data/information. Analyze and interpret the data to test predictions. Accept or reject the hypothesis. Communicate your results . Refine your hypothesis based on the results. Replicate the study. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 61
  • 63. Criteria for a good research topic A good research topic should be feasible (can be done), interesting, novel, ethical and relevant (has an implication). These criteria have been collectively called the F.I.N.E.R Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 63
  • 64. Feasibility The following are examples of factors to be considered, depending on the category of research. • It should be possible to recruit the number of subjects required to provide the answer to the research question within the timeframe of the planned research. • The research facility available to the investigators should have the equipment, supplies and other requirements to undertake the research. • The investigators must have the required expertise. • The cost of doing the research must be affordable and the financial resources available. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 64
  • 65. Interest The research topic must be of interest to the investigators and to the scientific community. If the investigators are not excited about the topic, or cannot get colleagues interested in it, the project is probably not worth doing. Novelty It is essential that the investigator is familiar with the upto-date literature on the planned topic for the research. The research must be expected to contribute new information. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 65
  • 66. Novel does not necessarily mean that the research has not been done before. The prefix “re” in the word research implies searching again. Most good studies are neither original nor simple duplication of other studies. The progress of science is incremental, with knowledge gradually building up from different studies. The question should not be about whether the study has been done before, but whether it will add to the existing body of knowledge. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 66
  • 67. Ethics Ethical issues must be addressed at the early stage of selecting the research topic. Other ethical issues will need to be addressed in planning the research. Some ethical problems may indicate that the research should not be considered from the beginning. If the research topic involves experimentation on human subjects, the following issues should be considered. • If the topic is about testing a new therapy or procedure, evidence should already be available to suggest that it can be superior to currently available alternatives. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 67
  • 68. • Adequate data must be available from animal studies and from studies on a small number of human subjects to confirm safety and to suggest effectiveness, before subjecting patients to a new drug or procedure It is unjustifiable to do clinical trials on therapies that are unlikely to become available to people in the country or community. • The research should not conflict with the society’s cultural, moral, religious and legal values. Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 68
  • 69. Relevance This criterion can be called: the “so-what?” test. For the research to be considered relevant, it must have the potential to advance scientific knowledge, influence clinical management, influence health policy, or guide further research Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 69
  • 70. Further Reading & Cited Sources 1- Research Methods and Writing Research Proposals ( Pdf file 135 pages, well organized textbook) - By: Prof. Dr. Samy Tayie http://www.pathways.cu.edu.eg/subpages/training_courses/Research%20Methods%208/C31%20Research%20Methods%20and%20Writing%20Research%20Proposals.pdf 2- A Practical Guide for Health Researchers ( Pdf file 235 page , Comprehensive text, from WHO)- Mahmoud F. Fathalla . http://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/dsa237.pdf 3- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY http://www.ihmctan.edu/PDF/notes/Research_Methodology.pdf 4- Research Methods Knowledge Base: The Research Methods Knowledge Base is a comprehensive web-based textbook that addresses all of the topics in a typical introductory undergraduate or graduate course in social research methods. It covers the entire research process http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/contents.php 5- Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper ( Web site from University of Southern California USA) The purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social sciences http://libguides.usc.edu/content.php?pid=83009&sid=818072 Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 70
  • 71. Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 71